Panayotis Thanos

Panayotis Thanos
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York | SUNY Buffalo · Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology

About

260
Publications
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9,265
Citations
Citations since 2017
111 Research Items
3843 Citations
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Publications

Publications (260)
Article
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Emerging evidence indicates that the endogenous cannabinoid system modulates the behavioral and physiological effects of nicotine. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are among the primary intracellular trafficking mechanisms of endogenous cannabinoids, such as anandamide. To this end, changes in FABP expression may similarly impact the behavioral...
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In this nonsystematic review and opinion, including articles primarily selected from PubMed, we examine the pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in order to craft a reasonable opinion to help forge a paradigm shift in the treatment and prevention of primarily opioid-induced NAS. Newborns of individ...
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Exercise, a proven method of boosting health and wellness, is thought to act as a protective factor against many neurological and psychological diseases. Recent studies on exercise and drug exposure have pinpointed some of the neurological mechanisms that may characterize this protective factor. Using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging tech...
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Scientific studies have provided evidence that there is a relationship between violent and aggressive behaviors and addictions. Genes involved with the reward system, specifically the brain reward cascade (BRC), appear to be associated with various addictions and impulsive, aggressive, and violent behaviors. In our previous research, we examined th...
Article
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Scientific studies have provided evidence that there is a relationship between violent and aggressive behaviors and addictions. Genes involved with the reward system, specifically the brain reward cascade (BRC), appear to be associated with various addictions and impulsive, aggressive, and violent behaviors. In our previous research, we examined th...
Article
PurposePrior research studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system, influenced by CBD and THC, plays a role in bone remodeling. As both the research on cannabis and use of cannabis continue to grow, novel medicinal uses of both its constituents as well as the whole plant are being discovered. This review examines the role of cannabinoids on o...
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Roux‐en‐Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains an effective weight‐loss method used to treat obesity. While it is successful in combating obesity, there are many lingering questions related to the changes in the brain following RYGB surgery, one of them being its effects on neuroinflammation. While it is known that chronic high‐fat diet (HFD) cont...
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This case series presents the novel genetic addiction risk score (GARS), which shows a high prevalence of polymorphic risk alleles of reward genes in a nuclear family with multiple reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) behavioral issues expressing a hypodopaminergic antecedent. The family consists of a mother, father, son, and daughter. The mother exper...
Article
Methylphenidate (MP) is frequently prescribed to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, many patients with ADHD experience depression and anxiety. As such, concomitant administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine (FLX) is common. Our laboratory and others have shown that MP impairs skeletal d...
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Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be comorbid with depression, often leading to prescription of both methylphenidate (MP) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, such as fluoxetine (FLX). Moreover, these drugs are often misused as a cognitive enhancer. This study examined the effects of chro...
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Since 1990, when our laboratory published the association of the DRD2 Taq A1 allele and severe alcoholism in JAMA, there has been an explosion of genetic candidate association studies, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To develop an accurate test to help identify those at risk for at least alcohol use disorder (AUD), a subset of rew...
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Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) is defined as a breakdown of reward neurotransmission that results in a wide range of addictive, compulsive, and impulsive behaviors. RDS is caused by a combination of environmental (epigenetic) influences and DNA-based (genetic) neurotransmission deficits that interfere with the normal satisfaction of human physiol...
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The current addiction crisis has destroyed a multitude of lives, leaving millions of fatalities worldwide in its wake. At the same time, various governmental agencies dedicated to solving this seemingly never-ending dilemma have not yet succeeded or delivered on their promises. We understand that addictive behavioral seeking is a multi-faceted neur...
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Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with group A streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a concept that is used to characterize a subset of children with neuropsychiatric symptoms, tic disorders, or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), whose symptoms are exacerbated by group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. PANDAS has been known...
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Since 1990, when our laboratory published the association of the DRD2 Taq A1 allele and severe alcoholism in JAMA, there has been an explosion of genetic candidate association studies, including GWAS. To develop an accurate test to help identify those at risk for at least Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), Blum’s group developed the Genetic Addiction Risk...
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Cannabis is one of the most commonly used and abused illicit drugs in the world today. The United States (US) currently has the highest annual prevalence rate of cannabis consumption in the world, 17.9% in individuals aged 12 or older, and it is on the rise. With increasing cannabis use comes the potential for an increase in abuse, and according to...
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Nicotine usage by mothers throughout pregnancy has been observed to relate to numerous deleterious effects in children, especially relating to obesity. Children who have prenatally been exposed to nicotine tend to have lower birth weights, with an elevated risk of becoming overweight throughout development and into their adolescent and adult life....
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Alcohol misuse represents a serious health concern, especially during adolescence, with approximately 18% of high school students engaging in binge drinking. Despite widespread misuse of alcohol, its effects on how the brain functions is not fully understood. This study utilized a binge drinking model in adolescent rats to examine effects on brain...
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Excessive alcohol intake, e.g., binge drinking, is a serious and mounting public health problem in the United States and throughout the world. Hence the need for novel insights into the underlying neurobiology that may help improve prevention and therapeutic strategies. Therefore, our group employed a darkness-induced alcohol intake protocol to def...
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Dopamine is an important neuromodulator in the brain that binds to dopamine D1-like receptors (D1, D5) as well as dopamine D2-like receptors (D2, D3, D4). The D2 receptor is known to play an integral role in a variety of physiological processes including addictive behaviors, locomotion, motivation, feeding behavior, and more. It was recently report...
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Methylphenidate (MP) is a psychostimulant chronically prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Additionally, MP users may take breaks from using the medication during “drug holidays” which may include short‐term or long‐term breaks from medication. The present study utilized fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron...
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Background There is a shortage of clinical studies examining the efficacy of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide and Enkephalinase infusions (IV1114589NAD) in treating Substance Use Disorder (SUD). Objective This study aims to provide evidence that IV1114589NAD infusions significantly attenuate substance craving behavior. Methods The study cohort c...
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Exercise is a key component to health and wellness and is thought to play an important role in brain activity. Changes in brain activity after exercise have been observed through various neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). The precise impact of exercise on brain gluco...
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Haloperidol and olanzapine are first and second-generation antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medications approved to treat schizophrenia. Glutamate signaling is known to play an important role in the manifestation of schizophrenia symptoms, as phencyclidine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, replicates and exasperates th...
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Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular chaperone proteins involved in the trafficking of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and endocannabinoids. Inhibiting two of the main FABP subtypes found in the brain (FABP5 and FABP7) hinders endocannabinoid uptake and hydrolysis. Prior data indicates that cannabinoid receptor stimulation can amel...
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The Cannabis sativa plant has historically been used for both recreational and medical purposes. With the recent surge in recreational use of cannabis among adolescents and adults in particular, there is an increased obligation to determine the short- and long-term effects that consuming this plant may have on several aspects of the human psyche an...
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Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) encompasses many mental health disorders, including a wide range of addictions and compulsive and impulsive behaviors. Described as an octopus of behavioral dysfunction, RDS refers to abnormal behavior caused by a breakdown of the cascade of reward in neurotransmission due to genetic and epigenetic influences. The r...
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Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers of bioactive lipids and play a role in the trafficking of endocannabinoids as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids. Mice lacking the FABP5 gene have memory impairments. Environmental enrichment is a potent manipulation known to rescue or improve memory performance. The extent to which th...
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Methylphenidate (MP) is extensively prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While MP is effective in ameliorating symptoms of ADHD, MP is also used illicitly among healthy subjects without ADHD for cognitive-enhancing purposes. The deleterious consequences associated with long-term MP use as well as its cessation on brain ac...
Chapter
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Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex condition or conditions and there is no single cause of its development, which often varies dramatically over time and in different circumstances and even cultures, but genetic research helps us recognize that there is an important DNA component shaping individual risk. Utilizing both techniques, genome-wide...
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A variety of behavioral disorders are associated with addictions, impulsivity, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and some personality disorders, which are collectively known as reward deficiency syndrome. These disorders are also associated with diverse digestive disorders. The enteric nervous system, a complex subdivision of the peripheral nervous s...
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Dopamine D2 receptors are expressed on microglial in the central nervous system and promote anti-inflammatory responses. Little work has been done on the interaction between the dopamine D2 receptors and diet on activated microglial expression in the brain. To assess this, the current study uses in vitro autoradiography to look at microglial activa...
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Introduction Eating Disorders and Obesity are a primary global public health concern. Areas Covered This article aims to trace the neurochemical mechanisms of unwanted eating disorders and target specific loci, within the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC) for therapeutic interventions. Changes due to BRC polymorphisms in functional connectivity and neuro...
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Alcohol and other substance use disorders share comorbidity with other RDS disorders, i.e. a reduction in dopamine signaling within the reward pathway. RDS is a term that connects addictive, obsessive, compulsive, and impulsive behavioral disorders. An estimated 2 million individuals in the United States have opioid use disorder related to prescrip...
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Methylphenidate (MP) is combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (FLX) to treat various disorders. MP, a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, helps manage attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is abused as a cognitive enhancer; it has a reduced addiction liability. We showed that combining FLX (serotoni...
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Background: The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates a total obesity rate of 30% for 12 states and a 20% obesity rate nationwide. The obesity epidemic continues to increase in spite of preventative measures undertaken worldwide. Pharmacological treatments promise to reduce total fat mass. However, medications may...
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Millions of Americans experience pain daily. In 2017, opioid overdose claimed 64,000 lives increasing to 84,000 lives in 2020, resulting in a decrease in national life expectancy. Chronic opioid use results in dependency, drug tolerance, neuroadaptation, hyperalgesia, potential addictive behaviors, or Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) caused by a hy...
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Clinical and preclinical studies have shown dysfunctions in genetic expression and neurotransmission of γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), GABAA receptor subunits, and GABA-synthesizing enzymes GAD67 and GAD65 in schizophrenia. It is well documented that there is significant weight gain after chronic neuroleptic treatment in humans. While there are limite...
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This study examined the effects of chronic treatment of the antipsychotic drugs, haloperidol and olanzapine, on microglial activation in the brain. In addition, we explored the interaction of these antipsychotic drugs with normal and high-fat diet. In order to measure activated microglial expression, we used [³H] PK11195 in vitro autoradiography. M...
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This article describes a unique therapeutic precision intervention, a formulation of enkephalinase inhibitors, enkephalin, and dopamine-releasing neuronutrients, to induce dopamine homeostasis for detoxification and treatment of individuals genetically predisposed to developing reward deficiency syndrome (RDS). The formulations are based on the res...
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Background Understanding the risk for all addictive drug and non-drug behaviors, especially, in the unmyelinated Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) of adolescents, is important and complex. Many animal and human studies show the epigenetic impact on the developing brain in adolescents, compared to adults. Some reveal an underlying hyperdopaminergia that seems...
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In 2019, the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention provided vital statistics related to drug overdoses in the United State1. They concluded that in the USA the number of deaths at almost 72,000 was due to 66.6% of opioid overdoses. In fact, the rate is alarming and increasing yearly. To make 2021 even more scary is the daunting effect on inc...
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Introduction Methylphenidate (MP) is a widely used psychostimulant prescribed for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and is also used illicitly by healthy individuals. Chronic exposure to MP has been shown to affect physiology, behavior, and neurochemistry. Methods The present study examined its effect on the endocannabinoid system. Adolesc...
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Background Repeated cocaine administration changes histone acetylation and methylation on Lys residues and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Recently Nestler’s group explored histone Arg (R) methylation in reward processing models. Damez-Werno et al. (2016) reported that during investigator and selfadministration exper...
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Introduction Polymorphic gene variants, particularly the genetic determinants of low dopamine function (hy-podopaminergia), are known to associate with Substance Use Disorder and a predisposition to PTSD. Addiction research and molecular genetic applied technologies supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have revealed the com-plex fun...
Chapter
Obesity is the largest global public health epidemic. The benefits of bariatric surgery are well established, and bariatric surgery remains as the most common and effective procedure to treat obesity. The present review examined bariatric surgery procedures in humans as well as in rodent models. In addition, we examined different neuroimaging metho...
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Aim Examine the effects of chronic oral Methylphenidate (MP) treatment on the N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate receptor binding in the rat brain using a previously established drinking paradigm that has been shown to deliver MP with similar pharmacokinetic profile as observed clinically. Main methods Briefly, rats were divided into three...
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Consumption of high fat, high sugar (western) diets is a major contributor to the current high levels of obesity. Here, we used a multidisciplinary approach to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO). Using positron emission tomography (PET), we identified the dorsal striatum as the brain a...
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Introduction: Novel environment stimulation is thought to have an important role in cognitive development and has been shown to encourage exploratory behavior in rats. However, psychopathology or perceived danger or stress can impede this exploratory drive. The balance between brain circuits controlling the exploratory drive elicited by a novel en...
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Research into the neurogenetic basis of addiction identified and characterized by Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) includes all drug and non-drug addictive, obsessive and compulsive behaviors. We are proposing herein that a new model for the prevention and treatment of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) a subset of RDS behaviors, based on objective biolo...
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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), one of the most common and successful procedures for combatting obesity, is associated with post-surgery substance use disorder (SUD) and other addictive behaviors in a subset of patients. We investigated the effects of RYGB on GABA-A receptor levels in the rat brain to identify potential mechanisms of this...
Article
Exercise programs have shown great potential for both the prevention and treatment of substance use disorder (SUD). As exercise has been shown to have potent effects on physical and psychological health, it is reasonable to examine the mechanism of how exercise can be used as an adjunct treatment for addiction. The present study examined the effect...
Article
Exercise is known to have a myriad of health benefits. There is much to be learned from the effects of exercise and its potential for prevention, attenuation and treatment of multiple neuropsychiatric diseases and behavioral disorders. Furthermore, recent data and research on exercise benefits with respect to major health crises, such as, that of o...
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Background/Aims This case series presents the novel Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS®) coupled with a customized pro-dopamine regulator matched to polymorphic reward genes having a hypodopaminergic risk. Methods The proband is a female with a history of drug abuse and alcoholism. She experienced a car accident under the influence and voluntarily...
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe polygenic disorder triggered by environmental factors. Many polymorphic genes, particularly the genetic determinants of hypodopaminergia (low dopamine function), associate with a predisposition to PTSD as well as substance use disorder. Support from the National Institutes of Health for neuroimaging...
Article
Methylphenidate (MP) is a commonly prescribed psychostimulant to individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and is often used illicitly among healthy individuals with intermittent breaks to coincide with breaks from school. This study examined how intermittent abstinence periods impact the physiological and behavioral effects of chr...
Article
Full-text available
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is the most common and effective weight loss procedure for severe obesity. However, a significant increase in addictive behaviors and new-onset substance use disorder (SUD) are sometimes observed post-surgery. The endogenous opioid system is known to play a major role in motivated behavior and reward, as well...
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Introduction: Exercise programs have been shown to be effective for both reducing risk for, and intervention following, substance abuse behaviors in both clinical and preclinical studies. Less is known, however, regarding the underlying neurobiological substrates involved in these changes in drug seeking behavior. In this study, we assessed cannab...
Article
Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) dysregulation is associated with a variety of behaviors including novelty-seeking, approach avoidance, and ADHD. DRD4 has also been shown to interact with the environment to produce changes in behavior and longevity. The present study sought to examine the role of DRD4 on cocaine-seeking behavior in the conditioned place...
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Methylphenidate (MP) is a widely prescribed psychostimulant used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Previously, we established a drinking paradigm to deliver MP to rats at doses that result in pharmacokinetic profiles similar to treated patients. In the present study, adolescent male rats were assigned to one of three groups: contro...
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Worldwide daily, millions of people are unable to combat their frustrating and even fatal romance with getting high; for some, “high” may be just experiencing feelings of well-being. The neuroscience community conducts and funds, outstanding research using sophisticated neuroimaging and molecular-genetic applied technology to improve understanding...