Panagiotis Kastritis

Panagiotis Kastritis
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg | MLU · Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Ph.D.

About

131
Publications
20,811
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6,001
Citations
Citations since 2017
69 Research Items
4864 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
Introduction
We are all agreed that your theory is crazy. The question that divides us is whether it is crazy enough to have a chance of being correct. Niels Bohr to Wolfgang Pauli concerning the exclusion principle
Additional affiliations
August 2018 - present
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • I am leading the group of cryo-electron microscopy and computational structural biology - My group is embedded in the Center for Innovation Competence HALOmem (https://www.halomem.de/).
October 2013 - July 2018
European Molecular Biology Laboratory
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • I work on cryo-Electron Microscopy combined with Computation to understand eukaryotic cellular complexity at unprecedented resolution
December 2012 - July 2013
Utrecht University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 2002 - September 2008

Publications

Publications (131)
Article
New technologies for purifying membrane-bound protein complexes in combination with cryo-electron microscopy (EM) have recently allowed the exploration of such complexes under near-native conditions. In particular, polymer-encapsulated nanodiscs enable the study of membrane proteins at high resolution while retaining protein-protein and protein-lip...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cell-free systems display tremendous potential for biotechnological applications, complementing in vitro reconstituted enzymatic processes and traditional expression systems. However, they often represent "black boxes" without much insight into their components. Here, we characterize a thermophilic cell-free system that produces succinyl-CoA and di...
Article
Cellular function is underlined by megadalton assemblies organizing in proximity, forming communities. Metabolons are protein communities involving metabolic pathways such as protein, fatty acid, and thioesters of coenzyme-A synthesis. Metabolons are highly heterogeneous due to their function, making their analysis particularly challenging. Here, w...
Article
Full-text available
Found across all kingdoms of life, 2-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes possess prominent metabolic roles and form major regulatory sites. Although their component structures are known, their higher-order organization is highly heterogeneous, not only across species or tissues but also even within a single cell. Here, we report a cryo-EM structure o...
Article
Full-text available
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) is a giant enzymatic assembly involved in pyruvate oxidation. PDHc components have been characterized in isolation, but the complex’s quaternary structure has remained elusive due to sheer size, heterogeneity, and plasticity. Here, we identify fully assembled Chaetomium thermophilum α-keto acid dehydrogenas...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding protein‐protein interactions (PPIs) is fundamental to infer how different molecular systems work. A major component to model molecular recognition is the Buried Surface Area (BSA), i.e., the area that becomes inaccessible to solvent upon complex formation. Till date many attempts tried to connect BSA to molecular recognition principle...
Article
Hypothesis: Lipophilic cannabidiol can be solubilized in oil-in water nanoemulsions, which can then be impregnated into chitosan hydrogels forming another colloidal system that will facilitate cannabidiol's release. The delivery from both systems was compared, alongside structural and biological studies, to clarify the effect of the two carriers'...
Preprint
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The tetrameric tumor suppressor p53 represents a great challenge for 3D-structural analysis due to its high degree of intrinsic disorder (ca. 40%). We aim to shed light on the structural and functional roles of p53’s C-terminal region in full-length, wild-type human p53 tetramer and their importance for DNA binding. For this, we employed complement...
Preprint
Full-text available
The tetrameric tumor suppressor p53 represents a great challenge for 3D-structural analysis due to its high degree of intrinsic disorder (ca. 40%). We aim to shed light on the structural and functional roles of p53's C-terminal region in full-length, wild-type human p53 tetramer and their importance for DNA binding. For this, we employed complement...
Article
Full-text available
The SEA complex (SEAC) is a growth regulator that acts as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) towards Gtr1, a Rag GTPase that relays nutrient status to the Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) in yeast1. Functionally, the SEAC has been divided into two subcomplexes: SEACIT, which has GAP activity and inhibits TORC1, and SEACAT, which regulates SEACI...
Preprint
The high abundance of most viruses in infected host cells benefits their structural characterization; endogenous viruses are present in low copy numbers, however, and are therefore challenging to investigate. Here, we retrieve cell extracts enriched with an endogenous virus, the yeast L-A virus. The determined cryo-EM structure discloses capsid-sta...
Preprint
Adaptation of crops to an increasing range of environmental conditions will be substantial for future plant breeding. EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) is an important regulator of various physiological and developmental processes and hence may serve to improve plant adaptation. To expand the limited knowledge on barley ELF3 in determining yield formation,...
Article
Investigating how hydrophobic molecules mix with phospholipid bilayers and how they affect membrane properties is commonplace in biophysics. Despite this, a molecular-level empirical description of a membrane model as simple as a phospholipid bilayer with long linear hydrophobic chains incorporated is still missing. Here, we present an unprecedente...
Preprint
The trimeric betaine symporter BetP senses an osmotic upshift via its osmosensory C-terminal domain and responds rapidly with a steep increase in transport rate. Full activation requires both an elevated internal K+ concentration and a yet unknown membrane stimulus. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms of stress sensing and upregulation remain unclea...
Article
Full-text available
Significance The discovery that amphiphilic polymers, similar to phospholipids, can self-assemble to vesicles has inspired numerous applications. For instance, these polymersomes are employed for drug delivery due to their increased chemical and mechanical stability. These polymers can be also mixed with lipids to form the so-called hybrid membrane...
Article
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After two years since the outbreak, the COVID-19 pandemic remains a global public health emergency. SARS-CoV-2 variants with substitutions on the spike (S) protein emerge increasing the risk of immune evasion and cross-species transmission. Here, we analyzed the evolution of the S protein as recorded in 276,712 samples collected before the start of...
Preprint
The reaction centre-light harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) complex is essential for converting light into proton motive force in photosynthetic bacteria. RC-LH1 is a monomer in most purple bacteria, but in Rhodobacter species, it is a dimer. Its assembly depends on an accessory polypeptide (PufX) and, ultimately, on photosynthetic growth. To date, knowledge o...
Article
Synthetic single-chain bolalipids with symmetrical headgroups have shown potential in various pharmaceutical applications, such as the stabilization of liposome bilayers. Despite their amphiphilic character, synthetic bolalipids have not yet been investigated for their suitability as solubilizing agents for poorly soluble drug compounds. In this st...
Article
Full-text available
Mass spectrometry (MS) has become one of the key technologies of structural biology. In this review, the contributions of chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry (XL-MS) for studying three-dimensional structures of proteins and for investigating protein–protein interactions are outlined. We summarize the most important cross-linking...
Cover Page
Invited for this month's cover is the group of Prof. Carla Schmidt at the University of Halle‐Wittenberg. The cover picture shows a Coomassie‐stained thin‐layer chromatography plate. Separation of three lipidomes is exemplified: (i) Escherichia coli, (ii) SH‐SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and (iii) lipids assembled in polymer nanodiscs. Subsequent ident...
Raw Data
The Front Cover shows a Coomassie‐stained thin‐layer chromatography plate. Separation of three lipidomes is exemplified: (i) Escherichia coli, (ii) SH‐SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and (iii) lipids assembled in polymer nanodiscs. Subsequent identification of the lipids by mass spectrometry is indicated. More information can be found in the Full Paper b...
Article
Full-text available
Photosystem I (PSI) is one of two the photosystems involved in oxygenic photosynthesis. PSI of cyanobacteria exists in monomeric, trimeric, and tetrameric forms, which is in contrast to the strictly monomeric form of PSI in plants and algae. The tetrameric organization raises questions about its structural, physiological, and evolutional significan...
Article
Full-text available
Lipids play major roles in basic cellular functions. Their analysis, therefore, gained importance; however, it is complicated by the high complexity of natural lipidomes. To overcome this challenge, pre‐separation of the lipids by thin‐layer chromatography (TLC) and high‐resolution mass spectrometry (MS) are often employed. Here, we explore Coomass...
Article
Full-text available
A variety of artificial cells springs from the functionalization of liposomes with proteins. However, these models suffer from low durability without repair and replenishment mechanisms, which can be partly addressed by replacing the lipids with polymers. Yet natural membranes are also dynamically remodeled in multiple cellular processes. Here, we...
Article
Certain amphiphilic copolymers form lipid-bilayer nanodiscs from artificial and natural membranes, thereby rendering incorporated membrane proteins optimal for structural analysis. Recent studies have shown that the amphiphilicity of a copolymer strongly determines its solubilization efficiency. This is especially true for highly negatively charged...
Article
Neurodegenerative disorders are among the most common diseases in modern society. However, the molecular bases of diseases such as multiple sclerosis or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease remain far from being fully understood. Research in this field is limited by the complex nature of native myelin and by difficulties in obtaining good in vitro model sys...
Article
Full-text available
Protein-metabolite interactions play an important role in the cell's metabolism and many methods have been developed to screen them in vitro. However, few methods can be applied at a large scale and not alter biological state. Here we describe a proteometabolomic approach, using chromatography to generate cell fractions which are then analyzed with...
Article
Full-text available
Background/aim: Numerous missense mutations have been determined in the BRCT domain of the BRCA1 gene, affecting localization and interaction of BRCA1 with other proteins. Materials and methods: We examined whether the M1775K and V1809F mutations in the BRCT domain affect BRCA1 cellular localization. Cells were transfected with pEGFP-C3-BRCA1 an...
Preprint
Here, we for the first time establish nanodiscs with the challenging lipid composition of myelin of the peripheral or central nervous systems, respectively (PNS and CNS, both containing >40% cholesterol, which so far has been thought to be detrimental for nanodisc formation).Thus, we prove that more complex lipid model membrane systems are in gener...
Article
Full-text available
Native cell extracts hold great promise for understanding the molecular structure of ordered biological systems at high resolution. This is because higher-order biomolecular interactions, dubbed as protein communities, may be retained in their (near-)native state, in contrast to extensively purifying or artificially overexpressing the proteins of i...
Article
The rod-outer-segment guanylyl cyclase 1 (ROS-GC1) is a key transmembrane protein for retinal phototransduction. Mutations of ROS-GC1 correlate with different retinal diseases that often lead to blindness. No structural data are available for ROS-GC1 so far. We performed a 3D-structural analysis of native ROS-GC1 from bovine retina by cross-linking...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of preferred orientations in single particle analysis (SPA) by cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryoEM) is currently one of the hurdles preventing many structural analyses from yielding high-resolution structures. Although the existence of preferred orientations is mostly related to the grid preparation, in this technical note, we show that s...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the ongoing global pandemic that has infected more than 31 million people in more than 180 countries worldwide. Like other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have been transmitted to humans from wild animals. Given the scale and widespread geographical distribution...
Preprint
The rod-outer-segment guanylyl cyclase 1 (ROS-GC1) is a key transmembrane protein for retinal phototransduction. Mutations of ROS-GC1 correlate with different retinal diseases that often lead to blindness. No structural data are available for ROS-GC1 so far. We performed a 3D-structural analysis of native ROS-GC1 from bovine retina by cross-linking...
Preprint
Full-text available
Photosystem I (PSI) is one of two the photosystems involved in oxygenic photosynthesis. PSI of cyanobacteria exists in monomeric, trimeric, and tetrameric forms, which is in contrast to the strictly monomeric form of PSI in plants and algae. The tetrameric organization raises questions about its structural, physiological, and evolutional significan...
Article
Full-text available
Emergence of coronaviruses poses a threat to global health and economy. The current outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 28,000,000 people and killed more than 915,000. To date, there is no treatment for coronavirus infections, making the development of therapies to prevent future epidemics of paramount importance. To this end, we collecte...
Article
Full-text available
Significance K63 ubiquitination of ribosomes serves as a key regulator of protein production during cellular exposure to oxidative stress. Defining the structural and functional mechanisms of translation regulation would support the current understanding of critical reprogramming of eukaryotic gene expression. Our paper presents an examination of t...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolites produced via traditional biochemical processes affect intracellular communication, inflammation, and malignancy. Unexpectedly, acetyl-CoA, α-ketoglutarate and palmitic acid, which are chemical species of reactions catalyzed by highly abundant, gigantic enzymatic complexes, dubbed as “metabolons”, have broad “nonmetabolic” signaling func...
Article
Full-text available
The ribosome is not only a highly complex molecular machine that translates the genetic information into proteins, but also an exceptional specimen for testing and optimizing cross-linking/mass spectrometry (XL-MS) workflows. Due to its high abundance, ribosomal proteins are frequently identified in proteome-wide XL-MS studies of cells or cell extr...
Article
Full-text available
Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) have emerged as highly photostable probes for optical and photoacoustic imaging. However, the aggregation of conjugated polymer (CP) molecules upon nanoparticle formation is associated with fluorescence quenching, poor yields and mutable particle sizes. This study investigated whether the CP encapsulation wit...
Article
Full-text available
Cytochrome bo 3 ubiquinol oxidase is a transmembrane protein, which oxidizes ubiquinone and reduces oxygen, while pumping protons. Apart from its combination with F1Fo-ATPase to assemble a minimal ATP regeneration module, the utility of the proton pump can be extended to other applications in the context of synthetic cells such as transport, signal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the ongoing global pandemic that has infected more than 6 million people in more than 180 countries worldwide. Like other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have been transmitted to humans from wild animals. Given the scale and widespread geographical distribution...
Article
Full-text available
Cullin RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases SCFTIR1/AFB1-5 and their AUX/IAA targets perceive the phytohormone auxin. The F-box protein TIR1 binds a surface-exposed degron in AUX/IAAs promoting their ubiquitylation and rapid auxin-regulated proteasomal degradation. Here, by adopting biochemical, structural proteomics and in vivo approaches we unveil how...
Article
Full-text available
Here we present the structure of mouse H-chain apoferritin at 2.7 Å (FSC = 0.143) solved by single particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) using a 200 kV device, the Thermo Fisher Glacios®. This is a compact, two-lens illumination system with a constant power objective lens, without any energy filters or aberration correctors, often though...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ribosome is not only a highly complex molecular machine that executes translation according to the central dogma of molecular biology, but also an exceptional specimen for testing and optimizing cross-linking/mass spectrometry (XL-MS) workflows. Due to its high abundance, ribosomal proteins are frequently identified in proteome-wide XL-MS studi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cullin RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases SCF TIR1/AFB1-5 and their ubiquitylation targets, AUX/IAAs, sense auxin concentrations in the nucleus. TIR1 binds a surface-exposed degron in AUX/IAAs promoting their ubiquitylation and rapid auxin-regulated proteasomal degradation. Here, we resolved TIR1·auxin·IAA7 and TIR1·auxin·IAA12 complex topology, and sh...
Preprint
Full-text available
Here we present the structure of mouse H-chain apoferritin at 2.7 Å (FSC=0.143) solved by single particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) using a 200 kV device. Data were collected using a compact, two-lens illumination system with a constant power objective lens, without the use of energy filters or aberration correctors. Coulomb potential...
Article
Full-text available
Advances in electron microscopy have provided unprecedented access to the structural characterization of large, flexible and heterogeneous complexes. Until recently, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has been applied to understand molecular organization in either highly purified, isolated biomolecules or in situ . An emerging field is developing,...
Article
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate nucleocytoplasmic exchange. They are exceptionally large protein complexes that fuse the inner and outer nuclear membranes to form channels across the nuclear envelope. About 30 different protein components, termed nucleoporins, assemble in multiple copies into an intricate cylindrical architecture. Here, we re...
Article
Full-text available
An unprecedented opportunity to integrate ~100 years of meticulous in vitro biomolecular research is currently provided in the light of recent advances in methods to visualize closer-to-native architectures of biomolecular machines, and metabolic enzymes in particular. Traditional views of enzymes, namely biomolecular machines, only partially expla...
Article
Full-text available
The arrangement of proteins into complexes is a key organizational principle for many cellular functions. Although the topology of many complexes has been systematically analyzed in isolation, their molecular sociology in situ remains elusive. Here, we show that crude cellular extracts of a eukaryotic thermophile, Chaetomium thermophilum, retain ba...