Pamela Cole

Pamela Cole
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

92
Publications
43,122
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9,050
Citations
Citations since 2016
21 Research Items
3715 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500

Publications

Publications (92)
Chapter
Families communicate not only verbally, but also emotionally, and they communicate both with and about emotions. Yet surprisingly little research integrates the study of parent-child emotional and verbal communication. In this chapter, we summarize developmental changes in children’s emotional communication and in family communication about emotion...
Article
Self-regulation often refers to the executive influence of cognitive resources to alter prepotent responses. The ability to engage cognitive resources as a form of executive process emerges and improves in the preschool-age years while the dominance of prepotent responses, such as emotional reactions, begins to decline from toddlerhood onward. Howe...
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Research has recognized that parental emotion regulation influences whether parents respond sensitively to their children in challenging parenting situations. However, parental emotion regulation is usually assessed using questionnaires that are not about parenting, rather than through examining parents' reaction to specific parenting situations th...
Article
Although early emotional and verbal development are thought to be related, emotional and verbal parent-toddler communication are often studied separately, and are frequently measured during brief, semi-structured tasks. Moreover, there is mixed, indirect evidence as to whether toddler negative emotions may elicit or disrupt parent-toddler verbal co...
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To advance the understanding of how parental self‐regulation contributes to their role in supporting children's development, this study proposes a model of the dynamic processes involved in parental self‐regulation. Based on time‐series data from 157 mothers and their 30‐ to 60‐month‐old children (49.7% female; 96% White; data collected June 2017–D...
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Conceptual work on interpersonal physiology suggests that the dynamic concordance between two person's physiological arousal may transpire on multiple timescales, and the timescale on which it unfolds may determine its psychological significance. The current study tested this hypothesis in the context of parent–child interaction by examining whethe...
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The family emotional environment influences children’s development of emotion regulation in various ways. Children’s difficulties with effectively regulating emotions, in turn, can contribute to the development of psychopathology. However, the pathways that explain how environmental emotion—including overheard emotion among family members—influence...
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The development of strategies that support autonomous self-regulation of emotion is key for early childhood emotion regulation. Children are thought to transition from predominant reliance on more automatic or interpersonal strategies to reliance on more effortful, autonomous strategies as they develop cognitive skills that can be recruited for sel...
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We introduce a discrete-time dynamical system method, the Boolean network method, that may be useful for modeling, studying, and controlling nonlinear dynamics in multivariate systems, particularly when binary time-series are available. We introduce the method in three steps: inference of the temporal relations as Boolean functions, extraction of a...
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Structuring is a parental response to young children’s behavior that may foster children’s attempts to use cognitive skills to engage in self-regulation. Using a rural, economically strained sample, parental structuring in response to 127 18-month-olds’ negative emotion was observed during a home visit. Children’s distraction, a useful cognitive st...
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Evidence suggests that concordance between parent and child physiological states is an important marker of interpersonal interaction. However, studies have focused on individual differences in concordance, and we have limited understanding of how physiological concordance may vary dynamically based on the situational context. We examined whether mo...
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The present study examines how toddler emotions may influence their own or their parents’ participation in parent-toddler verbal conversation. Limited, indirect evidence suggests that toddler positive emotions may encourage, whereas negative emotions may disrupt, parent-toddler verbal exchanges, but these hypotheses have not been tested directly. W...
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The ability to interpret others’ emotions is a critical skill for children’s socioemotional functioning. While research has emphasized facial emotion expressions, children are also constantly required to interpret vocal emotion expressed at or around them by individuals who are both familiar and unfamiliar to them. The present study examined how sp...
Article
Children should become more effective at regulating emotion as they age. Longitudinal evidence of such change, however, is scarce. This study uses a multiple-time scale approach to test the hypothesis that the self-regulation of emotion—the engagement of executive processes to influence the dynamics of prepotent emotional responses—becomes more eff...
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We investigated what a dyadic framework added to Eisenberg, Cumberland, and Spinrad’s (1998) parental emotion socialization model based on the argument that the dynamic organization of emotion in the dyad is more than the sum of its parts and thus makes a unique contribution to emotion socialization. Preschoolers (N = 235) completed challenging pro...
Article
In 2019, the Governing Council of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) adopted a Policy on Scientific Integrity, Transparency, and Openness (SRCD, 2019a) and accompanying Author Guidelines on Scientific Integrity and Openness in Child Development (SRCD, 2019b). In this issue, a companion article (Gennetian, Tamis‐LeMonda, & Frank) d...
Chapter
In this chapter, we review several theories of emotional development. For each, we address definitions and basic tenets, we ask what “develops” and how emotions change with age. What is particularly noteworthy is that although there are several emotional development theories, none ascribes to a single emotion theory. Moreover, no single emotional d...
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Recent conceptualizations of emotion dysregulation define it as a process that unfolds over multiple time scales and that leads to short- or long-term impairments. This chapter discusses the advantages of observational methods for measuring emotion dysregulation as a process, focusing on three patterns and associated evidence of them from observati...
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Decreases in children's anger reactivity because of the onset of their autonomous use of strategies characterizes the prevailing model of the development of emotion regulation in early childhood (Kopp, 1989). There is, however, limited evidence of the varied pathways that mark this development and their proposed antecedents and consequences. This s...
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We investigated the degree to which toddlers’ observed emotional states, toddlers’ temperamental traits, and their interaction accounted for variance in mothers’ and fathers’ parenting. Main effects of two emotional states (positive emotion and negative emotion), three temperamental traits (negative affectivity, effortful control, and surgency) as...
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Transactional models of analysis can examine both moment-to-moment interactions within a dyad and dyadic patterns of influence across time. This study used data from a prospective adoption study to test a transactional model of parental depressive symptoms and mutual negativity between mother and child over time, utilizing contingency analysis of s...
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We examined psychopathology-neuroendocrine associations in relation to the transition into adolescence within a developmental framework that acknowledged the interdependence of the HPA and HPG hormone systems in the regulation of responses to everyday affective contexts. Saliva samples were collected during anxiety and anger inductions from 51 youn...
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This study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the structures of scores from the Conners’ Teacher and Parent Rating Scales–Revised (CTRS-R and CPRS-R, respectively; Conners, 1997). The scales were administered to 1,835 parents and 1,387 teachers of children in Nepal’s Sarlahi district, a region where no other measures of ch...
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In honoring Carroll Izard’s contributions to emotion research, we discuss infant facial activity and emotion expression. We consider the debated issue of whether infants are biologically prepared to express specific emotions. We offer a perspective that potentially integrates differing viewpoints on infant facial expression of emotion. Specifically...
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This special section on the development of emotion regulation highlights several important new directions for research. Specifically, the findings of these studies indicate that: (1) emotion regulation develops across the lifespan and not just in early childhood and does so in complex ways, (2) it is necessary to distinguish among emotions to fully...
Article
Theory suggests temperamental reactivity [negative affectivity (NA)] and regulation [effortful control (EC)] predict variation in the development of emotion regulation (ER). However, few studies report such relations, particularly studies utilizing observational measures of children's ER behaviors in longitudinal designs. Using multilevel modeling,...
Article
This study examines how young children's emotion and behavior relate to maternal emotions concurrently and as a function of children's developmental changes in self-regulation. Mothers and their children (N = 120) participated in an 8 min waiting task at children's ages 18, 24, 36, and 48 months. Children's emotion expressions, misbehavior, and reg...
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Researchers have suggested that as children's language skill develops in early childhood, it comes to help children regulate their emotions (Cole, Armstrong, & Pemberton, 2010; Kopp, 1989), but the pathways by which this occurs have not been studied empirically. In a longitudinal study of 120 children from 18 to 48 months of age, associations among...
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Maternal affect dysregulation and maternal depressive symptoms were examined as predictors of maternal emotional availability (EA) during mother-infant interaction in a nonclinical sample. In particular, we investigated if affect dysregulation predicts EA and is more important than are depressive symptoms in predicting EA. Questionnaire measures an...
Article
Infants’ emerging ability to move independently by crawling is associated with changes in multiple domains, including an increase in expressions of anger in situations that block infants’ goals, but it is unknown whether increased anger is specifically because of experience with being able to move autonomously or simply related to age. To examine t...
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Parental intuitive theories comprise values, goals, expectations, and cultural beliefs about the nature of parenting and its function for children’s development of competence. This article introduces a research design to study mothers’ intuitive theories about their socialization of children’s emotions, as a means of understanding the cultural mean...
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To examine intellectual and motor functioning of children who received micronutrient supplementation from 12 to 35 months of age. Cohort follow-up of children 7 to 9 years of age who participated in a 2 × 2 factorial, placebo-controlled, randomized trial from October 2001 through January 2006. Rural Nepal. A total of 734 children 12 to 35 months of...
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In Nepal, antenatal iron-folic acid supplementation improved aspects of intellectual, executive, and fine motor function among school-age children. We examined the impact of added zinc to the maternal antenatal supplement (M-IFAZn) and preschool supplementation from 12 to 36 mo with iron-folic acid (C-IFA) ± zinc (C-IFAZn) on cognitive outcomes com...
Article
In this lead paper for this special section, we advance the perspective that new insights into parenting at risk can be gained by focusing on the dynamic emotional processes that occur during parent-child exchanges, with special emphasis on parental emotions as experienced and their regulation of emotion and underlying cognitions, as well as the ro...
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Emotion socialization aims to promote children’s emotion competence. Children’s competence is embedded in cultural contexts that influence caregivers’ expectations of appropriateness of children’s expression and experience of emotions. Two aspects of emotion competence – individualistic and relational emotion competence – are outlined. They offer a...
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Being able to wait is an essential part of self-regulation. In the present study, the authors examined the developmental course of changes in the latency to and duration of target-waiting behaviors by following 65 boys and 55 girls from rural and semirural economically strained homes from ages 18 months to 48 months. Age-related changes in latency...
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The question of how a cultural perspective informs the development of children's self-regulation and social development remains somewhat neglected. In this chapter, we address this topic, emphasizing cultural influences on the socialization of emotion as they bear on the development of children's self-regulation and therefore social behavior. We sh...
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Iron and zinc are important for the development of both intellectual and motor skills. Few studies have examined whether iron and zinc supplementation during gestation, a critical period of central nervous system development, affects children's later functioning. To examine intellectual and motor functioning of children whose mothers received micro...
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Emotional instability and poor emotional awareness are cardinal features of the emotional dysregulation associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Most models of the development of BPD include child negative emotional reactivity and grossly inadequate caregiving (e.g., abuse, emotional invalidation) as major contributing factors. Howeve...
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Although functional links between emotion and action are implied in emotion regulation research, there is limited evidence that specific adaptive actions for coping with a challenge are more probable when certain negative emotions are expressed. The current study examined this question among 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 113; M age = 47.84 months, SD = 6...
Article
There is a gap between scientific knowledge about typical and atypical emotional development and efforts to identify and serve children's mental health needs. The gap can be bridged with research that integrates clinical perspectives into the study of emotional development. We illustrate this by discussing typical emotional development in early chi...
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The present paper examines unresolved substantive, methodological, and developmental issues in the research on self-instruction training with children. Substantive issues pertain to the lack of research on the components of self-instruction training that contribute to or are responsible for therapeutic change. Assessment issues include the absence...
Article
Although it has been shown that toddlers express distress when personal or physical events violate their expectations, there has been little detailed examination of their emotional reactions to such events. In this study, 45 2-year-olds were observed during 2 mishaps: a doll breaking and juice spilling. Their emotional reactions and their attempts...
Article
Preschool-age children's ability to verbally generate strategies for regulating anger and sadness, and to recognize purported effective strategies for these emotions, were examined in relation to child factors (child age, temperament, and language ability) and maternal emotion socialization (supportiveness and structuring in response to child distr...
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We investigated narratives, symbolic play, and emotions in children who varied in severity of disruptive behavior problems. Children's representations of hypothetical situations of conflict and distress were assessed at 4-5 and 7 years. Behavior problems also were assessed then and again at 9 years. Children's aggressive and caring themes different...
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Recent research and theory highlights the distinctive features of shame vs. guilt, as well as the important implications of that distinction for typical and atypical behaviour regulation. Briefly, shame is characterised by withdrawal and hiding from judgemental others, and guilt by making amends-repairing and confessing. The present study was aimed...
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Despite documented cross-cultural variability in autonomy and relatedness, relatively little is known about how these characteristics of self are socialized. This study, a secondary analysis (Dennis et al., 2002), explored this question by examining sequential verbal exchanges between Japanese and U.S. mothers and children during play and a challen...
Article
Tamang and Brahman Nepali children have culturally specific emotion scripts that may reflect different emotion socialization experiences. To study emotion socialization, the child-adult interactions of 119 children (3-5 years old) were observed and 14 village elders were interviewed about child competence in Tamang and Brahman villages. Tamang rebu...
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Children's representations of conflict and distress situations at 7 years were examined as developmental precursors to relational aggression, overt aggression, and psychiatric symptoms in early adolescence. Children were identified in early adolescence. Children were identified in preschool as normally developing or with behavior problems. Overt, b...
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The present study examined gender differences in children's submissive and disharmonious emotions and parental attention to these emotions. Sixty children and their mothers and fathers participated when children were 4 and 6 years old. Children's emotion expression and parental responses during a game were coded. Girls expressed more submissive emo...
Article
Emotion regulation has emerged as a popular topic, but there is doubt about its viability as a scientific construct. This article identifies conceptual and methodological challenges in this area of study and describes exemplar studies that provide a substantive basis for inferring emotion regulation. On the basis of those studies, 4 methods are des...
Article
Mutual regulation of anger plays a role in both healthy adjustment and mental health problems. This study of 85 preschooler boys and girls examined mother-preschooler anger regulation during a frustration in relation to the child's preschool and school age problem status. Less mutual positive emotion, more mutual anger, and more emotional mismatche...
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This chapter comments on the review of S. Crockenberg and E. Leerkes (see record 2003-02704-005) on infant negative emotionality, caregiving, and family relationships. In this chapter, the author presents findings from research focusing on how young children become effective in regulating their own emotions and how risk conditions influence this a...
Article
Cultural differences and similarities in socialization during two contrasting laboratory tasks were examined in 30 Japanese mothers and their preschoolers, both temporarily residing in the United States, and 30 U.S. mothers and their preschoolers (age: M = 55.8 months, SD = 4.9). Mother and child actions, speech, emotion, and attention were coded f...
Article
Although cultures vary in terms of how their members appraise situations, communicate emotions, and act on them, little is known about how culture influences children's emotional reactions. This study examined beliefs about revealing emotion in 223 second-, fourth-, and fifth-grade children from three cultures (Brahman, Tamang, and the United State...
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Parental emotions and behaviors that contribute to continuity and change in preschool children's externalizing problems were examined. Mothers and fathers were observed interacting with their children, and child-rearing styles were reported. Teachers, mothers, and children reported children's antisocial, oppositional behavior. Externalizing problem...
Article
Although culture plays an important role in specifying socially prescribed ways to communicate and act in emotional situations, few cultures have been studied. This study describes the ideas of 50 first-grade boys and girls (aged 6-9 years) from 2 different Nepali cultures (Tamang and Chhetri-Brahmin) regarding how they would feel and act in 6 emot...
Article
Emotion regulation (ER) was assessed during a negative mood induction in 79 preschoolers who varied in degree of behavior problems. Facial expressivity during the induction was used to identify 3 ER groups: inexpressive, modulated expressive, and highly expressive. Group differences in ER were significantly related to heart rate and skin conductanc...
Article
Japanese and U.S. preschool children's responses to hypothetical interpersonal dilemmas were examined as a function of culture, gender, and maternal child-rearing values. U.S. children showed more anger, more aggressive behavior and language, and underregulation of emotion than Japanese children, across different contexts of assessment. Children fr...
Article
Japanese and US 4- and 5-year-old children and their mothers were studied in situations designed to examine attachment-related behaviours, feelings, and representations. Separation and reunion behaviours, conversations about separation, and child-rearing patterns were examined in relation to culture, gender, and internalising symptoms. Japanese and...
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This study focused on empathic and prosocial orientations in preschool children who vary in externalizing problems. Children were categorized as low, moderate, or high risk for developing disruptive behavior disorders, depending on severity of current behavior problems. Hypothetical and real encounters with others in distress were used to examine c...
Article
Individual differences in expressive control during a disappointment were examined in relation to preschool boys' and girls' concurrent behavior and to their risk for developing disruptive behavior disorders. A disappointment paradigm was used to examine expressive control in 79 4- and 5-yr-old children with low, moderate, or high risk. Boys at ris...
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Clinical conceptualizations of emotion that stress its disruptive influences and functional models of emotion that emphasize its adaptive aspects can be integrated into a developmental psychopathology framework. Under certain conditions, emotion regulation may develop dysregulatory aspects that can become a characteristic of an individual's coping...
Article
Social problem solving and emotion expression were examined in 55 boys and 34 girls (aged 4–5 yrs) with behavior problems to determine the manner in which disruptive behaviors might be associated with early differences in ideas, beliefs, and feelings about how interpersonal problems evolve and are resolved. Two paradigms, varying in degree of struc...
Article
Examined the relation between intellectual functioning and risk for disruptive behavior disorders in a sample of 82 preschoolers. Specific cognitive dimensions—verbal, visuospatial, and executive functioning—were examined in relation to specific aspects of socioemotional functioning known to be problematic for behavior-problem children (i.e., label...
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The effects of child sexual abuse have become a leading concern of mental health service providers. Despite an explosion of studies, one major difficulty in this research is the lack of a developmentally sensitive model for conceptualizing short- and long-term effects and continuity and discontinuity of effects over time. This article proposes a mo...
Article
Although it has been shown that toddlers express distress when personal or physical events violate their expectations, there has been little detailed examination of their emotional reactions to such events. In this study, 45 2-year-olds were observed during 2 mishaps: a doll breaking and juice spilling. Their emotional reactions and their attempts...