Paloma Ruiz-Benito

Paloma Ruiz-Benito
University of Alcalá | UAH · Department of Life Sciences

About

108
Publications
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3,281
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Publications

Publications (108)
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim: Linking local population dynamics and species distributions is critical to predicting the impacts of climate change. While many studies focus on the mean fitness of populations, theory shows that species distributions can be shaped by demographic stochasticity or population resilience. Here we examine how mean fitness (measured by invasion rat...
Presentation
Full-text available
Here we compare Landsat spatial canopy disturbance rates with tree mortality rates derived from the 2nd and 3rd Spanish National Forest Inventories for the 1986-2008 period (n = 45564 stands). We compared the spatial distribution of Landsat canopy disturbance rates with the inventory-derived tree and biomass mortality rates on a grid size of 0.25°....
Article
Biological invasions are an important component of global change, which is threatening the planet's biodiversity and ecosystem services. To manage and mitigate the impacts of global change, it is important to have monitoring tools that allow assessing the impacts of exotic species at several scales in a systematic, periodic, rapid, and effective wa...
Article
Non-native trees enhance services that are fundamental for human well-being. Yet, the extensive use of non-native trees has the potential of causing environmental and socio-economic harm. Eucalyptus and Pinus are the most widely distributed and extensively planted tree genera worldwide, because their rapid growth allows profitable production of tim...
Article
Non‐native tree species (NTT) may bring about economic benefits, but also threats to ecosystems, mostly if they show expansive trends. 12,000 permanent plots of the second (1986–1996), third (1997–2007) and fourth (2008–2017) Spanish Forest Inventory. We quantified changes over time (1986‐2017) of the NNT present in forests of peninsular Spain and...
Preprint
In recent decades there has been an increasing demand by ecologists for harmonized climatic data at large spatial scales and spanning long periods. Here we present easyclimate, a software package to obtain daily climatic data at high resolution (0.0083º, ~1 km) with R. The package facilitates the downloading and processing of precipitation, minimum...
Article
Tree‐ring data has been widely used to inform about tree growth responses to drought at the individual scale, but less is known about how tree growth sensitivity to drought scales up driving changes in forest dynamics. Here, we related tree‐ring growth chronologies and stand‐level forest changes in basal area from two independent datasets to test i...
Article
Full-text available
Recent climate warming has fueled interest into climate-driven range shifts of tree species. A common approach to detect range shifts is to compare the divergent occurrences between juvenile and adult trees along environmental gradients using static data. Divergent occurrences between life stages can, however, also be caused by onto-genetic effects...
Article
Aim The population processes that drive tree species distribution are still widely debated. We test the hypotheses that metapopulation processes of colonization and extinction are linked to predictions of species distribution models. Location Europe: Spain, France, Germany, Finland and Sweden. Taxon Angiosperms and Gymnosperms. Methods For 17 tr...
Poster
Full-text available
tring and easyclimate: two R packages to analyze long-term responses of forest ecosystems
Chapter
The Mediterranean Basin is highly exposed to climate change, particularly to increased aridity and to more intense and frequent extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. Several temperate pine species have their southern distribution limit in the Mediterranean Basin, with low-altitude populations and dense, even-aged reforestations being esp...
Article
Full-text available
The current understanding of determinants of climate action and mitigation behaviour is largely based on measures of climate change including concerns, attitudes and beliefs. However, few studies have shown the actual effects of external and internal drivers on citizens’ lifestyles related to climate change, particularly in terms of their carbon fo...
Article
Full-text available
The prediction of tree growth is key to further understand the carbon sink role of forests and the short-term forest capacity on climate change mitigation. In this work, we used large-scale data available from three consecutive forest inventories in a Euro-Mediterranean region and the Bertalanffy–Chapman–Richards equation to model up to a decade’s...
Article
Aim Tree mortality is increasing world‐wide, leading to changes in forest composition and altering global biodiversity. Nonetheless, owing to the multifaceted stochastic nature of tree mortality, large‐scale spatial patterns of mortality across species ranges and their underlying drivers remain difficult to understand. Our main goal was to describe...
Article
Plant functional traits are highly plastic to changes in climatic factors and nutrient availability. However, the intraspecific plant response to abiotic factors and the overall effect on tree growth and productivity is still under debate. We studied forest productivity for 30 Quercus ilex subsp. ballota forests in Spain along a broad climatic grad...
Article
Full-text available
Women and men’s representation in advanced stages of the scientific career is unbalanced, a fact that has been related with different factors, namely the time dedicated to motherhood. The perception of the impact of motherhood and fatherhood on the development of the scientific career in Life Sciences in Spain was evaluated through a survey carried...
Preprint
Full-text available
Plant functional traits are highly adaptable to changes in climatic factors and nutrient availability. However, the intraspecific plant response to abiotic factors and the overall effect on plant growth and productivity is still under debate. We studied forest productivity for 30 Quercus ilex subsp ballota forests in Spain along a broad climatic gr...
Article
Full-text available
More tree species can increase the carbon storage capacity of forests (here referred to as the more species hypothesis) through increased tree productivity and tree abundance resulting from complementarity, but they can also be the consequence of increased tree abundance through increased available energy (more individuals hypothesis). To test thes...
Article
Large trees, as the versatile provider of ecosystem services, are the most susceptible to episodic disturbance regimes such as extreme climate and biotic agents across the globe, and hence, largely determine forest demographic processes. Despite the recognized fundamental ecological significance of large-diameter trees to above-ground biomass (AGB)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim Tree mortality is increasing worldwide, leading to changes in forest composition and altering global biodiversity. Yet, due to the multi-faceted stochastic nature of tree mortality, large-scale spatial patterns of mortality across species ranges and their underlying drivers remain difficult to understand. Our main goal is to describe the geogra...
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing global climate change is driving widespread shifts in species distributions. Trends show frequent upwards shifts of treelines, but information on changes in montane forest below the treeline and in the tropics and subtropics is limited, despite the importance of these areas for biodiversity and ecosystem function. Patterns of species shifts...
Article
Climate and forest structure are considered major drivers of forest demography and productivity. However, recent evidence suggests that the relationships between climate and tree growth are generally non‐stationary (i.e., non‐time‐stable), and it remains uncertain whether the relationships between climate, forest structure, demography and productiv...
Article
Recovery of Mediterranean forests after field abandonment is a slow process, even without propagule limitations. This is mainly due to stressful conditions for seedling establishment. In this context, shrubs play a critical role in facilitating tree recruitment, but how this process unfolds after field abandonment is not entirely known. We evaluate...
Article
1.Tree diversity has been shown to promote a broad range of ecosystem functions in forests. However, how important these effects are in driving ecosystem multifunctionality in natural forests, relative to other drivers, such as below‐ground biodiversity (e.g., soil microbial diversity), community‐level functional traits and environmental conditions...
Article
Aim Forest carbon storage is the result of a multitude of interactions among biotic and abiotic factors. Our aim was to use an integrative approach to elucidate mechanistic relationships of carbon storage with biotic and abiotic factors in the natural forests of temperate Australia, a region that has been overlooked in global analyses of carbon‐bio...
Article
Understanding species' tolerance to recurrent extreme droughts is key to predict species' performance and forest dynamics under ongoing climate change. Inter-specific differences in juvenile responses can largely shape forest composition and structure. However, the vulnerability of tree species is typically evaluated in adult canopy dominant indivi...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is expected to cause major changes in forest ecosystems during the 21 st century and beyond. To assess forest impacts from climate change, the existing empirical information must be structured, harmonised and assimilated into a form suitable to develop and test state-of-the-art forest and ecosystem models. The combination of empirica...
Preprint
Full-text available
Species range limits are thought to result from a decline in demographic performance at range edges. However, recent studies reporting contradictory patterns in species demographic performance at their edges cast doubt on our ability to predict climate change demographic impacts. To understand these inconsistent demographic responses at the edges,...
Article
Full-text available
For decades, ecologists have investigated the effects of tree species diversity on tree productivity at different scales and with different approaches ranging from observational to experimental study designs. Using data from five European national forest inventories (16,773 plots), six tree species diversity experiments (584 plots), and six network...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim Processes driving current tree species distribution are still largely debated. Attempts to relate species distribution and population demography metrics have shown mixed results. In this context, we would like to test the hypotheses that the metapopulation processes of colonization and extinction are linked to species distribution models. Loca...
Article
Full-text available
Los efectos del cambio global son cada vez más evidentes en los ecosistemas forestales. La implantación de un sistema de indicadores de adaptación al cambio climático (ACC) permite evaluar el estado del sistema y establecer medidas que favorezcan capacidades para responder y ajustarse al cambio climático. El presente trabajo desarrolla un sistema d...
Article
Full-text available
Land cover information at national or regional scale is essential for science, monitoring, reporting, and policy making. CORINE Land Cover (CLC) is the most consistent land cover map for the entire European territory, with four repetitions during the period 1985–2012. The long-term consistency of CLC maps is the most appreciated strength and it sho...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim: Background tree mortality is a complex demographic process that affects forest structure and long-term dynamics. We aimed to test how drought intensity interacts with interspecific and intraspecific competition (or facilitation) in shaping individual mortality patterns across tree species ranges. Location: European latitudinal gradient (Spain...
Article
Full-text available
Forests play a key role in regulating the global carbon cycle, and yet the abiotic and biotic conditions that drive the demographic processes which underpin forest carbon dynamics remain poorly understood in natural ecosystems. To address this knowledge gap, we used repeat forest inventory data from 92,285 trees across four large permanent plots (4...
Poster
Full-text available
Increased temperatures and more frequent extreme droughts are inducing alterations in forest functioning and composition, especially in Mediterranean forests. Understanding coexistence and how tree species respond to drought events along the ontogeny is essential to evaluate forest dynamics under climate change. Here, we evaluated growth resilience...
Article
1.Forest area is increasing in temperate biomes through active and passive restoration of old fields. Despite the large extension of restored forests, the success of contrasting restoration strategies (active – planted forests ‐ vs. passive – secondary forests ‐) over time has never been evaluated before in Mediterranean forests. 2.We studied how r...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon storage and sequestration are key ecosystem services critical to human well-being and biodiversity conservation. In a warming context, the quantification and valuation of carbon storage and sequestration is important in ensuring that effective incentives are put in place to tackle climate change. The quantification and valuation of ES such a...
Data
The data includes the maximum height, wood density, leaf mass per area and seed mass of 60 vegetal species. The data is associated with the Journal of Applied Ecology publication "Long-term recovery of multifunctionality in Mediterranean forests depends on restoration strategy and forest type"
Article
1.Forest ecosystem functioning generally benefits from higher tree species richness, but variation within richness levels is typically large. This is mostly due to the contrasting performances of communities with different compositions. Evidence‐based understanding of composition effects on forest productivity, as well as on multiple other function...
Article
Full-text available
Evolutionary history can explain species resemblance to a large extent. Thus, if closely related species share combinations of traits that modulate their response to environmental changes, then phylogeny could predict species sensitivity to novel stressors such as increased levels of deforestation. To test this hypothesis, we used 66,949 plots (25-...
Data
Response of tree species (Ω values) to forest canopy cover measured at different landscape scales (concentric circles centred on the plots with radiuses of 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 km-radius, respectively). The bars and dots correspond to 95% CI of Ω values. The response of species was considered negative when the 95% CI of Ω completely laid below zero (re...
Data
Fossil information and minimum and maximum age constraints used for the dating analysis. Fossils were assigned to the most recent common ancestors (MRCA) of the listed taxa. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Impacts of climate change are likely to be marked in areas with steep climatic transitions. Species turnover, spread of invasive species, altered productivity, and modified processes such as fire regimes can all spread rapidly along ecotones, which challenge the current paradigms of ecosystem management. We conducted a literature review at a contin...
Article
Key message Functional trait composition and stand structural complexity rather than biodiversity substantially enhance aboveground carbon storage in temperate mixed forests, while accounting for the effects of disturbance intensity. This study provides a strong support to the mass ratio effect in addition to the niche differentiation and facilita...
Article
Full-text available
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) depicts annual and decadal oscillatory modes of variability responsible of dry spells over the European continent. The NAO therefore holds a great potential to evaluate the role, as carbon sinks, of water-limited forests under climate change. However, uncertainties related to inconsistent responses of long-term...
Chapter
Forests and shrublands occupy a large area in the world (c. 31% of the total continental area) and in Spain (c. 36% of the area), in which around 30% of forests are formed by Quercus species. Therefore, the ecosystem services provided by Quercus species are critical to human well-being. Thus, it is essential to understand how Quercus species grow a...
Chapter
Oaks are a widely represented woody species across the main European forest biomes, ranging from semi-arid Mediterranean shrub lands to cool temperate and transitional boreal forests. We provide quantitative evidence of large-scale distribution and abundance patterns of oaks across Europe. In addition, we present key demographic processes, such as...
Article
Full-text available
Humans require multiple services from ecosystems, but it is largely unknown whether trade-offs between ecosystem functions prevent the realisation of high ecosystem multifunctionality across spatial scales. Here, we combined a comprehensive dataset (28 ecosystem functions measured on 209 forest plots) with a forest inventory dataset (105,316 plots)...
Article
The importance of biodiversity in supporting ecosystem functioning is generally well accepted. However, most evidence comes from small-scale studies, and scaling-up patterns of biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (B-EF) remains challenging, in part because the importance of environmental factors in shaping B-EF relations is poorly understood. Using...
Poster
Full-text available
La degradación de hábitats es una de las principales amenazas para la biodiversidad. La reacción de cada especie a estos procesos parece estar íntimamente relacionada con sus características funcionales y de historia de vida. A pesar de que en los últimos años se han registrado una amplia variedad caracteres funcionales de las especies de muchos gr...
Article
Intense droughts combined with increased temperatures are one of the major threats to forest persistence in the 21(st) century. Despite the direct impact of climate change on forest growth and shifts in species abundance, the effect of altered demography on changes in the composition of functional traits is not well known. We sought to: (1) quantif...
Article
Concern is rising on whether forest function and structure will recover from drought-related impacts, which are expected to increase under global warming. Understanding demographic mechanisms underlying resilience (i.e. capacity of a system or individual to restore its structure and function prior to a disturbance) is critical for properly assessin...
Article
Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncerta...
Article
Ongoing climate change poses significant threats to plant function and distribution. Increased temperatures and altered precipitation regimes amplify drought frequency and intensity, elevating plant stress and mortality. Large-scale forest mortality events will have far-reaching impacts on carbon and hydrological cycling, biodiversity, and ecosyste...
Article
Full-text available
National forest inventories traditionally report on the condition and yield of a nation’s forest resource. They are typically surveyed at the national level,reported as part of the country’s national statistics and are increasingly becoming available to the scientific community for further analyses. Much ofour current understanding on biodiversity...
Article
Biodiversity loss and climate-driven ecosystem modification are leading to substantial changes in forest structure and function. However, the effects of diversity on demographic responses to the environment are poorly understood. We tested the diversity hypothesis (measured through functional diversity) and the mass ratio hypothesis (measured throu...
Article
Full-text available
Neglecting tree size and stand structure dynamics might bias the interpretation of the diversity-productivity relationship in forests. Here we show evidence that complementarity is contingent on tree size across large-scale climatic gradients in Europe. We compiled growth data of the 14 most dominant tree species in 32,628 permanent plots covering...