Padmashree Gehl Sampath

Padmashree Gehl Sampath
Harvard University | Harvard · Berkman Klein Center

PhD

About

70
Publications
15,008
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593
Citations
Citations since 2017
18 Research Items
324 Citations
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Introduction
Padmashree Gehl Sampath is a leading expert on trade policy, innovation policy, and economic development. She works extensively on technology and industrialization, technology and inequality, technology and market power issues in various contexts. She is currently a Fellow and Senior Advisor for Global Access in Action at the Berkman Klein Center, Harvard University.

Publications

Publications (70)
Preprint
COVID-19 has lent a fresh lease of life to local production initiatives particularly in Africa. New initiatives, such as the recently announced mRNA hub for COVID-19 vaccines by the World Health Organization in collaboration with the Government of South Africa, and several other projects and programs, are now focusing on creating disseminated manuf...
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This article examines how infrastructure development may best support structural transformation in developing countries. It critiques ongoing emphasis by multilateral financial institutions and other actors on infrastructure as an asset class and their focus on bankable projects. The article considers this approach too narrow for real economic tran...
Article
This article seeks to position both AI‐based activities, and related policy developments, in the global South in light of a technology industry with desires for continuous expansion and self‐governance. The article proceeds along three themes. First, using field interviews and related information (in an anonymised manner), the article classifies ex...
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This paper looks at market access and market shaping in the interest of public health in a post-COVID world. It starts out with a detailed case study of Gavi’s market shaping (presented in a snapshot over 20 years), highlighting the key successes in: (i) introducing new vaccines in Gavi-eligible countries successively, (ii) expanding the number of...
Article
A year into the COVID-19 crisis, the virus has exposed and strengthened the global fault lines in healthcare. On the good side, the pandemic brought together governments, pharmaceutical companies, and academic/ research institutes in an unprecedented manner to actively forge new collaborations and produced impressive results. Several vaccines are a...
Article
Industrialization, supported by industrial hubs, has been widely associated with structural transformation and catch-up in developing, emerging, and advanced economies. There are about 6,000 industrial hubs spread across 147 countries, with a high concentration in emerging and developing economies, particularly in Asia. While the direct economic be...
Chapter
This chapter is a tribute to Pedro Roffe who has been a central figure throughout the technology transfer negotiations at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and has since then, worked intensely on numerous questions of balance in the global intellectual property rights system. This chapter is as personal as it is scientific to...
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The digital economy has been growing by leaps and bounds in recent years, mostly as a result of new digital technologies that are promoting a global transformation to industry 4.0. The resulting expansion of digital trade has sparked off a political and policy controversy on digital economy and e-commerce, where its boundaries stand and how best to...
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This paper explains how successful innovation systems interact with trade and global value chains (GVC) participation to foster learning and technological upgrading. It conducts an empirical investigation of 74 developing countries for 3 years, 2000, 2005 and 2010, to show that, while some countries manage to trade and export across a large number...
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This article investigates how combining global value chain and innovation system approaches can help to foster an understanding of the possible trajectories that learning and innovation may take in developing countries. Based on the wealth of empirical evidence collected in the special issue, we introduce the notion of the co-evolution of global va...
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Full-text available
The digital economy has been growing by leaps and bounds in recent years, mostly as a result of new digital technologies that are promoting a global transformation to industry 4.0. The resulting expansion of digital trade has sparked off a political and policy controversy on digital economy and e-commerce, where its boundaries stand and how best to...
Chapter
The unprecedented rise in global value chains (GVCs) for trade in both intermediate and final goods has challenged traditional consensus, raising questions of who benefits from GVCs and how their developmental implications can be better channeled (Keane, 2008; Suder et al., 2015; Johnson and Noguera 2012). GVCs segment product cycles in sectors fro...
Chapter
The growing importance of services in the growth process of Africa has been a subject of considerable policy debate in the last decade. At first, the discussion was narrowly centered on the expansion of the services sector, but more recently, the focus has no longer been about whether the services sector is outgrowing other sectors in Africa but ra...
Chapter
This book is about developmental choices. Its main argument is that countries and regions face individual dilemmas and trade-offs in promoting sustainable development, even when the choices to be made begin from a definitional standpoint. Despite the social sciences’ rich scholarship and the benefits of pluralism, a great vice still afflicts it, in...
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The discourse on the nature of the developmental state and industrial policy options for Africa has become central to debates on how to promote overall growth and prosperity in the continent. This article poses a fundamental question on the nature of the developmental state for Africa: should the developmental state be focused on applying policy le...
Article
Latecomer countries possess varying levels of policy and institutional capacity to make the right kinds of choices that promote development, which explain to a large extent the difficulties they face in transforming knowledge through learning activities to technological capabilities and innovative performance. This chapter tries to answer some of t...
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Reconfiguring Global Health Innovation presents the findings of multi-year research, contrasting experiences of different latecomer countries in building health innovation systems to cater to local needs. It analyses the emerging industrial structures in health innovation as more and more latecomer countries are foraying into what is a highly diffi...
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The paper analyses collaborative learning in knowledge generation in biotechnology in two very late follower economies, namely, Nigeria and Ghana in order to compare the innovation and entrepreneurship experiences they present. We suggest that the quality of physical infrastructure, knowledge infrastructure (including appropriate human skills), in...
Article
The most important issue for development centres on the debate about the centrality of knowledge, technology and innovation to the process of economic development. While this much is broadly agreed, what is at issue is the precise mechanics of overcoming economic development challenges in different contexts. At the heart of it all is about how econ...
Chapter
The development of biotechnology in Kenya over the last two decades reflects a steady transition from traditional, low-end biotechnologies such as fermentation, bio-fertilizers, and tissue culture techniques (Odame et al., 2003) towards more sophisticated, modern techniques and applications comprising the use of molecular markers, novel vaccines, d...
Chapter
This book presents the findings of a multi-year study of the agricultural system of biotechnology across six countries in Asia and Africa. The basic proposition of the study that informs the book was applied across all countries. The key questions were framed to expose what those countries in the catch-up phase require to build and sustain a compet...
Chapter
In this short and final chapter, our aim is not to lay out detailed policy recommendations for different contexts and actors but rather to call attention to the broad underlying issues that can be used to frame policy. Evidently, the challenges related to catching up in biotechnology application in order to resolve the food crisis and poverty in th...
Chapter
Malaysia is an example of a fast follower in our framework in terms of its general performance and innovation indicators. With a third of its economy still dependent on agriculture and natural resources, Malaysia has recognized that biotechnology will enhance the productivity of the sector while creating new opportunities for the emergence of new i...
Chapter
This chapter re-examines the key findings and perspectives arising out of the country case studies analysed within the sectoral systems of innovation framework that we coded in terms of innovation capacity in latecomer economies. The four country experiences for biotechnology capacity sketch out the complex landscape of both hope and distress for f...
Chapter
Agriculture has been a major contributor to the Nigeria’s economy, accounting for about 40% of gross domestic product (GDP) and employing about 60% of the work force. However, since 1973 the economy has been highly dependent on the oil sector, which by 2006 accounted for 70–80% of government revenues, over 90% of export earnings, and 25% of GDP, (C...
Chapter
The development of modern biotechnology in Vietnam can be dated to 1994, when according to a government Resolution 18/CP,1 biotechnology was targeted as one of the country’s sectoral priorities in terms of scientific research for the period of 1995–2010. According to this resolution, biotechnology is considered an essential prerequisite to achieve...
Chapter
The shift from the previous conception of knowledge production and use as something originating exclusively out of research and development (R&D) has been gradually replaced with the conception of knowledge utilization as the building of a national and sectoral innovation system. In this book, we adopt the concept of innovation capacity to describe...
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This paper analyses the main institutional mechanisms that foster the emergence and performance of firms in knowledge-intensive sectors in developing countries. We use the empirical data collected in 2005 and 2006 in the South African computer hardware and software sectors and the Malaysian computer hardware sector to illustrate the linkages betwee...
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Traditional medicinal knowledge and related innovations are deeply embedded within the context of knowledge use and exchange of health services in developing countries. Traditional medicine systems cater to the health needs of a majority of people in the developing world, and there is a clear link between such practice and feedback innovations base...
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The impact of patent protection on biomedical innovation has been a controversial issue. Although a 'medical anti-commons' has been predicted as a result of a proliferation of patents on upstream technologies, evidence to test these concerns is only now emerging. However, most industrial surveys that shed light on this issue are mainly from develop...
Article
Using field-level data collected in Nigeria in 2003-04, this paper examines the possibilities for learning through inter-organisational interactions in biotechnological systems of innovation, using public research institutes as an example. The paper considers interactions to be all forms of formal and informal linkages and contacts between various...
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The global pharmaceutical sector is highly patent intensive, and firms rely on product, process and formulation patents to protect their innovations. Intellectual property rights on pharmaceutical products, as contained in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (hereafter, the TRIPS Agreement) have been defended on g...
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The year 2005 marks the end of transition period for many developing countries with competent pharmaceutical sectors that competed in supplying generic versions of patented drugs to LDCs before, thereby inducing price competition and enhancing access to medicines. In a post-2005 scenario, the critical issue is whether LDCs without adequate manufact...
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The Indian pharmaceutical industry is presently going through a phase of transition and potential consolidation, owing to India's new TRIPS-compliant intellectual property regime and other rules aimed at enhancing the industry's credibility nationally and internationally. Appropriate policy interventions can play a large role in cushioning the tran...
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Translating R&D and inventive efforts into a market product is characterized by significant financial skills, and the ability to overcome technical and instititonal barriers. Research into and translation of new technologies such as biotechnology products to the market requires even greater resources. This paper aims to understand the key factors t...
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Full-text available
The impact of patent protection on biomedical innovation has been a controversial issue. Although a “medical anti-commons” has been predicted due to a proliferation of patents on upstream technologies, evidence to test these concerns is only now emerging. However, most industrial surveys that shed light on this issue are mainly from developed count...
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Full-text available
Competitive processes that dominate new-economy industries in many sectors centre on the protection of R&D efforts through intellectual property rights, and on resulting technological change (Evans et al, 2002). The pharmaceutical industry, although one such industry, confronts us with a plethora of issues that run far beyond shaping technological...
Article
Using field level data collected in Nigeria in 2003-2004, this paper examines the possibilities for learning through inter-organizational interactions in the country's biotechnological system of innovation, using public research institutes as an example. The paper considers inter-organizational interactions to be all forms of formal and informal li...
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The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops. This is generally attributed to two main reasons: intellectual property protection that has stimulated large investments in agricultural biotechnology (Cuffaro, 2002, p35) and increased profits for farmers accruing (Traxler et al, 1999; Falck-Zepeda, Traxl...
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The focus of this paper is to find an operative definition of traditional knowledge for purposes of drug research and development. Starting out with the international debate on Art. 8(j) of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1993 and the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, 1995, it argues that the critical eleme...
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The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects on Intellectual Property Rights, 1995, has introduced several mandatory changes to patent protection on pharmaceuticals that can affect health care and delivery in developing countries. The potential detrimental impacts of such IPR protection raise three major concerns for developing countries in the area of p...
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This paper captures the political economy of technology transfer negotiations since the 1960s to address two key questions. The first question is whether the debates cater to country level technological needs in developing countries. To find answers to this, the paper critically reviews the progress made in understanding the role of technology and...
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"Advancing the discussion on the interface between access regimes and intellectual property rights requires focus on questions of legal and institutional design at the national level, and calls for positioning of bioprospecting strategically within broader challenges in the area of intellectual property protection, drug R&D, and public health."
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Innovation has been recognized as a major source of modern productivity growth and constitutes a central process of economic advance in the present advanced industrial and in the most recent past as well, in the more dynamic developing countries. Current understanding shows that it is a social process shaped by institutional structures in which the...
Article
The United Nations University Institute for New Technologies (UNU/INTECH) and the National Biotechnology Development Agency (NABDA) of the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology are preparing to undertake a study of the biopharmaceutical innovation system in Nigeria. This grant will support a 2-day workshop in Nigeria for the local research tea...
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About the book: Sustaining the new bioeconomy requires a global biotechnology governance regime to bring a large number of developing countries into the global trading system. Failure to do so will create a €genetic divide€ among countries and is likely to intensify public opposition to biotechnology. This unique interdisciplinary collection of per...
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Presented at the GLOBELICS 6th International Conference 2008 22-24 September, Mexico City, Mexico.

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