Pablo Cesar

Pablo Cesar
Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica | CWI

About

303
Publications
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2,717
Citations

Publications

Publications (303)
Article
Full-text available
Fuelled by the increase in popularity of virtual and augmented reality applications, point clouds have emerged as a popular 3D format for acquisition and rendering of digital humans, thanks to their versatility and real-time capabilities. Due to technological constraints and real-time rendering limitations, however, the visual quality of dynamic po...
Preprint
Full-text available
Remote communication has rapidly become a part of everyday life in both professional and personal contexts. However, popular video conferencing applications present limitations in terms of quality of communication, immersion and social meaning. VR remote communication applications offer a greater sense of co-presence and mutual sensing of emotions...
Article
Full-text available
Social VR enables people to interact over distance with others in real-time. It allows remote people, typically represented as avatars, to communicate and perform activities together in a shared virtual environment, extending the capabilities of traditional social platforms like Facebook and Netflix. This paper explores the benefits and drawbacks p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Visualizing biosignals can be important for social Virtual Reality (VR), where avatar non-verbal cues are missing. While several biosignal representations exist, designing effective visualizations and understanding user perceptions within social VR entertainment remains unclear. We adopt a mixed-methods approach to design biosignals for social VR e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fuelled by the increase in popularity of virtual and augmented reality applications, point clouds have emerged as a popular 3D format for acquisition and rendering of digital humans, thanks to their versatility and real-time capabilities. Due to technological constraints and real-time rendering limitations, however, the visual quality of dynamic po...
Article
Instead of predicting just one emotion for one activity (e.g., video watching), fine-grained emotion recognition enables more temporally precise recognition. Previous works on fine-grained emotion recognition require segment-by-segment, fine-grained emotion labels to train the recognition algorithm. However, experiments to collect these labels are...
Article
Fine-grained emotion recognition can model the temporal dynamics of emotions, which is more precise than predicting one emotion retrospectively for an activity (e.g., video clip watching). Previous works require large amounts of continuously annotated data to train an accurate recognition model, how- ever experiments to collect such large amounts o...
Preprint
Full-text available
This work focuses on enabling user-centric immersive systems, in which every aspect of the coding-delivery-rendering chain is tailored to the interactive users. Understanding the actual interactivity and behaviour of those users is still an open challenge and a key step to enable such a user-centric system. Our main goal is to enable user behaviour...
Preprint
Full-text available
With the increasing popularity of extended reality technology and the adoption of depth-enhanced visual data in information exchange and telecommunication systems, point clouds have emerged as a promising 3D imaging modality. Similarly to other types of content representations, visual quality predictors for point cloud data are vital for a wide ran...
Article
Watching 360 videos using Virtual Reality (VR) head-mounted displays (HMDs) provides interactive and immersive experiences, where videos can evoke different emotions. Existing emotion self-report techniques within VR however are either retrospective or interrupt the immersive experience. To address this, we introduce the Continuous Physiological an...
Preprint
Full-text available
We introduce HUMAN4D, a large and multimodal 4D dataset that contains a variety of human activities simultaneously captured by a professional marker-based MoCap, a volumetric capture and an audio recording system. By capturing 2 female and $2$ male professional actors performing various full-body movements and expressions, HUMAN4D provides a divers...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Thanks to recent advances in computer graphics, wearable technology, and connectivity, Virtual Reality (VR) has landed in our daily life. A key novelty in VR is the role of the user, which has turned from merely passive to entirely active. Thus, improving any aspect of the coding-delivery-rendering chain starts with the need for understanding user...
Article
Full-text available
Recently an impressive development in immersive technologies, such as Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR) and 360 video, has been witnessed. However, methods for quality assessment have not been keeping up. This paper studies quality assessment of 360 video from the cross-lab tests (involving ten laboratories and more than 300 participants...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Inferring emotions from Head Movement (HM) and Eye Movement (EM) data in 360° Virtual Reality (VR) can enable a low-cost means of improving users’ Quality of Experience. Correlations have been shown between retrospective emotions and HM, as well as EM when tested with static 360° images. In this early work, we investigate the relationship between m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Precise emotion ground truth labels for 360° virtual reality (VR) video watching are essential for fine-grained predictions under varying viewing behavior. However, current annotation techniques either rely on post-stimulus discrete self-reports, or real-time, continuous emotion annotations (RCEA) but only for desktop/mobile settings. We present RC...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social VR enables people to interact over distance with others in real-time. It allows remote people, typically represented as avatars, to communicate and perform activities together in a join shared virtual environment, extending the capabilities of traditional social platforms like Facebook and Netflix. This paper explores the benefits and drawba...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Head-mounted displays (HMDs) are an essential display device for the observation of virtual reality (VR) environments. However, HMDs obstruct external capturing methods from recording the user's upper face. This severely impacts social VR applications, such as teleconferencing, which commonly rely on external RGB-D sensors to capture a volumetric r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Virtual environments (VEs) can create collaborative and social spaces, which are increasingly important in the face of remote work and travel reduction. Recent advances, such as more open and widely available platforms, create new possibilities to observe and analyse interaction in VEs. Using a custom instrumented build of Mozilla Hubs to measure p...
Article
Full-text available
Recognizing user emotions while they watch short-form videos anytime and anywhere is essential for facilitating video content customization and personalization. However, most works either classify a single emotion per video stimuli, or are restricted to static, desktop environments. To address this, we propose a correlation-based emotion recognitio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the increasing availability of head-mounted displays (HMDs) that show immersive 360 • VR content, it is important to understand to what extent these immersive experiences can evoke emotions. Typically to collect emotion ground truth labels, users rate videos through post-experience self-reports that are discrete in nature. However, post-stimul...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Voice is a rich modality for conveying emotions, however emotional prosody production can be situationally or medically impaired. Since thermal displays have been shown to evoke emotions, we explore how thermal stimulation can augment perception of neutrally-spoken voice messages with affect. We designed ThermalWear, a wearable on-chest thermal dis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Collecting accurate and precise emotion ground truth labels for mobile video watching is essential for ensuring meaningful predictions. However, video-based emotion annotation techniques either rely on post-stimulus discrete self-reports, or allow real-time, continuous emotion annotations (RCEA) only for desktop settings. Following a user-centric a...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce HUMAN4D, a large and multimodal 4D dataset that contains a variety of human activities simultaneously captured by a professional marker-based MoCap, a volumetric capture and an audio recording system. By capturing 2 female and 2 male professional actors performing various full-body movements and expressions, HUMAN4D provides a diverse...
Article
Point cloud representation has seen a surge of popularity in recent years, thanks to its capability to reproduce volumetric scenes in immersive scenarios. New compression solutions for streaming of point cloud contents have been proposed, which require objective quality metrics to reliably assess the level of degradation introduced by coding and tr...
Conference Paper
We uncover how geographically distributed players of tabletop role-playing games engage narrative, ludic, and social aspects of play. Our existing understandings of tabletop role-playing games are centered around co-located play on physical tabletops. Yet, online play is increasingly popular. We interviewed 14 players, experienced with online virtu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To recognize emotions using less obtrusive wearable sensors, we present a novel emotion recognition method that uses only pupil diameter (PD) and skin conductance (SC). Psychological studies show that these two signals are related to the attention level of humans exposed to visual stimuli. Based on this, we propose a feature extraction algorithm th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Biometric techniques can help make vehicles safer to drive, authenticate users, and provide personalized in-car experiences. However, it is unclear to what extent users are willing to trade their personal biometric data for such benefits. In this early work, we conducted an open card sorting study (N=11) to better understand how well users perceive...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Current techniques for tracking sleep are either obtrusive (Polysomnography) or low in accuracy (wearables). In this early work, we model a sleep classification system using an unobtrusive Ballistocardiographic (BCG)-based heart sensor signal collected from a commercially available pressure-sensitive sensor sheet. We present DeepSleep, a hybrid dee...
Conference Paper
Millions of photos are shared online daily, but the richness of interaction compared with face-to-face (F2F) sharing is still missing. While this may change with social Virtual Reality (socialVR), we still lack tools to measure such immersive and interactive experiences. In this paper, we investigate photo sharing experiences in immersive environme...
Conference Paper
While traditional live-broadcasting is typically comprised of a handful of well-defined workflows, these become insufficient when targeting multiple screens and interactive companion devices on the viewer side. In this case study, we describe the development of an end-to-end system enabling immersive and interactive experiences using an object-base...
Article
A new editorial team has committed to lead the ACM SIGMM Records since the issue of January 2017. The goal is to consolidate the Records as a primary source of information and a communication vehicle for the multimedia community. With these objectives in mind, the Records were re-organized around three main categories (Open Science, Information, an...
Article
Due to the increased popularity of augmented and virtual reality experiences, the interest in capturing the real world in multiple dimensions and in presenting it to users in an immersible fashion has never been higher. Distributing such representations enables users to freely navigate in multi-sensory 3D media experiences. Unfortunately, such repr...
Conference Paper
This paper examines the document aspects of object-based broadcasting. Object-based broadcasting augments traditional video and audio broadcast content with additional (temporally-constrained) media objects. The content of these objects -- as well as their temporal validity -- are determined by the broadcast source, but the actual rendering and pla...
Conference Paper
As Virtual Reality (VR) applications gain more momentum recently, the social and communication aspects of VR experiences become more relevant. In this paper, we present some initial results of understanding the type of applications and factors that users would find relevant for Social VR. We conducted a study involving 91 participants, and identifi...
Conference Paper
Multiscreen TV viewing refers to a spectrum of media productions that can be watched on TV screens and companion screens (e.g., smartphones and tablets). TV production companies are now promoting an interactive and engaging way of viewing TV by offering tailored applications for TV programs. However, viewers are demotivated to install dozens of app...
Conference Paper
Mobile networks, especially LTE networks, are used more and more for high-bandwidth services like multimedia or video streams. The quality of the data connection plays a major role in the perceived quality of a service. Videos may be presented in a low quality or experience a lot of stalling events, when the connection is too slow to buffer the nex...
Article
Full-text available
In desktop multi-party video-conferencing videostreams of participants are delivered in different qualities, but we know little about how such composition of the screen affects the quality of experience. Do the different videostreams serve as indirect quality references and the perceived video quality is thus dependent on other streams in the same...
Conference Paper
This paper reflects on the development of a multi-sensory clubbing experience which was deployed during a two-day event within the context of the Amsterdam Dance Event in October 2016 in Amsterdam. We present how the entire experience was developed end-to-end and deployed at the event through the collaboration of several project partners from indus...
Chapter
Media synchronization is a core research area in multimedia systems. This chapter introduces the area by providing key definitions, classifications, and examples. It also discusses the relevance of different types of media synchronization to ensure satisfactory Quality of Experience (QoE) levels and highlights their necessity, by comparing the magn...