Pablo Briñol

Pablo Briñol
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid | UAM · Social and Methodological Psychology

PhD

About

224
Publications
184,431
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9,718
Citations
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January 2000 - present
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (224)
Article
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Background: The present study analyzes how attitudes can polarize after reminders of death in the context of persuasion, and proposes that a meta-cognitive process (i.e., self-validation) can serve as a compensatory coping mechanism to deal with mortality salience. Method: Participants were first asked to read either a strong or a weak resume of...
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The present research examined the role of metacognitive confidence in understanding to what extent people’s valenced thoughts guide their performance in academic settings. First, students were asked to engage in positive or negative thinking about exams in their major area of study (Study 1) or about themselves (Studies 2 and 3). The valence of the...
Article
Self-validation theory (SVT) is introduced and presented as a series of six postulates. The core notion of SVT is that thoughts become more consequential for judgment and action as the perceived validity of the thoughts is increased. Instead of focusing on the objective accuracy of thoughts, self-validation research focuses on a subjective sense th...
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This article unpacks the basic mechanisms by which paralinguistic features communicated through the voice can affect evaluative judgments and persuasion. Special emphasis is placed on exploring the rapidly emerging literature on vocal features linked to appraisals of confidence (e.g., vocal pitch, intonation, speech rate, loudness, etc.), and their...
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Background: The Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS) was originally designed to help predicting pornography consumption. Despite the frequency with which this scale is used in the scientific literature, there is still relatively little evidence regarding the predictive validity of this important instrument. This current research introduces a c...
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We report seven studies that introduce and validate two unique aspects of evaluation that supplement the original Need to Evaluate (NE) scale (Jarvis & Petty, 1996). Whereas the original scale focused on the tendency to have attitudes, the two new scales focus on the tendencies to learn and express attitudes. Although the new scales are correlated...
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This research examined the effect of perceived elaboration on the relationship between attitudes and prosocial behavior. Study 1 revealed that group fusion was more predictive of pro-group behavior (donation to in-group members) when perceived elaboration was high rather than low. In Study 2, attitudes toward helping were more likely to guide proso...
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The successful impact of healthy eating campaigns often depends on the extent to which messages are effective in changing attitudes and behaviors over time. The present work proposes that healthy eating campaigns can be designed taking into consideration elaboration and validation processes so that the degree of attitude change is maximally influen...
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Practitioners and researchers interested in designing wise interventions often recommend increasing personal involvement to be successful. Early research demonstrated that personal involvement increases elaboration leading to more persuasion for strong arguments, but to reduced persuasion if the arguments presented are specious. In most prior work,...
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People often form attitudes based on a mixture of positive and negative information. This can result in mixed evaluative reactions that are associated with feeling conflicted and undecided (i.e., felt ambivalence). In the present research, we examined whether expectations of receiving mixed information could dampen felt ambivalence compared to situ...
Article
The present research demonstrates for the first time that the very same emotion can influence information processing and persuasion depending on the appraisal of the emotion that is highlighted. Across studies, we predicted and found that anger, surprise, and awe can each lead to relatively higher or lower levels of information processing depending...
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Cleansing (separation) inductions reduce the impact of negative and positive reactions, whereas connection manipulations magnify them. We suggest that grounded procedures can produce these effects by affecting the perceived validity of thoughts. In accord with the self-validation theory, we also note the importance of considering how moderators, su...
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The current research demonstrates that posting online reviews can influence the evaluations of the individual posting the review. Across four studies, we examine the impact of individuals’ naive theories about the meaning of their own posting on subsequent attitudes. In these experiments, individuals were assigned to write either positive or negati...
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Identity fusion is a strong feeling of connectedness that is capable of predicting willingness to self‐sacrifice. The current research explores whether considering the extremity of the situation improves the ability of identity fusion to predict willingness to engage in life self‐sacrifice. Participants first reported their level of identity fusion...
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This research provides a novel analysis of the impact of hope and hopelessness on judgment, examining how they influence the use of judgment‐relevant thoughts. Hope and hopelessness are two ends of an emotional continuum for which the confidence and pleasantness appraisals are mismatched. That is, hope is appraised as a pleasant state that is assoc...
Article
One of the most reliable and impactful methods for enhancing a persuasive appeal is to match an aspect of the proposal (i.e., its content, source, or the setting in which it is delivered) to an aspect of the consumer receiving it. This personalized matching in persuasion (also called tailoring, targeting, customizing, or personalizing) comprises a...
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Some political attitudes and opinions shift and fluctuate over time whereas others remain fairly stable. Prior research on attitude strength has documented several features of attitudes that predict their temporal stability. The present analysis focuses on two of them: attitudinal ambivalence and certainty. Each of these variables has received mixe...
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It is well established that the physical attractiveness of the source of a message can influence recipients' attitudes about the message proposal. The current research is the first to examine if attractiveness is also capable of affecting attitude confidence and resistance to change. Experiment 1 revealed that an attractive source decreased recipie...
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The present research shows that preparedness increases reliance on thoughts irrelevant to the domain of preparation. In Study 1, participants wrote positive or negative thoughts about a tuition increase proposal. Next, participants were primed with words related to preparedness or positive control words and reported their evaluations of the initial...
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The certainty with which people hold their attitudes is an important consideration because attitudes held with certainty better predict judgment and behavior than attitudes held with doubt. However, little is known about whether people's assessments of their certainty reflect a disposition to hold attitudes with confidence. Adapting methods used to...
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Can people improve their lives by smiling more, trying to have a better posture, and by thinking about good memories? Can individuals become more successful by deliberatively engaging in positive actions and thoughts? Do people feel better by following recommendations from naïve psychology? In the present article we discuss these questions, noting...
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This research finds evidence for reliable individual differences in people’s perceived attitude stability that predict the actual stability of their attitudes over time. Study 1 examines the reliability and factor structure of an 11-item Personal Attitude Stability Scale (PASS). Study 2 establishes test–retest reliability for the PASS over a 5-week...
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Attitudes toward hiring people with disabilities are becoming critical for promoting diversity and egalitarianism within organizations. The few interventions designed to promote positive attitudes toward people with disabilities have relied on changing either the direction and/or the amount of thoughts people generate with regard to this discrimina...
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Background: Healthy eating campaigns are not always successful in changing food-related attitudes. Even when interventions produce the desired outcomes in attitudes, it is often challenging to translate those psychological changes into subsequent behaviors. Previous research has shown that elaboration (amount of thinking) is a critical construct f...
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We review work from persuasion science relevant to reducing prejudiced attitudes. We begin by introducing the idea that the thoughts people generate – their number and valence – are critical for understanding when responding to persuasive attempts will result in egalitarian attitudes. A focus on thinking highlights the importance of understanding s...
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Studies on bias correction have often used blatant inductions to motivate people to reduce the mental impact of perceived biases. In the current research, we test a relatively unexplored, subtle way of inducing bias correction based on the activation of different calculative mindsets. Across two studies, participants were exposed to an advertisemen...
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The main goal of this introductory article is to provide an overview of some of the main empirical illustrations relevant to the psychology of separating from one’s thoughts. Separating from our own thoughts often involves thinking about our own thoughts (meta-cognition). We describe meta-cognitive processes relevant to how individuals calibrate an...
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Identity fusion is a powerful feeling of connectedness to one’s group. The current research explores whether measuring certainty in identity fusion improves its ability to predict extreme pro-group outcomes. Across three studies, participants reported their level of identity fusion with their country and their certainty in responses to the scale (p...
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This research introduces a new approach for separating people from their thoughts by anticipating selling them to others. Participants were asked to write down either positive or negative thoughts about fast food on different pieces of paper. Then, participants were randomly assigned to role-play the part of either potential buyers or sellers for a...
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The present research´s main goal is to find out how one responds to the organizational context and the candidate profile in a job candidate evaluation context. With that purpose, we ran an experiment with a sample of participants trained in personnel selection. Participants first received a message in which it was specified that the future of a giv...
Chapter
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The history of attitudes research can be organized into three main sections covering attitude definition and measurement, attitude-behavior relationships, and attitude change. First, an evaluation of the history of attitude measurement reveals three relatively distinct phases: an early phase in which the classic direct self-report procedures were d...
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This article describes the basic mechanisms by which the nonverbal behavior of a communicator can influence recipients’ attitudes and persuasion. We review the literature on classic variables related to persuasive sources (e.g., physical attractiveness, credibility, and power), as well as research on mimicry and facial expressions of emotion, and b...
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Research on self-talk has found that what athletes say to themselves influences their performance in sport settings. This experiment analyzed the relationship between positive and negative self-talk and physical performance in light of another variable: overt head movements. Participants were randomly assigned to first generate and then listen to e...
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Research on aggression has benefitted from using individual‐difference measures to predict aggressive behavior. Research on meta‐cognition has recently identified that the predictive utility of individual‐difference inventories can be improved by considering the certainty with which people hold their self‐views. Merging these two frameworks, the pr...
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Placebo effects are the measurable psychological, biological, and behavioral changes that can result from expecting a treatment to be effective. Here we argue that not all expectations are created equally and there is much to learn by clarifying the psychological processes that underlie the expectations that cause placebo effects. It is proposed th...
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Identity fusion is capable of predicting pro-group behaviors. We examine how strongly fused individuals react when they learn the motivations driving other strongly fused individuals’ pro-group behaviors. Three studies were conducted in two countries (Spain and USA). Results showed an attenuation effect in their willingness to fight and die for in-...
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Positive emotions can validate either positive or negative thoughts. Previous research has demonstrated that people use their thoughts more when they recall past episodes of happiness and when they are induced to smile. This study was designed to evaluate whether a new induction of a happy mood (a joke) can influence thought use in response to a pe...
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Three experiments examined whether perceiving thoughts as coming from internal versus external origins are more impactful on attitudes. Participants generated either positive or negative thoughts about different attitude objects, including different diets, and plastic surgery. Then, participants were induced to think that their thoughts came from t...
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Anger, disgust, surprise, and awe are multifaceted emotions. Both anger and disgust are associated with feeling unpleasant as well as experiencing a sense of confidence, whereas surprise and awe tend to be more pleasant emotions that are associated with doubt. Most prior work has examined how appraisals (confidence, pleasantness) lead people to exp...
Article
This research examines whether varying the number of words in which thoughts are expressed can influence subsequent evaluations. Across six studies, keeping the number of thoughts constant, we tested to what extent the length of the thoughts, the personal importance of the topic, and the extent of practice in short versus long thought expression in...
Chapter
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Placebo effects, or positive outcomes resulting from expectations about a treatment, are powerful components of modern medical care. In this chapter, we suggest that our understanding of placebo effects may benefit from more explicitly connecting this phenomenon to the existing empirical psychological literature on persuasion. Persuasion typically...
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Background: This research explores the extent to which attitudes towards an environmentally-friendly topic (a green company) are affected by a “tip of the tongue” (TOT) experience. Method: In this experiment, participants were first exposed to a description of a green company that elicited mostly positive or negative thoughts. As part of an appa...
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We review research showing that the meaning of physical actions matters, that meaning can vary, and that the key element of meaning to affect judgments is the perceived validity of the thoughts. This article first describes studies on embodied persuasion for which changing the meaning of a behavior also changes the effect of that behavior on attitu...
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The present review focuses on how power-as a perception regarding the self, the source of the message, or the message itself-affects persuasion. Contemporary findings suggest that perceived power can increase or decrease persuasion depending on the circumstances and thus might result in both short-term and long-term consequences for behavior. Given...
Article
Recent work suggests that in addition to actual attitudes, people often have desired attitudes that can vary in their congruence with their actual attitudes. We explored whether desired attitudes motivate goal-congruent outcomes by impacting people's evaluative responses over the effects of actual attitudes. Across four studies, we demonstrated tha...
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Many objectification phenomena can be understood from a mind-body dualism perspective in which the more people focus on their bodies, the less they focus on their minds. Instead of viewing mind and body in opposition to each other, we advocate for a more reciprocal view in which mind and body work in conjunction. Consistent with an integrated mind-...
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Resumen: La formación empresarial no siempre consigue los objetivos deseados. Con el propósito de evaluar este problema, el presente estudio examinó en qué medida el rendimiento y la satisfacción en una tarea de formación en idiomas podían cambiar en función del foco regulatorio con el que se afronta dicha tarea. Se manipuló sutilmente el enfoque c...
Article
Training programs are not always successful in achieving desired goals. In order to address this issue, the present research examined the extent to which performance and satisfaction in a language training task could change as a function of regulatory focus for task coping. The approach with which employees from a large company addressed the traini...
Article
Past research has shown that individuals low in prejudice think more carefully when information is from or about stigmatized individuals than non-stigmatized individuals. One explanation for this effect is that the heightened scrutiny stems from a motivation to guard against potential prejudice toward stigmatized others (i.e. “watchdog motivation”)...
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Past research has shown that exposure to aggression is associated with more negative responses toward others and also toward the self. In the present research, we argue that aggressive priming not only influences the content of thoughts (primary cognition) but also can influence how people think about their thoughts (secondary or meta-cognition) un...
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Research has shown that people who feel powerful are more likely to act than those who feel powerless, whereas people who feel ambivalent are less likely to act than those whose reactions are univalent (entirely positive or entirely negative). But what happens when powerful people also are ambivalent? On the basis of the self-validation theory of j...
Article
Prior research has shown that self-reported moral bases of people's attitudes predict a range of important consequences, including attitude-relevant behavior and resistance in the face of social influence. Although previous studies typically rely on self-report measures of such bases, the present research tests the possibility that people can be in...
Article
Introduction.-Many efforts are invested in promoting healthy attitudes and behaviors; nonetheless there is no clear, definitive evidence of sustained effectiveness of those efforts in all cases. Objective.-The present study examined the role of perceived attention in changing attitudes toward vegetable consumption as well as the perceived stability...
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This research indicates that a critical factor for understanding the success or failure of anti-violence campaigns is the aggressiveness of the target audience. We propose that person and situation interact in predicting post-intervention attitudes toward violence, fighting expectations, and intentions to learn how to use real guns. Across two stud...
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The ability of attitudinal ambivalence and certainty to individually predict an attitude's stability over time has received mixed support. We proposed that ambivalence and certainty moderate one another's relationship with temporal attitude stability. That is, we hypothesized an interaction between these two attitude strength variables to predict s...
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Self-Monitoring (SM) is a concept that refers to individual differences in this orientation toward regulation of social behavior. The goal of the present research was to provide a Spanish adaptation of Snyder and Gangestad's (1986) Revised SM Scale. After conducting an initial pilot study, results showed that the Spanish version of the scale had go...
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We argue that a person’s identity can be changed by seemingly irrelevant primes to the point where one expects to be treated as a member of an activated social group. We further argue that primes should only influence the self to the extent that they are seen as valid. We experimentally manipulated conditions that foster perceptions of prime validi...
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The successful impact of health campaigns often depends on the extent to which interventions are effective in changing attitudes. The goal of the present research was to examine to what extent the ease adolescents experience in generating thoughts can influence persuasion in the domain of a health-relevant topic. Method: Participants were asked to...
Article
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This article examines the effect of the presence of a negation within a rhetorical question (RQ) on attitude change. Previous research has shown that a rhetorical format can affect people's evaluations, but has not examined to what extent the format within the RQ can change attitudes. With the main goal of addressing this gap, participants in this...
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This review describes two core processes involved in understanding how attitudes are structured and changed. Elaboration refers to the extent to which people think carefully or in a more cursory manner about messages and validation refers to the extent to which people see their thoughts and attitudes resulting from messages as correct or not. Elabo...
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Ambivalence, the presence of positive and negative reactions toward an object, typically involves the subjective experience of conflict. We investigate the role that the perceived validity of each side of an ambivalent attitude plays in producing subjective ambivalence (SA). Consistent with the metacognitive model of attitudes, we demonstrated that...
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Consumers have knowledge about persuasion that includes naïve theories about persuasion. The present work examines naïve theories with regard to whether consumers associate the meaning of persuasion as something that is either good or bad. Furthermore, naïve theories about persuasion are demonstrated to affect how consumers respond to a persuasive...