# P.A. ApanasevichStepanov Institut of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus · Laboratory of Nonlinear Optics

P.A. Apanasevich

academicion, doktor of physics and mathematics

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234

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## Publications

Publications (234)

Herein, on the basis of expressions for the refractive indices of isonormal waves, the possibility of performing collinear phase matching for optical parametric generation in arbitrary directions of a biaxial KTA crystal under pumping by radiation of a YAG:Nd laser is analyzed. The tuning curves that determine the tuning range of the signal and idl...

Dependences of the resonance SRS efficiency on the pump radiation and medium scattering centers were theoretically analyzed. It was shown that this efficiency cannot be significant because the pump radiation and Stokes components were highly absorbed.

Multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes satellites were observed in the spectra of stimulated parametric Raman scattering of light in liquids and crystals when excited by picosecond laser pulses of a YAG: Nd ³⁺ solid-state laser with generation wavelengths of 1064 and 532 nm. The Stokes combination satellites of the infrared range were detected as a result...

Nonlinear refraction in a number of crystals (KGW, KGW:Eu³⁺, Ba(NO3)2, BaWO4, PbMoO4, and CdWO4) that are promising for excitation of multifrequency stimulated Raman scattering is investigated by a single-beam Z-scan method. Picosecond laser pulses with a wavelength of 1064 nm generated by a YAG:Nd³⁺ laser were used for excitation of nonlinear opti...

A system of equations describing stimulated resonance and spontaneous Raman scattering considering radiation impacts on scattering-center level populations was derived. The contribution of the resonant transition to the Raman gain coefficient was analyzed in the simplest case as a function of the resonance mismatch.

We have developed a theory for a two-photon transition when the frequencies of the absorbed or emitted radiation are in resonance with transitions to the same intermediate level in the medium. We have determined the conditions under which such resonant two-photon transitions can play an important role.

A system of equations is constructed for the power of the Stokes components generated individually or simultaneously by a steady-state Raman laser. Examples of lasing in one, two, or three components are used to show that these equations can be used in a simple way to optimize the operation of this type of laser system.

Gain spectrum for a diffraction-free solution of the steady-state paraxial wave equation for the Stokes amplitude is shown to be frequency-asymmetric relative to an exact Raman resonance. The asymmetry is directly related to a light guiding originated due to Raman-induced change of the refractive index and imprinted in the Stokes far field. The ind...

A simple method for optimizing the parameters of ring optical parametric generator cavities is proposed. Expressions describing the threshold and efficiency of continuous wave generation as functions of the cavity parameters at the frequencies of the interacting waves are obtained. It is shown that the threshold is proportional to the product of th...

A simple method of accounting for transverse inhomogeneity of the pump and Stokes radiation beams in the description of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) using intensity-transfer equations for interacting beams is proposed. Features of the method are illustrated using the calculated dependences of the Raman laser efficiency on the output mirror ref...

A simple method is proposed for calculating the dependence of the Stokes radiation power of Raman lasers with external pulsed pumping on the cavity parameters. A relationship is obtained which defines the range of pump powers at which a laser system should generate only the first Stokes component. The dependence of this output on the reflectivity o...

The nonlinear optical properties of a number of vanadate crystals were studied using a single-beam Z-scan at 532 nm (with a picosecond Nd:YAG laser (YAG: yttrium aluminum garnet)). Both nonlinear refraction indices and nonlinear absorption coefficients were measured for the crystals. A substantial dependence of the nonlinear optical properties of t...

Relationships determining the dependence of sum-frequency CW generation (SFG) power in a SRS-laser on the pumping, active media, and resonators at the fundamental, Stokes, and SFG frequencies were obtained and analyzed for a wide range of their values. It was shown that even weak reflection of the generated radiation by the output mirror could sign...

The steady-state generation power of a Raman laser with Raman and laser media located inside a common cavity was calculated taking into account field inhomogeneities in the active media. Dependences of the laser and Stokes power on the cavity, active media, and pump parameters were derived and analyzed over a wide range of their values. Validity co...

The processes of transient Raman generation and Raman amplification in KGd(WO4)(2) (KGW) crystals pumped by laser pulses with the width of about 150 fs were studied experimentally. For excitation, Bessel beams were used. Gaussian beams of Stokes and laser radiation were used at amplification stage. Raman shifts of 768 or 901 cm(-1) were obtained de...

Comparative studies on SRS conversion of 1 kHz ultrashort laser pulses (0.9–1.2 ps) at 401 and 802 nm in circulated and non-circulated compressed methane and hydrogen were carried out in SRS generation (SRSG) and stimulated Raman amplification (SRA) modes. It was shown that circulation of the gases weakened substantially the thermal lens, which fac...

A method of calculation of continuous wave generation visible output power of solid state Raman laser was developed. The expressions for the power of second harmonic generation of the Stokes field and sum frequency generation of the Stokes and fundamental field as functions of pump power and other parameters of the laser system were obtained and an...

Analytical equations for the power of second-harmonic stationary generation or sum frequency mixing in a Raman laser with an intracavity nonlinear medium are developed and analyzed as functions of pumping mode and other parameters of the laser system. Parameter relationships providing the maximum output power and conditions for suppression of both...

We demonstrate a passively Q-switched all-solid-state laser system with intracavity Raman frequency conversion to the eye-safe spectral region. Laser oscillation at the 1.064 mm wavelength with a pulse repetition rate of several kilohertz was provided by a Nd:YAG crystal and a Cr:YAG passive absorber. Third Stokes oscillations at the 1.599 and 1.49...

We demonstrate the first quasi-CW (ms-long pulses, pump duty cycle of 10%)
end-diode pumped solid state laser generating eye-safe radiation via
intracavity Raman conversion. The output power at the first Stokes wavelength
(1524 nm) was 250 mW. A theoretical model was applied to analyze the laser
system and provide routes for optimization. The possi...

We report the measurements of the Raman gain coefficient for a barium nitrate crystal in the spectral region of a Ti:Sapphire laser using Raman amplification. The experimentally-obtained data are well described by the known empirical formula.

We used the single-beam Z-scan method, employing picosecond laser pulses with λ = 1064 nm, to measure the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption in vanadate crystals, which are promising for design of laser sources. We have established that there is practically no nonlinear absorption in these crystals in the near IR range and that dop...

The energy characteristics of externally pumped Raman lasers are calculated taking inhomogeneities in the active medium into account. Equations for the power and steady-state lasing threshold in these systems as function of the parameters of the cavity, pump, and Raman active medium are obtained over the entire ranges of their possible variations....

In this report, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, a compact all-solid-state passively Q-switched laser with three Stokes generation. The passive Q-switch operation of the longitudinal pumped Nd:YAG laser was obtained by using Cr:YAG saturated absorber. The intracavity Raman conversion scheme was modified by introduction of the ad...

The present report gives results on development of two Raman lasers with ring cavities. Both lasers use triangular architectures of a cavity with three plane mirrors and KGW crystals as active medium. Each cavity mirror has special spectral response providing optimal optical feedback at the 1st Stokes wavelength and low feedback at high-order Stoke...

Output power dependences of composite Nd3+:YVO4 Raman laser stationary generation on the longitudinal diode pump power are measured at different transmissions of the output
mirror at the Stokes radiation frequency. The deviation of the measured dependences from linear is explained by the influence
of thermal effects on both the overlap of the beams...

a b s t r a c t A self-mode-locking at multiple Stokes generation in Raman lasers is reported. Trains of pulses with dura-tions of down to 50 ps each have been obtained. The reasons for the self-mode-locking have been inves-tigated numerically. Way to the further decreasing of pulse durations was formulated.

Efficient Raman lasers based on Ba(NO3)2 and KGd(WO4)2 crystals which produce nanosecond pulses with repetition rates of 1 and 4 kHz at 26 wavelengths between 280 and 1600 nm are
developed and studied. A maximum SRS conversion efficiency of 25% is obtained. It is found that the divergence of the beams
generated by the Raman laser can be significant...

A method is developed for calculating the power and lasing threshold for longitudinally pumped lasers with intracavity Raman
conversion. The theoretical analysis is based on equations for the powers of light beams in the cavity. Expressions for the
power and lasing threshold of a Raman laser with self-conversion as functions of the parameters of th...

The effect of the real part of the Raman suscep-tibility on the Stokes spectrum excited by Gaussian and Bessel beams is studied theoretically and experimentally. This part of the susceptibility is shown to be responsible for the increase in the overlap integral of the Stokes beam and the pump beam and, as a result, for the increase in the Raman amp...

Expressions defining the threshold and power of cw generation of a ring extracavity pumped Raman laser are derived from the equations for the power of Stokes radiation and pump beams in a scattering medium.

A spectral shift in the first Stokes generation band has been observed at stimulated Raman scattering in a Bessel light beam. Under nanosecond pulse excitation in barium nitrate crystal, the Stokes emission propagating along the Bessel beam axis has been found to be frequency shifted toward the blue side by 3.7 GHz with respect to the Stokes emissi...

We have studied the conditions resulting in maximum lowering of the excitation threshold for pulsed stimulated Raman (SRS) lasers. It has been shown theoretically that in order to achieve the lowest possible values of laser radiation pulse energy needed to excite lasing in SRS lasers, we need high reflection of the cavity mirrors and low losses at...

The medium susceptibility related to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is known to be a complex value whose imaginary part
determines the SRS gain coefficient whereas the real part constitutes a small fraction of the refractive index at the frequencies
of the scattered emission that is proportional to the intensity of the exciting beam. Strong tran...

The first analysis is made of stimulated Raman scattering and two-photon absorption (emission) processes resulting in a change in the states of two colliding particles. These processes are caused the by interaction between dipole moments induced as a result of polarization of the particles by the radiation. Equations are derived to describe multiph...

An investigation is made of a higher-order distributed feedback which appears in a medium characterized by nonharmonic modulation of the parameters due to different radiation diffraction processes. The averaging method is used to obtain reduced equations for the amplitudes of opposite waves and expressions for the gain (absorption coefficient) as w...

An experimental investigation was made of the distribution of the energies of pulses of forward (concurrent) and backward first Stokes components of stimulated Raman scattering (STRS), and of pump (exciting) radiation pulses, transmitted by a scattering medium. The study was carried out under linear, intermediate, and nonlinear scattering condition...

The spectral mode representation of fields in the resonator is used to calculate temporal and spectral characteristics of pulses from an actively mode-locked laser with intracavity frequency doubling and feedback at the harmonic frequency. The calculation results agree qualitatively with experimental data. It is shown experimentally that phase effe...

Intracavity stimulated Raman scattering (STRS) in a cell containing compressed hydrogen
placed inside a ruby laser resonator with active mode locking was investigated using an additional
high-Q resonator locked to the frequency of the first Stokes component. A theoretical analysis of
the dynamics of intracavity STRS and of its influence on mode loc...

An investigation is made of intracavity second harmonic generation in activity mode-locked lasers. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the process of frequency conversion inside a laser resonator strongly influences the duration and shape of the fundamental-frequency radiation pulses. An improvement in the radiation conversion in an i...

A theoretical analysis is made of the transformation of light waves by optically induced amplitude-phase gratings of different order in a saturable absorbing medium. Allowance is made for gratings appearing; due to the absorption saturation and inhomogeneous heating of the medium. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the higher-order grating...

A wavefront reversal system is proposed for high-power optical radiation. This system is based on a resonant four-wave interaction without recourse to external pump waves. Stimulated scattering of the wave being reversed in a resonant medium placed inside a resonator creates two opposite pump waves and a parametric interaction between them generate...

It is shown that, in general, the interaction between relaxing quantum systems and radiation is described by non-Markov transport equations for the density matrix ρp and the relaxation matrix depends on the properties of the radiation. The usual Markov-type equations for ρp are obtained from these equations if γτc1 and (2+4V2)1/2τc1 (γ is the width...

An investigation is made of intracavity stimulated-Raman-scattering transformation in hydrogen filling an actively mode-locked laser. Reduced equations for the fields of the laser and Stokes waves and equations for the off-diagonal and diagonal elements of the density matrix of the scattering medium are derived. An allowance is made for the influen...

An investigation was made of intracavity generation of the second harmonic in a YAG:Nd3+
laser with active mode locking. Quasiperiodic dependences of the second harmonic energy on the
phase mismatch in a nonlinear crystal and on the position of this crystal in the resonator were
determined experimentally and theoretically. It was found that a laser...

Nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption in barium tungstate crystal which is widely used in Raman lasers is studied using the single-beam z-scan technique with 1ps laser pulses at 790 and 395nm. The nonlinear refraction-index intensity-coefficients at these wavelengths and two-photon absorption coefficient at 395nm have been determined for th...

High-repetition-pulse-rate nanosecond laser system is developed. It is based on Raman lasers with barium nitrate and KGW crystals. The minimum Raman threshold of laser generation corresponds to only 0.2-0.4 kW of peak pumping power. The laser system generates the radiation at 22 wavelengths in the 280-1600 nm spectral range with average powers from...

Lasers based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of light in crystals (Raman lasers) are promising sources of radiation in wide spectral region. Using such lasers, an efficient quasi-continuous wave (quasi-CW) laser system generating multi-wavelength radiation is developed. Laser system is based on a quasi-CW nanosecond lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser wi...

In this report we present the latest data on the development of continuous-wave solid-state Raman lasers and their first application. Data on experimental investigations of Raman conversion in the separate Raman laser (Raman medium is placed between mirrors) are compared with the results on intracavity Raman conversion (Raman medium is placed in th...

An efficient 1 kHz barium nitrate Raman laser excited with the second harmonic radiation of a lamp pumped Nd:YAG laser has been developed and its characteristics studied. The threshold of the Raman laser generation corresponds to only 0.4 kW of peak pumping power. The laser system generates 15 wavelength components in the 280 800 nm spectral range...

We show that effect of light-induced focusing of the low-frequency Raman scattering components and defocusing of the high-frequency
components in the field of a gaussian exciting beam lead to a slight shift of the enhanced Raman line relative to the center
of the spontaneous Raman line on the low-frequency side. We propose and provide a rationale f...

We present the studies of nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption in promising crystals which are extensively used in Raman lasers or as solid-state laser host materials: Ba(NO3)2, KGW, KYW, and KYbW. The single-beam z-scan technique with 1 ps laser pulses at 790 and 395 nm has been applied for the study. Nonlinear refraction-index intensity-...

We have studied stimulated Raman (SRS) conversion to the first Stokes component of multimode (M2 = 8) radiation from a YAG:Nd laser with lasing wavelengths of 1.319 µm, 1.338 µm, and 1.357 µm in a barium nitrate crystal.
We have obtained pulses of converted radiation with energies up to 120 mJ. We have achieved conversion efficiencies greater
than...

The experimental and theoretical investigations of a solid-state Raman laser operating in the continuous-wave regime are described. The Raman laser represents the single resonant cavity with a Raman crystal. The theoretically predicted operation threshold is in agreement with that observed experimentally. The Raman conversion efficiency of the Stok...

The spatial structure of Raman-converted radiation was investigated numerically and experimentally for the case when the pump is a conical beam produced by an axicone from multimode laser radiation. Both conical and axial Stokes beam generation was found to be possible. The improvement of the laser beam quality was demonstrated numerically and supp...

The result of experimental investigation of continuous-wave (CW) diode-pumped microchip and mini lasers with an intracavity Raman conversion in a set of crystals is presented. Self-frequency Raman conversion effect in Nd:KGW, Yb:KYW, Nd:YVO4, and Nd:BaWO4 media in these lasers has been demonstrated for the first time to our best knowledge. Diode pu...

In our work we report the first observation of self mode locking in a solid state Raman laser with a single frequency pumping. Two spherical mirrors formed the cavity for the Raman laser. The mirrors were highly reflective at required Stokes wavelength and wavelengths of lower Stokes components. We have observed self mode locking at second and four...

Threshold and energy characteristics of transient stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in high-pressure hydrogen are studied experimentally and theoretically. SRS is excited using the second-harmonic radiation (400 nm) of titanium-sapphire laser with a pulse duration of 2.5 ps and a repetition rate of 1 kHz. SRS conversion efficiencies into the first...

In the paraxial approximation, it has been shown that the quasi-stationary SRS amplification coefficient in the near-threshold region is determined by the product of the pump intensity in the beam center and the overlap integral of the transverse structure of the pump and the Stokes component. Expressions for the overlap integral and the scattering...

The statistical properties of the pulse energy of the transient stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) Stokes component in compressed hydrogen and methane are experimentally studied. SRS is pumped by a focused beam of the second harmonic radiation of a Ti:Sa laser with a pulse duration of 2.5 ps. The pulse energy distributions for the first and the seco...

Raman lasers on barium nitrate crystal pumped with the radiation of nanosecond LiF:F2 laser and its second harmonic have been developed and optimized. As a result, using simple and cheap all-solid-state laser technique the continuously tunable radiation of the first, second, and third Stokes components of stimulated Raman scattering of LiF laser ra...

Efficient sub-nanosecond pulse operation of microchip lasers with intracavity Raman conversion and pulse compression is presented
for the first time. The microchip lasers were composed of Nd:LSB or Nd:YAG laser crystals, Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber, and Ba(NO3)2 Raman medium. The pulse duration obtained at the Stokes wavelength (1196nm) was as shor...

Barium nitrate crystal are studied using one- and two-beam Z-scan
techniques by excitation with the second harmonic radiation of
nanosecond Nd:YAG laser and probing with the cw He:Ne laser. For the
first time, a thermal lens due to the dissipation of energy of the
SRS-excited Ag vibrational mode to the heat is observed and
measured.

Spectral characteristics of nonstationary stimulated Raman scattering in high-pressure hydrogen were investigated theoretically and experimentally with the use of frequency-doubled 2.5-ps Ti : sapphire laser pulses. Spectra of the axial and conical parts of parametrically generated first anti-Stokes and second Stokes components were thoroughly stud...

It is shown that, besides the previously predicted photon antibunching effect, photon bunching may occur in resonance fluorescence. This effect can be observed by measuring the time-delayed coincidences of photons from the side components of resonance fluorescence in a strong driving field.

A discussion on the development and status of laser physics in Belarus was presented. In a span of few years, laser research which began at the B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, spread to other institutions, such as the Electronics Institute, and the Institute of Solid-State and Semiconductor Physics. Prior to the fall of the Soviet Union, the re...

The high-power sources of eye-safe radiation are studied. They are based on nonlinear-optical conversion of the radiation of YAG:Nd lasers. Optimization of the conditions makes it possible to achieve nonlinear conversion efficiency close to the theoretical limit.

The generation characteristics of a barium nitrate Raman laser with pumping by a narrowband tunable nanosecond (tau(p) approximate to 9 ns) Ti:Sapphire laser were studied for the first time. The generation of the first three Stokes components of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and their second harmonics was obtained with a spectral linewidth of <...

Transient spectroscopy technique based on correlation properties of the second harmonic of nanosecond Nd:YAG-laser and its first Stokes component from stimulated-Raman- scattering generator was applied for studying orientational diffusion of Cu-octaethylporphyrin and Cu-tetraphenylporphyrin dissolved in tetrahydrofuran and toluene.

The structure of porphyrin-DNA complexes has been the subject of numerous studies. This is due to the potential biological and medical applications of water-soluble cationic porphyrins [1] such as photodynamic therapy of cancer and viruses (photo)-inactivation. The DNA binding properties of transition metal-porphyrins, in particularly Co(HI)-porphy...

Results of an experimental study of optical feedback as a method to suppress quantum-noise-induced macroscopic fluctuations in the emission of stimulated RS are reported. Statistic changes in the energy of Stokes pulses in the linear mode of scattering and those in the amplitudes of solition-like pulses in the nonlinear mode are shown. A decrease i...

Water-soluble cationic porphyrins attracts an increased attention because of their possible biomedical applications. It seems to be interesting to use such porphyrins for studying of specific interactions with DNA and other polunucleotides. In our earlier work the study of photoinduced behavior of water soluble Ni(TMpy-P4) (NiP) in ineraction with...

Transient hole-burning and free induction decay (FID) in low-temperature ion-doped crystals are studied consistently using the model of two jump processes Ut equals Ut1 + Ut2 characterized by essentially different jump rates v1 >> v2 and distribution widths (sigma) 1 << (sigma) 2 for the impurity ion optical transition frequency fluctuations Ut due...

The pair correlations between the instantaneous intensities of input pump superbroadband (250 cm-1) laser radiation with femtosecond and picosecond noise structures, output depleted pump radiation and Stokes one generated through stimulated Raman scattering in compressed hydrogen have been experimentally studied under the weak and strong pump deple...

The pair correlations between the intensities of input pump laser radiation with spectral bandwidth of 250 cm−1, which has femtosecond and picosecond noise structures, output depleted pump radiation and Stokes light generated through stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in compressed hydrogen have been studied experimentally under weak and strong pump...

We investigate statistical characteristics of forward and backward scattering caused by quantum noise of polarization of a medium in a chamber with hydrogen pumped by focused laser radiation. Calculation is performed both with and without allowance for the generation of the anti-Stokes wave in parametric Stokes-anti-Stokes interaction. It is demons...

Transient hole burning (THB) and free induction decay (FID) in low-temperature impurity-ion crystals are studied consistently using the model of two jump processes Ut = U1t + U2t (the random telegraph process U1t and the Kubo-Anderson jump process U2t with Lorentzian distribution of possible values) characterized by essentially different correlatio...

The theory of the interaction of high-power counterpropagating laser pulses in a transparent medium with an inertial cubic nonlinearity is developed. An effect of temporal compression of pulses due to nonstationary cross-phase modulation, which results in energy exchange between the interacting pulses, is predicted. It is demonstrated that the dire...

The dynamics and mechanism of the photoinduced reversible process of formation and decay of an exciplex species created between the water;soluble cationic metalloporphyrin copper 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(N-methylpyridyl)]porphyrin (Cu(TMpy-P4)) and the DNA model compound poly(dA-dT) have been studied in detail. Such a photoinduced process had been pr...

The reversible process of photoinduced binding of oxygen (O)-containing solvent molecules by copper (Cu)-porphyrins has been observed and studied in detail by the methods of resonance Raman (RR), resonance coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (RCARS), and picosecond absorption spectroscopy. It was found that the formation of the excited complex (e...

The application is discussed of saturation resonance Raman technique with nanosecond lasers both in spontaneous and coherent regimes to the investigations of the excited states of metalloporphyrins. It is shown that saturation technique enables us to obtain new information about transient states, additional to the data of direct kinetic measurement...

The application of two-color incoherent cross-correlation spectroscopy to study ultrafast processes in organic liquids and solutions is discussed. This kind of time-resolved spectroscopy is based on using two broadband correlated pulses of long duration with different central frequencies. Its time resolution is determined by the cross-correlation t...

In the last few years radiation sources on the basis of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) have been sufficiently widely used in spectroscopy. Of great importance therein are high efficiency of radiation conversion to one, usually first Stokes (FSC) or anti-Stokes (FASC) component of SRS, small divergency of converted radiation flux, stability of re...

Recently, a complex of electronically excited water soluble copper porphyrin Cu(TMPy-P4) (CuP) with poly(dA-dT) and calf thymus DNA [1] has been observed in transient resonance Raman spectra recorded at high excitation power. On the basis of versatile study of CuP complexes with a variety of synthetic oligonucleotides, single- and double-stranded p...

The Cu(II)- and Ni(II)-derivatives of water-soluble H2–5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(N-methylpyridyl)]porphyrin (Cu(TMpy-P4) and Ni(TMpy-P4)) and their complexes with DNA model polynucleotides poly(dA-dT)2 and poly(dG-dC)2 were investigated by the jointly used methods of time-resolved resonance Raman (RR) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopies. The...

In the present work, we studied copper(II) octaethylporphyrin (CuOEP) in oxygen(O)-containing solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF) and 1,4-dioxane by the methods of resonance Raman (RR) and resonance coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (RCARS) techniques. Our current interest to Cu-porphyrins [1–3] is caused by their ability to participate in the react...

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