P. Tapponnier

P. Tapponnier
Nanyang Technological University | ntu · Earth Observatory of Singapore

PhD with honours

About

420
Publications
95,549
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
53,636
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2009 - present
Nanyang Technological University
Position
  • Professor/Tectonics Group Leader
July 1991 - July 2009
Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris
Position
  • Director of the Tectonics Department & Full Professor

Publications

Publications (420)
Article
The hydrological conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Eastern Mediterranean have long been debated. In particular, very little is known about the development of high-altitude glaciers in this region. In the present study, morphological and sedimentological evidence, such as U-shape valleys, glacial cirques, and morainic ridges, are use...
Article
Full-text available
Fault slip rates are critical to quantify continental deformation. Those along the Karakax fault (northwestern Altyn Tagh Fault: ATF) have been debated, even though it is one of Tibet’s most outstanding active faults. At Taersa, using LiDAR measurements of terrace and fan riser offsets (~6 to ~500 m) and 10Be/26Al dating of alluvial surfaces (<210...
Article
Full-text available
Fault slip rates are critical to quantify continental deformation. Those along the Karakax fault (northwestern Altyn Tagh Fault: ATF) have been debated, even though it is one of Tibet's most outstanding active faults. At Taersa, using LiDAR measurements of terrace and fan riser offsets (∼6 to ∼500 m) and ¹⁰Be/²⁶Al dating of alluvial surfaces (<210...
Article
The presence of ~NS-trending rifts within the Tibetan Plateau attests that it is undergoing ~EW extension. In southern Tibet, the total extension rate, distributed across seven main rifts over a distance of ~1000 km, has been inferred to amount to about half of the shortening rate across the Himalayas. Quantifying the late Quaternary extension rate...
Article
Full-text available
Published slip distribution models, based on geodetic, seismological and tsunami data, of the Mw 7.8, 2010 Mentawai tsunami earthquake offshore south-central Sumatra, suggest that the large tsunami wave was generated by a narrow swath of high seafloor uplift along the accretionary wedge front, implying higher vertical throw than that consistent wit...
Article
Full-text available
The northern Indian Ocean has been widely recognized as an area of broadly distributed deformation within the composite India‐Australia‐Capricorn plate, hosting several diffuse boundary zones and a diffuse triple junction. The occurrence, along reactivated fracture zones, of the exceptionally large (Mw = 8.6 and Mw = 8.2) 2012 Wharton Basin strike‐...
Article
Full-text available
Although the M, 1950 Assam earthquake endures as the largest continental earthquake ever recorded, its exact source and mechanism remain contentious. In this paper, we jointly analyze the spatial distributions of reappraised aftershocks and landslides, and provide new field evidence for its hitherto unknown surface rupture extent along the Mishmi a...
Article
Full-text available
The Charnath Khola is a large river crossing the Himalayan thrust system in the region devastated by the great M 8.3 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake. Fluvial terraces are abandoned along the river and at the base of a ~20 m-high cumulative thrust escarpment. A trench across the fault scarp exposed Siwalik mudstone/siltstone overthrusting Quaternary uni...
Article
Full-text available
Volcanic seismicity conduit necking DEM modeling Volcanic seismicity during silicic spine eruptions often involves recurrent excitation of similar sources at stationary depth just beneath the crater. The mechanics of volcanic spine extrusion may be compared to those of high-temperature, industrial metal working. We thus use slip-line field theory t...
Article
Continuous sedimentation and detailed stratigraphy are key parameters for a complete paleo-earthquake record. Here, we present a new paleoseismological study across the main strike-slip fault branch of the Dead Sea fault in Lebanon. We aim to expand the current knowledge on local paleoseismicity and seismic behavior of strike-slip plate boundary fa...
Article
Full-text available
The Mw 6.0 Mt. Kinabalu earthquake of 2015 was a complete (and deadly) surprise, because it occurred well away from the nearest plate boundary in a region of very low historical seismicity. Our seismological, space geodetic, geomorphological, and field investigations show that the earthquake resulted from rupture of a northwest-dipping normal fault...
Article
Full-text available
The recent dramatic increase in millimeter-to centimeter-resolution topographic datasets obtained via multi-view photogrammetry raises the possibility of mapping detailed offset geomorphology and constraining the spatial characteristics of active faults. Here, for the first time, we applied this new method to acquire high-resolution imagery and gen...
Article
Full-text available
The Western Kunlun mountain range is a slowly converging intra-continental orogen where deformation rates are too low to be properly quantified from geodetic techniques. This region has recorded little seismicity, but the recent July 2015 (Mw 6.4) Pishan earthquake shows that this mountain range remains seismic. To quantify the rate of active defor...
Article
Full-text available
The deformation at well-defined, narrow plate boundaries depends on the relative plate motion, but how the deformation takes place within a distributed plate boundary zone remains a conundrum. This was confirmed by the seismological analyses of the 2012 great Wharton Basin earthquakes [moment magnitude (M w) 8.6], which suggested the rupture of sev...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A magnetotelluric (MT) campaign has been conducted in March 2016 north of Kathmandu, in the area of the 1996 and 1999-2000 campaigns by Lemonnier, Marquis and collaborators. MT response and induction arrows confirm the existence of a deep conductive structure under the front of the higher Himalaya with small discrepancy between 1996 and 2016.
Article
Full-text available
As the boundary between the northern edge of the Tibetan plateau and the Tarim Basin, the active left-lateral strike-slip Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF) is a first-order structure accommodating the ongoing continental collision between India and Asia and extends from northwestern Tibet to eastern Gansu Province with a whole length of ~1600 km. It is regard...
Article
Assessment of seismic hazard relies on estimates of how large an area of a tectonic fault could potentially rupture in a single earthquake. Vital information for these forecasts includes which areas of a fault are locked and how the fault is segmented. Much research has focused on exploring downdip limits to fault rupture from chemical and thermal...
Article
Full-text available
The ongoing collision of India with Asia is partly accommodated by slip on the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). The 25 April 2015, Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake is the most recent major event to rupture the MHT, which dips gently northward beneath central Nepal. Although the geology of the range has been studied for decades, fundamental aspects of its deep...
Article
Full-text available
Oblique convergence across Tibet leads to slip partitioning with the coexistence of strike-slip, normal and thrust motion on major fault systems. A key point is to understand and model how faults interact and accumulate strain at depth. Here, we extract ground deformation across the Haiyuan Fault restraining bend, at the northeastern boundary of th...
Article
We sampled six coral microatolls that recorded the relative sea level changes over the last 230 years east of Martinique, on fringing reefs in protected bays. The microatolls are cup-shaped, which is characteristic of corals that have been experiencing submergence. X-ray analysis of coral slices and reconstructions of the highest level of survival...
Article
Full-text available
We sampled six coral microatolls that recorded the relative sea level changes over the last 230 years east of Martinique, on fringing reefs in protected bays. The microatolls are cup-shaped, which is characteristic of corals that have been experiencing submergence. X-ray analysis of coral slices and reconstructions of the highest level of survival...
Article
Full-text available
In 1255, 1344, and 1408 AD, then again in 1833, 1934, and 2015, large earthquakes, devastated Kathmandu. The 1255 and 1934 surface ruptures have been identified east of the city, along comparable segments of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). Whether the other two pairs of events were similar is unclear. Taking into account charcoal's age inheritance,...
Article
Full-text available
The Sumatra subduction zone is one of the most seismically active subduction zones. Although there have been three Mw≥8.4 earthquakes in the region, including the disastrous 2004 Mw=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, a 500 km long patch around Mentawai Islands is still locked and could produce a large megathrust earthquake. If the rupture propagates t...
Article
Full-text available
Several different historical records allude to a disastrous tsunami on the southwestern Taiwan coast sometime between 1781 and 1782, with a reported death toll of more than 40,000. Despite consistent reports from southwest Taiwan no corroborative information exists for neighboring shorelines in southeast China or northwest Luzon, Philippines, and a...
Article
Insight into the spatial and temporal changes of slip-rate is essential to understand the kinematic role of large strike-slip faults in continental collision zones. Geodetic and geologic rates from present to several million years ago along the Karakorum fault range from 0 to 11 mm/yr. Here, we determine the first late Quaternary slip-rate at the s...
Article
We improve constraints on the slip distribution and geometry of faults involved in the complex, multi-segment, Mw 8.6 April 2012 Wharton Basin earthquake sequence by joint inversion of high-rate GPS data from the Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr), teleseismic observations, source-time-functions from broadband surface waves, and far-field static GPS displa...
Article
The return times of large Himalayan earthquakes are poorly constrained. Despite historical devastation of cities along the mountain range, definitive links between events and specific segments of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) are not established, and paleo-seismological records have not documented the occurrence of several similar events at the sam...
Article
Full-text available
The Al Hoceima Mw 6.4 earthquake of 24 February 2004 that occurred in the eastern Rif region of Morocco already hit by a large event in May 1994 (Mw 5.9) has been followed by numerous aftershocks in the months following the event. The aftershock sequence has been monitored by a temporary network of 17 autonomous seismic stations during 15 days (28...
Conference Paper
The Red Sea main trough is underlain by thick sheets of Middle Miocene salt, which are deformed into a variety of diapirs due to lateral salt movement from the margins. The salt diapirs are separated by syn-kinematic mini-basins that are filled with interbedded clastic and evaporitic sediments. Offshore seismic surveys reveal an extensive shallow u...
Conference Paper
A new marine geophysical survey on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea confirms early inferences that ~ 2/3 of the eastern Red Sea is floored by oceanic crust. Most seismic profiles south of 24°N show a strongly reflective, landward-deepening volcanic basement up to ~ 100 km east of the axial ridge, beneath thick evaporitic deposits. This positio...
Conference Paper
A high resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea confirms the existence of consistent magnetic anomaly patterns, continuous from 16 to 24°N, and episodic up to 28°N, typical of slow to ultraslow spreading centers. The older Saudi-Sudanese aeromagnetic survey shows that these anomalies are symmetrical between 18 and 2...
Article
Full-text available
Field evidence for syn-deformation migmatization and crystallization along the Karakorum fault contradicts the study of Wang et al. (2012). The ages of such magmatic rocks provide minimum ages for the onset of deformation at ˜23 Ma in North Ayilari and ˜19 Ma in Tangtse. The onset of deformation at 12 Ma in the Ayilari range inferred by Wang et al....
Article
Full-text available
It is unclear where plate boundary thrusts generate giant rather than great earthquakes. Along the Himalayas, the source sizes and recurrence times of large seismic events are particularly uncertain, since no surface signatures were found for those that shook the range in the twentieth century. Here we challenge the consensus that these events rema...
Article
Full-text available
It is unclear where plate boundary thrusts generate giant rather than great earthquakes. Along the Himalayas, the source sizes and recurrence times of large seismic events are particularly uncertain, since no surface signatures were found for those that shook the range in the twentieth century. Here we challenge the consensus that these events rema...
Article
Full-text available
The Fuyun Fault is a typical right-lateral strike-slip fault in Altay region where the crustal strain rate is very low. Field observations and restoration of horizontal offsets from the 3D LiDAR data obtained from 3 sites along the Funyun Fault further confirm that the average coseismic right-lateral slip of the 1931 Fuyun earthquake is (6.3±1.2) m...
Article
Full-text available
The Dead Sea strike-slip fault accommodates the northward motion of Arabia relative to Sinai at a rate of ˜5 mm/yr. The southern segment of the fault, the Wadi Araba fault, runs along a valley blanketed in Quaternary sediments. We first focused on understanding the relative and absolute timing of emplacement of the alluvial surfaces. We then determ...