P. M. Glibert

P. M. Glibert
University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science | UMCES · Horn Point Laboratory

Ph.D.

About

288
Publications
118,444
Reads
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26,301
Citations
Citations since 2017
66 Research Items
11180 Citations
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Introduction
I study aquatic nutrient cycling, with particular emphasis on phytoplankton nutritional physiology, harmful algal blooms and ecological stoichiometry and its effects on food webs.
Additional affiliations
January 1986 - present
University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science
Position
  • Professor
January 1983 - January 1986
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Position
  • Research Assistant
September 1977 - June 1982
Harvard University
Position
  • GRA

Publications

Publications (288)
Chapter
Eutrophication is the term historically used to describe the natural aging process of aquatic ecosystems—during which, for example, large deep nutrient-poor lakes eventually become more nutrient-rich, more productive with plant and animal life, and slowly fill in to become ponds, then marshes. In contemporary usage, the term also is used to describ...
Article
Full-text available
The San Francisco Bay Delta has been an estuary of low productivity, with causes hypothesized to relate to light limitation, grazing by invasive clams, and polluting levels of NH4+ discharge from a wastewater treatment plant. Suppression of phytoplankton NO3− uptake by NH4+ has been well documented, and thus this estuary may have experienced the co...
Article
Full-text available
Aquatic ecosystems are increasingly threatened by multiple human-induced stressors associated with climate and anthropogenic changes, including warming, nutrient pollution, harmful algal blooms, hypoxia, and changes in CO 2 and pH. These stressors may affect systems additively and synergistically but may also counteract each other. The resultant ec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Blooms of the toxigenic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis occur regularly in the Gulf of Mexico, especially along the coast of western Florida, U.S.A. Here, time-series data from 1998 to 2020 were used to examine relationships between K. brevis abundance and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its rate of change, as well as temperature, precipi...
Article
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Eutrophic estuaries have suffered from a proliferation of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and acceleration of ocean acidification (OA) over the past few decades. Despite laboratory experiments indicating pH effects on algal growth, little is understood about how acidification affects HABs in estuaries that typically feature strong horizontal and vertic...
Article
Blooms of dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum are widely distributed in estuarine and coastal waters and have been found to cause fish kills worldwide. K. veneficum has a mixed nutritional mode and relies on both photosynthesis and phagotrophy for growth; it is a mixotroph. Here, a model of mixotrophic growth of K. veneficum (MIXO) was developed,...
Article
Emerging knowledge of mixoplankton—ubiquitous microbes that employ phototrophy and phagotrophy synergistically in one cell—reshapes our knowledge of the flow of materials and energy, with wide-reaching impacts on marine productivity, biodiversity, and sustainability. Conceptual models of microbial interactions have evolved from food-chains, where c...
Article
Shellfish hatcheries have become an increasingly important component of aquaculture production in the United States. Although the industry has been advancing technologically over time to stabilize production and supply, many hatcheries suffer regularly from bouts of stalled or failed production, termed crashes. Crashes are widely acknowledged to oc...
Article
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Karenia mikimotoi is a toxic bloom-forming dinoflagellate that sometimes co-blooms with Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico, especially on the West Florida Shelf where strong vertical temperature gradients and rapid changes in nitrogen (N) can be found. Here, the short-term interactions of temperature, N form, and availability on photosynthesis–ir...
Article
Full-text available
Harmful algal blooms (HABs), events that kill fish, impact human health in multiple ways, and contaminate water supplies, have increased in frequency, magnitude, and impacts in numerous marine and freshwaters around the world. Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis have resulted in thousands of tons of dead fish, deaths to many other mar...
Article
Over 40 years ago, it was suggested that Prorocentrum minimum in Chesapeake Bay has a seasonal life strategy that depends on the physical transport by estuarine circulation, bringing cells from lower bay to the mid‐bay in spring when they bloom. In this study, a validated hydrodynamic‐biogeochemical model is used to simulate the annual cycles of P....
Article
Full-text available
Although sharks, whales, and other large organisms come to mind when one thinks about the most important or most powerful organisms of the sea, in fact, the most powerful are the tiny phytoplankton. Phytoplankton, which are microscopic algae, hold this power because they harvest the light from the sun, making food for all other organisms. Phytoplan...
Article
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A 2-year study was undertaken to understand feeding preferences of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in the eutrophic Rhode River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA. A subset of experimentally suspended oysters was collected monthly and environmental parameters were simultaneously measured. Oysters were measured in height to deter...
Article
A 2-year study was undertaken to understand feeding preferences of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica when growing in conditions of eutrophication and variable flow. Oysters were suspended in the Rhode River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA, and a subset of these oysters was collected monthly, measured in height to determine grow...
Article
Full-text available
The availability of dissolved inorganic and organic nutrients and their transformations along the fresh to marine continuum are being modified by various natural and anthropogenic activities and climate-related changes. Subtropical central and eastern Florida Bay, located at the southern end of the Florida peninsula, is classically considered to ha...
Article
The three large marine ecosystems (LMEs) bordering China (Yellow Sea/Bohai Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea) have received excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the past decades with detrimental consequences for ecosystem functioning, such as increased productivity, loss of biodiversity, and proliferation of harmful algal blooms (HABs)....
Article
Planktonic Prorocentrum, a common harmful dinoflagellate, are increasing in frequency, duration, and magnitude globally, as exemplified by the number of blooms of P. minimum in Chesapeake Bay that have nearly doubled over the past 3 decades. Although the dynamics of transport and seasonal occurrence of this species have been previously described, i...
Chapter
Large-scale commercialization of the Haber-Bosch (HB) process is resulting in intensification of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use worldwide. Globally N fertilizer use is far outpacing that of phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Much of the increase in N fertilizers is also now in the form of urea, a reduced form of N. Incorporation of these fertilizers into agri...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteria-derived allelopathic effects on microalgae blooms have been studied with an aim to develop algicidal products that may have field applications. However, few such studies have been conducted on macroalgae. Therefore, a series of experiments was conducted to investigate the impacts of different concentrations of cell-free filtrate of the bac...
Article
Retrospective analysis of water quality monitoring data reveals strong interannual shifts in the spatial distribution of two harmful algal species (Prorocentrum minimum and Karlodinium veneficum) in eutrophic Chesapeake Bay. A habitat model, based on the temperature and salinity tolerance of the two species as well as their nutrient preferences, pr...
Article
Few studies have been carried out on benthic dinoflagellates along the Florida Keys, and little is known about their distribution or toxicity in Florida Bay. Here, the distribution and abundance of benthic dinoflagellates was explored in northern and eastern Florida Bay and along the bay and ocean sides of the Florida Keys. Isolates were brought in...
Article
Full-text available
The Anacostia River, a Chesapeake Bay tributary running through Washington, D.C., is small but highly polluted with nutrients and contaminants. There is currently a multi-billion dollar tunnel project underway, being built in several phases, aimed at diverting effluent to sewage treatment, especially during high flow periods, and improving water qu...
Article
Full-text available
On land, plants make their own food by photosynthesis and animals live by eating. However, in the microscopic world in the oceans, it is not that simple. Many microscopic so-called plants (phytoplankton) can also eat like animals and many microscopic so-called animals (microzooplankton) can also photosynthesize like plants! More amazingly, some of...
Article
Aim Most protist plankton are mixotrophic, with potential to engage in photoautotrophy and phagotrophy; however, the ecology of these organisms has been misdiagnosed for over a century. A large proportion of these organisms are constitutive mixotrophs (CMs), with an innate ability to photosynthesize. Here, for the first time, an analysis is present...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research suggests that fertilization of surface waters with chemically reduced nitrogen (N), including ammonium (NH4+), may either enhance or suppress phytoplankton growth. To identify the factors influencing the net effect of NH4+, we fertilized natural phytoplankton assemblages from two eutrophic hardwater lakes with growth‐saturating co...
Article
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Stable isotope applications have evolved from simple characterizations of isotope composition in organisms and organic matter, to highly complex methodologies on scales ranging from individual compounds and cells, to broad ecosystem‐level approaches. New techniques are rapidly evolving, allowing novel, difficult, and inconvenient questions to be ad...
Article
Full-text available
Over recent decades, increased anthropogenic nitrogen and reduced land-based loading of silica in many coastal waters have asymmetrically changed the nitrogen:silica ratios. These changes have contributed to shifts in phytoplankton assemblages from diatoms to nondiatoms, as well as increases in the frequency and magnitude of non-diatom harmful alga...
Article
Full-text available
Results from a dynamic mathematical model are presented simulating the growth of the harmful algal bloom (HAB) mixotrophic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum and its algal prey, Rhodomonas salina. The model describes carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus-based interactions within the mixotroph, interlinking autotrophic and phagotrophic nutrition. The model...
Chapter
This fact sheet presents information on distribution, toxicity and morphology for the following harmful algal species: Prorocentrum.
Chapter
Full-text available
Fact sheets present information on distribution, toxicity and morphology for the following harmful algal species: Alexandrium, Amphidomataceae, Aureococcus anophagefferens & Aureoumbra lagunensis, Ceratium furca, Chattonella marina, Cochlodinium, Cyanobacteria, Dinophysis acuminata, Fibrocapsa japonica, Gambierdiscus and Gymnodinium catenatum. The...
Chapter
This chapter highlights the key role of changes in nutrients; emphasizes estuarine/marine microalgal species, and includes information on some freshwater harmful algal blooms (HAB). It focuses mainly on microalgae and also presents several examples of macroalgae. It explores some suggestions for advancement in the understanding of HAB and nutrients...
Chapter
This chapter considers food web and ecosystemlevel impacts of major groups of harmful algae in U.S. and nearby waters. Harmful algal blooms (HAB) cause a “vast array” of food web effects across multiple trophic levels. The chapter defines food web impacts as effects on organisms from one or more trophic levels. It provides an overview of the presen...
Chapter
Improved monitoring and prediction of harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become necessary in coastal and freshwaters worldwide for protection of human health in terms of seafood safety and drinking water supplies, protection of aquaculture facilities, and understanding of mass mammal strandings or die-off events, as well as measuring progress toward...
Chapter
Nutrient pollution is altering the availability of nutrients for phytoplankton in waters throughout the world. The consequence is that many receiving waters are now not only enriched with nutrients, but these nutrients are in proportions that differ from those of decades past—and also diverge considerably from those that have long been associated w...
Chapter
The traditional view of the planktonic food web is simplistic: nutrients are consumed by phytoplankton that, in turn, support zooplankton, which ultimately support fish. This structure is the foundation of most models used to explore fisheries production, biogeochemical cycling, and climate change. In recent years, however, the importance of mixotr...
Chapter
There is no doubt that there are more harmful algal bloom (HAB) events, occurring more often, in more places and lasting longer than in decades past. This volume synthesizes the research and activities that took place during the nearly two decades of the international programme on the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB)...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Core Research Project on HABs in Eutrophic Systems was one of the projects implemented under the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB) program. Building on several Open Science Meetings and associated international efforts, this project focused on a number of key questions that related to the types of harmful algal sp...
Chapter
The complexity of the harmful algal bloom (HAB) problem, its causative factors, and the impacts HABs have on the environment are becoming well characterized. The benefits of collaborative, cooperative, and comparative studies on HABs are important in advancing the understanding of this phenomenon and to provide scientific guidance to managers. This...
Chapter
Globally, nutrient loading to surface waters is large and increasing, with sources from land-based pollution to aquaculture and atmospheric deposition. Spatial differences in amounts and forms of nutrients released to receiving waters are large, with Asia, Western Europe, and North America exporting the highest loads of nutrients, especially of ino...
Article
The harmful dinoflagellate, Karlodnium veneficum, has been implicated in fish-kill and other toxic, harmful algal bloom (HAB) events in waters worldwide. Blooms of K. veneficum are known to be related to coastal nutrient enrichment but the relationship is complex because this HAB taxon relies not only on dissolved nutrients but also particulate pre...
Book
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) - blooms that cause fish kills, contaminate seafood with toxins, or cause human or ecological health impacts and harm to local economies - are occurring more often, in more places and lasting longer than in past decades. This expansion is primarily the result of human activities, through increased nutrient inputs and var...
Article
Full-text available
Noctiluca scintillans (Noctiluca) is a cosmopolitan red tide forming heterotrophic dinoflagellate. In this study, we investigated its ingestion, elemental growth yield and excretion when supplied with different quality food (nutrient-balanced, N-limited and P-limited). Total cellular elemental ratios of Noctiluca were nearly homeostatic, but the ra...
Article
This first comprehensive analysis of the global biogeography of marine protistan plankton with acquired phototrophy shows these mixotrophic organisms to be ubiquitous and abundant; however, their biogeography differs markedly between different functional groups. These mixotrophs, lacking a constitutive capacity for photosynthesis (i.e., non-constit...
Article
Full-text available
Although aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists are well aware of the crucial importance of ecosystem functions, i.e., how biota drive biogeochemical processes and vice-versa, linking these fields in conceptual models is still uncommon. Attempts to explain the variability in elemental cycling consequently miss an important biological component and t...
Article
Full-text available
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is recognised as an important N source for phytoplankton. However, its relative importance for phytoplankton nutrition and community composition has not been studied comprehensively. This study, conducted in a typical Scottish fjord, representative of near-pristine coastal environments, evaluates the utilisation of...
Article
Full-text available
The largest estuarine flow restoration project is the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). In 2012, one of its first phases, the C-111 Project, was initiated and designed to increase freshwater flow into northern Florida Bay. Effects of changes in flow and associated nutrients on phytoplankton abundance and composition were studied in...
Article
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The Changjiang Estuary is a large-river estuary ecosystem in the East China Sea, and its plume, the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW), transports a large mass of nutrients (NO3-+NO2-, PO43-, SiO32-) to the shelf sea, leading to substantial eutrophication; the CDW also supports high primary production. However, relationships between nutrient delivery a...
Article
Full-text available
Mixotrophic feeding can be promoted by nutrient-enriched prey, a nutritional strategy which can provide benefits to some toxic microalgae under nutrient-imbalanced conditions. However, it is unclear how the nutritional condition of the predator or the prey affects the mixotrophy and toxicity of toxin-producing mixotrophs. Laboratory experiments wer...
Article
Lake Taihu has suffered an increasing number of cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) over the past three decades, bringing about formidable ecological and economical losses. Efforts to control phosphate (P) and/or nitrogen (N) have been applied to mitigate these blooms, but there has been much less attention paid to N and its different fo...
Article
Full-text available
Economic valuation of ecological restoration most often encompasses only the most tangible ecosystem service benefits, thereby omitting many difficult-to-measure benefits, including those derived from enhanced reliability of ecosystem services. Because climate change is likely to impose novel ecosystem stressors, a typical approach to valuing benef...
Article
Eutrophication is a complex process and often associated with not only a change in overall algal biomass but also with a change in biodiversity. Common metrics of eutrophication (e.g., chlorophyll a), total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) are not adequate for understanding biodiversity changes, especially those associated with harmful algal bloom...
Chapter
Saturation kinetic curves are one of the most well-known relationships in phytoplankton ecology. Classic examples are those of the photosynthesis–irradiance relationship and of nutrient uptake kinetics. With saturation curves, the independent factor is controlling at low concentrations and noncontrolling at high concentrations. This simple, nontriv...
Book
This book highlights perspectives, insights, and data in the coupled fields of aquatic microbial ecology and biogeochemistry when viewed through the lens of collaborative duos - dual career couples. Their synergy and collaborative interactions have contributed substantially to our contemporary understanding of pattern, process and dynamics. This is...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ongoing restoration of the Everglades has changed the hydrology in South Florida, and increasing freshwater discharge has contributed to a shift in both the concentration and composition of nutrients as well as phytoplankton abundance and composition in northern Florida Bay. To understand how the change in nutrient load and form contributes to...
Article
Full-text available
Arranging organisms into functional groups aids ecological research by grouping organisms (irrespective of phylogenetic origin) that interact with environmental factors in similar ways. Planktonic protists traditionally have been split between photoautotrophic “phytoplankton” and phagotrophic “microzooplankton”. However, there is a growing recognit...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic activities are altering total nutrient loads to many estuaries and freshwaters, resulting in high loads not only of total nitrogen (N), but in some cases, of chemically reduced forms, notably . Long thought to be the preferred form of N for phytoplankton uptake, may actually suppress overall growth when concentrations are sufficiently...
Article
While increased propagule pressure may increase the possibility of success of an invading species, success is also a function of the environment to which the organisms have been introduced and the physiological strategies of the invading organisms and how those strategies relate to those of the native fauna or flora. Using examples of altered nutri...
Article
Full-text available
Human activity causes ocean acidification (OA) though the dissolution of anthropogenically generated CO 2 into seawater, and eutrophication through the addition of inorganic nutrients. Eutrophication increases the phytoplankton biomass that can be supported during a bloom, and the resultant uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon during photosynthesis...