Owen Mugurungi

Owen Mugurungi
Ministry of health and child welfare Zimbabwe · Aids and Tb programme

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264
Publications
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Publications

Publications (264)
Article
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HIV and AIDS continue to be major public health concerns globally. Despite significant progress in addressing their impact on the general population and achieving epidemic control, there is a need to improve HIV testing, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study applied deep and machine learning algorithms such as recurrent neu...
Article
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Though stigma is a recognized contributor to the disproportionate HIV burden among sexual and gender minorities (SGM) in sub-Saharan Africa, data describing this association among Zimbabwean SGM are limited. We examined relationships between SGM stigma and HIV and the potential for social cohesion to moderate the association among Zimbabwean men wh...
Article
In Africa, rapid testing for recent HIV infection (RTRI) is being scaled up; however, use of the recent infection testing algorithm (RITA), which uses viral load (VL) to confirm RTRI-recent infections, is not a widespread practice. We present results of recently acquired HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women, and g...
Preprint
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Purpose: The objective of this study was to close the gap in healthcare providers’ skills, training and information sharing in HIV management by developing a mHealth artifact, with the aim of improving health management outcomes. Methods: This study used a three-phase Design Science human-centred methodology to develop the AnnMac android based comm...
Article
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HIV positivity yield declined against increasing testing volumes in Zimbabwe, from 20% (1.65 million tests) in 2011 to 6% (3 million tests) in 2018. A screening tool was introduced to aid testers to identify clients likely to obtain a positive diagnosis of HIV. Consequently, testing volumes declined to 2.3 million in 2019 but positivity declined to...
Preprint
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed health systems with knock on effects on diagnosis, treatment and care. To mitigate the impact, the government of Zimbabwe enforced a strict lockdown beginning 30 March 2020 which ran intermittently until early 2021. In this period, the Ministry of Health and Childcare strategically prioritized deliv...
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Introduction Young female sex workers (FSW) are disproportionately vulnerable to HIV. Zimbabwe data show higher HIV incidence and lower engagement in services compared to older FSW. Utilizing data from a combination HIV prevention and treatment intervention, we describe engagement in the HIV services over time among FSW 18–24 years, compared to tho...
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has had serious impacts on economic, social, and health systems, and fragile public health systems have become overburdened in many countries, exacerbating existing service delivery challenges. This study describes the impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on family planning services within a community‐based integrated HIV and sexua...
Preprint
Background The use of screening tools during targeted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing services improves efficiency by identifying individuals who are likely to test positive. Effective utilization of screening tools requires an understanding of health care worker perception and willingness to use the tools. We determined health workers’...
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Background People living with HIV have higher unmet family planning needs compared to those without HIV. This is heightened for young people. However, the provision of family planning for young people within HIV programmes is uncommon. We investigated family planning uptake, acceptability of, and engagement with a service offering integrated HIV an...
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Background In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are at high risk of acquiring HIV. A growing number of sub-Saharan African countries are beginning to avail pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, but with limited success. Unpacking strategies to overcome barriers to the uptake of PrEP is critical to prevent HIV amongst AGYW. Th...
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The COVID-19 pandemic was reported from March 2020 in Zimbabwe. COVID-19 containment measures which included repeated lockdowns have disrupted community interactions, reduced working hours, restricted travel and restricted HIV services for people living with HIV (PLHIV), among others. The study adopted a cross-sectional design. Both qualitative and...
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HIV modelling and economic analyses have had a prominent role in guiding programmatic responses to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there has been little reflection on how the HIV modelling field might develop in future. HIV modelling should more routinely align with national government and ministry of health priorities, recognising their legiti...
Preprint
Background: In 2015, the World Health Organization issued HIV testing guidelines that shifted the global focus on HIV testing, from testing for coverage to targeted testing. This was done to enhance positivity yield and increase efficiency in the utilization of finite resources. In response, various nations developed varied models of implementation...
Preprint
Background: In 2015, the World Health Organization issued HIV testing guidelines that shifted the global focus on HIV testing, from testing for coverage to targeted testing. This was done to enhance positivity yield and increase efficiency in the utilization of finite resources. In response, various nations developed varied models of implementation...
Article
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Introduction Ulcerative STIs, including syphilis, increase the risk for HIV acquisition and transmission due to the presence of ulcers/chancres that serve as a point-of-entry and exit for HIV. In Zimbabwe, diagnosis of syphilis often occurs in pregnant women who seek ANC services where syphilis testing is offered, and among men and women who seek h...
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Background Female sex workers (FSW) in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV and are critical to engage in HIV prevention, testing and care services. We describe the design of our evaluation of the ‘AMETHIST’ intervention, nested within a nationally-scaled programme for FSW in Zimbabwe. We hypothesise that the implementation of...
Article
Background: To reduce HIV incidence among adolescent girls who sell sex (AGSS) in Zimbabwe we need to better understand how vulnerabilities intersect with HIV infection, and how those living with HIV engage in care. Methods: In 2017, we conducted social mapping in four locations in Zimbabwe, and recruited girls aged 16 to 19 years who sell sex,...
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Introduction Late diagnosis of HIV (LD) increases the risk of morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission. We used nationally representative data from population-based HIV impact assessment (PHIA) surveys in Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe (2015–2016) to characterize adults at risk of LD and to examine associations between LD and presumed HIV transmis...
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Objective To investigate determinants of drug resistance and treatment outcomes among DR-TB patients. Design A cross-sectional study on DR-TB diagnosed patients, Bulawayo and Matabeleland South provinces, 2015. Results We identified 129 participants. DR-TB patients were 3.4 times more likely to have been previously treated for sensitive TB (95% C...
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Objectives: To estimate HIV incidence among female sex workers (FSW) in Zimbabwe: using HIV prevalence by age and number of years since started selling sex (YSSS). Design: We pooled data from FSW aged 18-39 participating in respondent-driven sampling surveys conducted in Zimbabwe between 2011-2017. Methods: For each year of age, we estimated:...
Article
Background: Youth have poorer HIV-related outcomes when compared to other age-groups. We describe the protocol for a cluster randomised trial (CRT) to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based, integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health services for youth on HIV outcomes. Protocol: The CHIEDZA trial is being conducted in three provinces...
Article
Background Youth have disproportionately poor HIV outcomes. We aimed to co-design a community-based intervention with youth to improve HIV outcomes among 16-24 year-olds, to be trialled in Zimbabwe. Methods We conducted 90 in-depth interviews with youth, family members, community gatekeepers, and healthcare providers to understand the barriers to u...
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Introduction: Zimbabwe is scaling up pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for key populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). To assess implementation and inform HIV programming, we evaluated gaps in PrEP awareness, uptake and use, and correlates of awareness and uptake among a sample of MSM, TGW and genderqueer...
Article
Background Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women, and genderqueer individuals are at greater risk for HIV than the general population although little data are available from these groups in Zimbabwe, a country with a national adult HIV prevalence of 12·9%. We aimed to examine progress towards the UNAIDS 90–90–90 treatment tar...
Article
Background In 2020, there were an estimated 1·7 million children younger than 15 years living with HIV worldwide, but there are few data on the proportion of children living with HIV who are undiagnosed. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV among children living with HIV in Eswatini, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, and...
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Background: Adolescents living with HIV have poor virological suppression and high prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs). In Zimbabwe, the Zvandiri adolescent peer support programme is effective at improving virological suppression. We assessed the effect of training Zvandiri peer counsellors known as Community Adolescent Treatment Supporte...
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Background: The Adverse Events following Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Surveillance System (VMMC AESS) serves to identify adverse events (AEs) for safe provision of VMMC. In 2019, Zvimba district reported two adverse events out of 542 circumcisions translating to a 0.4% AE rate against an acceptable threshold of 2% and this is suggestive of u...
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Adolescent girls and young women aged 13-24 years are disproportionately affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (1), resulting from biologic, behavioral, and structural* factors, including violence. Girls in sub-Saharan Africa also experience sexual violence at higher rates than do boys (2), and women who experience intimate partner violence have 1....
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Background: Syphilis increases HIV acquisition risk and impacts the immunologic and virologic response among people living with HIV (PLHIV). We assessed the prevalence of active or current syphilis and HIV/syphilis and their correlates among men who have sex with men (MSM), transwomen, and genderqueer (TGW/GQ) individuals in Zimbabwe. Methods: A...
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Background: HIV-1 incidence calculation currently includes recency classification by HIV-1 incidence assay and unsuppressed viral load (VL ≥ 1000 copies/mL) in a recent infection testing algorithm (RITA). However, persons with recent classification not virally suppressed and taking antiretroviral (ARV) medication may be misclassified. Setting: W...
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Background: Identifying men living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is critical to end the epidemic. We describe the underlying factors of unawareness among men aged 15-59 years who ever tested for HIV in 13 SSA countries. Methods: Using pooled data from the nationally representative Population-based HIV Impact Assessments, we fit a log-bino...
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Introduction Adolescents are at increased risk of HIV virological non-suppression compared to adults and younger children. Common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression are a barrier to adherence and virological suppression. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with virological non-suppression among adolescents living w...
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Objective: We present findings from the nationally representative Zimbabwe Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (ZIMPHIA) that characterize Zimbabwe's progress toward the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 90-90-90 targets. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional household survey. Methods: Consenting adults and children in the household...
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Introduction Reaching men aged 20–35 years, the group at greatest risk of HIV, with voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) remains a challenge. We assessed the impact of two VMMC demand creation approaches targeting this age group in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods We conducted a 2×2 factorial RCT comparing arms with and without t...
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Background Supply and demand-side factors continue to undermine voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) uptake. We assessed relative economic costs of four VMMC demand creation/service-delivery modalities as part of a randomised controlled trial in Zimbabwe. Methods Interpersonal communication agents were trained and incentivised to generate VM...
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Introduction: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is a key strategy for ending the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Most studies have focused on the mothers' side of the PMTCT cascade or the rate of vertical HIV transmission. Information on child-focused cascade is limited. We aimed to evaluate HIV testing, antiretrovira...
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Aim: There was concern that the COVID-19 pandemic would adversely affect adolescents and young adults" HIV and TB program services in Zimbabwe. This review explores perceptions of healthcare providers (HcPs) on desirable attributes for mobile-health applications to improve adolescents and young adults living with HIV healthcare outcomes in emergenc...
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Female sex workers' livelihoods in Zimbabwe have been severely impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic due to closure of entertainment venues. Competition over fewer clients has reduced ability to negotiate condom use. At the same time as partner numbers have decreased, frequency of reported condomless sex has not increased, suggesting potential reductio...
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Background Adolescents aged 10–19 years living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (ALHIV), both perinatally infected adolescents (APHIV) and behaviorally infected adolescents (ABHIV), are a growing population with distinct care needs. We characterized the epidemiology of HIV in adolescents included in Population-based HIV Impact Assessments (2...
Preprint
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Background: Female sex workers (FSW) in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV and are critical to engage in both HIV prevention and care. Here we describe our approach to evaluation of the AMETHIST intervention for FSW, adapted to the African context and set in Zimbabwe where there is a nationally-scaled programme for sex worker...
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Background: The population-based HIV impact assessment (population-based HIV impact assessments) surveys are among the first to estimate national adult HIV incidence, subnational prevalence of viral load suppression, and pediatric HIV prevalence. We summarize the survey methods implemented in Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Zambia, as well as response rates...
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Background In 2013, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended Option B+ as a strategy to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. In option B+ , lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) is offered to all HIV positive pregnant and breastfeeding women to reduce MTCT rate to less than or equal to 5%. Its success depends on retaining wom...
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Introduction: Misclassification errors have been reported in rapid diagnostic HIV tests (RDTs) in sub-Saharan African countries. These errors can lead to missed opportunities for prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT), early infant diagnosis and adult HIV-prevention, unnecessary lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) and wasted resour...
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The World Health Organization and national guidelines recommend HIV testing and counseling at tuberculosis (TB) clinics for all patients, regardless of TB diagnosis (1). Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) survey data for 2015-2016 in Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed to assess HIV screening at TB clinics among persons who had po...
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Background The influence of religion and belief systems is widely recognized as an important factor in understanding of health risk perception and myths in the general fight against the HIV pandemic. This study compares the understanding of HIV risk factors and utilization of some HIV services among religious groups in Zimbabwe. Methods We conduct...
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Background: HIV population viral load (PVL) can reflect antiretroviral therapy (ART) program effectiveness and transmission potential in a community. Using nationally representative data from household surveys conducted in Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Zambia in 2015-16, we examined the association between various VL measures and the probability of at lea...
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Zimbabwe has a high burden of HIV (i.e., estimated 1.3 million HIV-infected and 13.8% HIV incidence in 2017). In 2017, the country developed and implemented a pilot of HIV case surveillance (CS) based on the 2017 World Health Organisation (WHO) person-centred HIV patient monitoring (PM) and case surveillance guidelines. At the end of the pilot phas...
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Introduction: The global target for 2020 is that ≥90% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) will achieve viral load suppression (VLS). We examined VLS and its determinants among adults receiving ART for at least four months. Methods: We analysed data from the population-based HIV impact assessment (PHIA) surveys...
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has challenged health systems worldwide. In Zimbabwe, the COVID-19 response has seen diversion of human capital, equipment and other resources that were meant for the HIV and tuberculosis (TB) programs. In a country with one of the worst HIV and TB burdens globally, the authors discuss this public health dile...
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Background Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) experience a high burden of mental health disorder which is a barrier to antiretroviral therapy adherence. In Zimbabwe, trained, mentored peer supporters living with HIV (Community Adolescent Treatment Supporters – CATS) have been found to improve adherence, viral suppression and psychosocial well-bein...
Article
Objective: To examine morbidity and mortality risk among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. Design: Secondary data analysis of HEU infants in a prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs. Methods: Infants were recruited from immunization clinics (n = 151) in Zimbabwe from February to August 2013, enrolled at 4-12 weeks age, and followe...
Preprint
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Introduction: The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a target of ≥90% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) to have viral load suppression (VLS). We examined factors associated with nonsuppressed viral Load (NVL). Methods: We included PLHIV receiving ART aged 15-59 years from Eswatini, Les...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The influence of religion and belief systems is widely recognized as an important factor in understanding of health risk perception and myths in the general fight against the HIV pandemic. This study compares the understanding of HIV risk factors and utilization of some HIV services among religious groups in Zimbabwe Methods: We conducte...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The influence of religion and belief systems is widely recognized as an important factor in understanding of health risk perception and myths in the general fight against the HIV pandemic. This study compares the understanding of HIV risk factors and utilization of some HIV services among religious groups in Zimbabwe. Methods We conducte...
Article
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Background: Zimbabwe conducted a Population-Based HIV Impact Assessment (ZIMPHIA) cross-sectional survey, October 2015 and August 2016 to determine progress toward epidemic control. Methods: Of 25,131 eligible adults 15-64 years, 20,577 (81.8%) consented to face-to-face questionnaire and biomarker testing in this nationally representative househ...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Zimbabwe has a high burden of HIV, with an estimated 1.3 million people living with the virus and an HIV prevalence and incidence of 13.8% and 0.48%, respectively (2017 Spectrum estimates). In 2017, the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) developed and implemented a pilot of HIV case surveillance (CS) based on the 2017 Wor...
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Background: National-level population size estimates (PSEs) for hidden populations are required for HIV programming and modelling. Various estimation methods are available at the site-level, but it remains unclear which are optimal and how best to obtain national-level estimates. Setting: Zimbabwe METHODS:: Using 2015-2017 data from respondent-d...
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Objectives WHO recommended strengthening the linkages between various HIV prevention programmes and adolescent sexual reproductive health (ASRH) services. The Smart-LyncAges project piloted in Bulawayo city and Mt Darwin district of Zimbabwe established a referral system to link the voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) clients to ASRH service...