Otto M.J. Adang
, Apeldoorn

Social Psychology, Human Rights, Conflict Processes

dr
17.91

Publications

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    Sara Stronks · Otto M.J. Adang
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interaction of police and citizen representatives during critical moments in reconciliation processes through a relational model. Design/methodology/approach – Based on 26 in-depth interviews with key actors in three different cases of media-salient police-citizen group conflict, the interactions in the run-up to, during and after five moments that were critical in the transformation from conflict to cooperation, were analyzed. In focussing on the role of the intergroup relationship in conflict interaction, the applicability of relationship-value, compatibility and security in defining this relationship were explored. Findings – Although interactions during critical moments differed along the specific conflict contexts, three chronological stages could be deduced. In the first stage, interactions were tensed and emotional. During the second stage, repressing this insecurity through the exchange of value and compatibility signals was important. In the third stage, the transformation toward friendlier, cooperative dialogue and a less tensed atmosphere was made. Emotional expression, information sharing and emphasizing compatibility seemed particularly important in (re)defining and negotiating police-citizen relationships. Research limitations/implications – In analysis, the authors had to rely on limited and retrospective accounts of interactions and attitudes and its indivertible errors. Originality/value – This is one of very few studies that analyses police-involved post conflict interactions with a relational model. With regard to the importance of strong police-citizen relationships, the results should be of value to any operational police worker and specifically those who are involved in operational or strategic conflict-management and communication.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Policing An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management
  • Otto M. J. Adang · Tom van Ham
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    ABSTRACT: Two dominant perspectives explaining collective violence differ in the extent to which they ascribe influence to individual and contextual factors. Our analysis of a project X disorder in the Netherlands shows organized groups were not involved. Instead spontaneous group formation and identification were observed, confirming socio-contextual theory. Arrested suspects, however, were no cross section of youths, with a minority mirroring the personality profile of individuals disproportionally involved in collective violence. This suggests predispositions are of relevance as well in explaining public disorder. This case study shows the recently developed initiation/escalation model provides a useful framework that incorporates both perspectives, i.e. both theoretical perspectives are not mutually exclusive. Research suggestions are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · British Journal of Criminology
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    ABSTRACT: This paper introduces a relational perspective to the analysis of the interaction process from confrontation to cooperation between police and civilians. By exploring a single case study on riots between Dutch youths of Moluccan descent and the police during New Year's Eve 2007, followed by a peaceful celebration a year later in 2008, the process of reconciliation between the two groups is reconstructed and analysed. By means of a comparison of the relationship nature before and after the confrontation and an in-depth analysis of post-conflict interaction, it is shown how institutional, group and individual interactions affected the change from confrontation to cooperation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Policing and Society
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    ABSTRACT: For several years the Netherlands has been facing group violence around football matches and other recreational events. Offenders involved may be characterized as notorious troublemakers, incidental offenders or ‘new hooligans’. Notorious troublemakers and new hooligans actively look for risky situations. Their behavior is related to both contextual factors and individual predispositions. In contrast incidental offenders get involved in public disorder only due to a combination of circumstances. (Individual) disruptive behavior during public disorder therefore has different underlying causes. A combination of a person-centered approach, early identification of potential notorious troublemakers and situational prevention measures are important pillars for future policy and police practice.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The use of computer simulations in crowd research is a powerful tool to describe and analyse complex social systems. This paper presents CROSS, a generic framework to model crowd simulations as a social scientific tool for understanding crowd behaviour. In CROSS, individuals are represented by social-cognitive agents that are affected by their social and physical surroundings and produce cognition-based behaviour and behaviour patterns. Understanding is sought by relating intra- and inter-individual levels of behaviour generation with behaviour pattern emergence at group level. By specifying the CROSS framework for a festival context we demonstrate how CROSS meets the need for a theory that reflects the dynamic interplay between individuals and their environment as well as the need for a method that allows for testing.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, The
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    ABSTRACT: The use of computer simulations in crowd research is a powerful tool to describe and analyse complex social systems. This paper presents CROSS, a generic framework to model crowd simulations as a social scientific tool for understanding crowd behaviour. In CROSS, individuals are represented by social-cognitive agents that are affected by their social and physical surroundings and produce cognition-based behaviour and behaviour patterns. Understanding is sought by relating intra- and inter-individual levels of behaviour generation with behaviour pattern emergence at group level. By specifying the CROSS framework for a festival context we demonstrate how CROSS meets the need for a theory that reflects the dynamic interplay between individuals and their environment as well as the need for a method that allows for testing.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, The
  • Otto M.J. Adang
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    ABSTRACT: Following disturbances during the EU summit in Gothenburg in 2001, the Swedish police adopted a new concept, called special police tactics, for the policing of public order. In 2006, the Swedish National Police Board decided to start a 3-year project to develop a long term strategy for knowledge development with regard to these tactics, integrating research, training, and practice. This article reports on the set up and results of this reform project. Changes in the planning, carrying out and evaluation of police operations at major events were observed. The project provided a theoretical foundation for the special police tactics and a practical evaluation method for continuous knowledge development. The project methodology contributed to a developmental climate in the special police tactics organization. The project work also reinforced the basis for public order policing of crowds, to contribute to upholding consitutional rights of assembly and freedom of speech.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Policing
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    Otto M.J Adang
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    ABSTRACT: Pocos estudios han analizado directamente qué pasa durante los eventos colectivos y qué factores contribuyen al inicio y a la escalada de la violencia colectiva. En este artículo, se presenta y analiza información obtenida a través de observaciones sistemáticas de alrededor de 60 partidos de fútbol y 77 protestas en Holanda, considerado como un riesgo al orden público. Entre los resultados podremos enumerar los siguientes: aun en los incidentes más escalados de violencia colectiva, el número relativo de personas que en realidad cometieron actos de violencia es bajo. Los objetivos de la violencia parecen no ser aleatorios. En aproximadamente la mitad de los incidentes violentos no se pudo reconocer un contexto que pudo haber servido como “disparador” potencial para el inicio de la violencia. El inicio y la escalada de la violencia están fuertemente vinculados con la interacción entre los participantes de los diferentes grupos y la relación entre esos grupos. Además, el artículo discute el impacto del estilo y las tácticas policiales en el inicio y en la escalada de la violencia colectiva. Finalmente, se hace mención a cómo los resultados de este estudio se encuadran en las diferentes teorías de la violencia colectiva y qué significan para la administración del orden público.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012
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    Otto Adang
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    ABSTRACT: For the European football championships (Euro 2000) held in Belgium and the Netherlands in 2000, authorities embarked on a strategy that involved maximal use of international police co-operation. To evaluate the effort, feedback from foreign police officers deployed during Euro 2000 was explicitly sought. In each host city a team of observers carried out systematic observations and an international monitoring team independently made their own observations. In this paper Euro 2000 is used as a case study to investigate the nature of the international police cooperation in practice and its contribution to the management of public order. http://www.uff.br/esportesociedade/pdf/es1901.pdf
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a case study of the riots in the Dutch neighbourhood of Ondiep (Utrecht) that took place after a police officer shot a local resident with fatal consequences on 11 March 2007. It is based on a study carried out by the Police Academy of The Netherlands and the Tilburg School of Politics and Public Administration (University of Tilburg) and its resulting publication: ‘Riots in Ondiep: the onset and engagement of large-scale public disturbances in a disadvantaged neighbourhood of Utrecht’. The research group aimed to establish a reconstruction of the events and circumstances of those riots as experienced by the different parties to the events. This paper gives a brief overview of the events as they occurred with a particular focus on the actions of the Utrecht police department and their safety partners. It is argued that a combination of repressive measures and an emphasis on police–community relations prevented the riots from spreading to the general population of Ondiep, by looking at some of the short and long-term actions, tactics and strategies of the Utrecht police.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Policing and Society
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    Otto Adang
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents the results of an international comparative study into public disorder and collective violence in relation to large-scale events carried out in Germany, Great Britain and Sweden. The study was carried out in parallel to a Dutch study that sought to answer the question whether events at a dance festival in Hoek van Holland in august 2009 where police officers were attacked and fired numerous shots, killing one individual, were the expression of a new trend or phenomenon regarding (the threat of) collective violence against police officers (and others) during large scale events. The results of this international study indicate there is no new trend in this respect and confirm that the mechanics of the initiation and escalation of violence are essentially the same for both ideologically and non-ideologically motivated actors and that factors responsible for the initiation of collective violence are not the same as the factors that lead to the escalation of collective violence (in the sense that the violence continues and more people become involved). The initiation/escalation model provides a comprehensive framework to understand why and how collective violence occurs and provides a guide as to what types of intervention can and will be effective (or counterproductive) in preventing collective violence from occurring or escalating and what types of intervention will not. The conclusion of the study is that the most important lesson to be taken from Hoek van Holland and from the international study is not to be found in a need for new and more effective weapons or new and expanded preventive powers, but in a renewed consciousness of and alertness for what matters in ensuring safety and security around public events: thorough preparation, gathering and using intelligence on habitual offenders, preventing and limiting opportunities to behave violently with impunity, monitoring behaviour of participants, using early, low profile interventions and enforcing tolerance limits that are perceived to be reasonable in a friendly, firm and believable way.
    Full-text · Book · Apr 2011
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    Otto M.J. Adang
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    ABSTRACT: Police forces differ in the methods of intervention used to maintain law and order in major events that endanger public order, like high risk soccer matches and certain public demonstrations. Traditionally, the emphasis on police performance and training is put on riot control tactics and use of nonlethal weapons, from batons and chemicals to water cannons and rubber bullets. Most studies generally fail to consider the perspective of the police and ignore the fact that the events of public order are intergroup processes and a consequence of interactions in development. In this paper, we present the results of some empirical research on the role of police in maintaining public order, which put into question the traditional perspectives of behavior of the masses.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Caderno CRH
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    Martina Schreiber · Otto Adang
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    ABSTRACT: The FIFA World Championships 2006 in Germany have been praised for their positive atmosphere and described as a ‘fairy tale’. Yet, more than 9000 persons were arrested. This paper presents an analysis of police tactics and deployments and their relation to the frequency of incidents and the group relations between fans and between fans and police. Data collection was carried out within three host cities in North Rhine-Westphalia in relation to 10 games of the tournament, drawing on a combination of structured and qualitative observational methods. The outcomes are mixed. Group relations were mostly positive, indicated by positive interaction between fan groups; however, frequency of incidents and arrests suggest that the tournament was not as peaceful as the media coverage may have implied. Deeper analyses suggest that legitimate group relations and positive fan behaviour were associated with differentiated policing, carried out in relation to the situational context and the actual risk present.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Policing and Society
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    OTTO M. J. ADANG
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term data on the occurrence of “teasing” in young chimpanzees living in the Arnhem Zoo chimpanzee colony are presented. They strengthen the hypotheses—presented in earlier papers—concerning the existence of two functional forms of this so-called quasi-aggressive behaviour and provide insight into the way in which they develop. Developmental changes are visible both in the performance of quasi-aggressive behaviour and in the effects evoked by the behaviour. The purpose of the reducing uncertainty type of quasi-aggressive behaviour, performed by male and female youngsters towards adult females, is to obtain more predictable responses. As youngsters grow older, they engage in this behaviour also to gain control over the responses of the target animals. Eventually, the quasi-aggressive behaviour of male youngsters develops into adult-like bluff and attack behaviour the purpose of which is to establish dominance relationships. The investigating authority type of quasi-aggressive behaviour, directed towards adult males, is associated increasingly with the exercise of power by the target males. The youngsters increasingly behave submissively towards the males and direct quasi-aggressive behaviour especially towards the alpha-male at moments when he is bluffing or involved in other conspicuous social interactions. These and other changes in the relationship between adult males and male youngsters are already visible well before the onset of puberty in the youngsters.It is discussed in how far the development of these exploratory aggression types involves social learning processes and how this fits in with current concepts concerning the development of aggressive behaviour.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Ethology
  • Martina Schreiber · Otto Adang
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines how Dortmund police dealt with the dilemma of providing for both a ‘time to make friends’ and security at the high-risk game between Germany and Poland during the World Cup 2006. It was expected that the application of a friendly but firm low profile approach would establish positive group relations and marginalize disorderly behaviour. Data collection was carried out in real time on policing strategy and tactics and fan psychology, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Specifically, the study compares two incidents that occurred in the city centre on match day, resulting in more than 400 arrests. Findings suggest that a successful event is not only related to the absence of disorder but a matter of facilitating legitimate behaviour, while a concentration on risk fans bears the danger of creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. The role of preventive arrests and media reports are also discussed.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010
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    Otto Adang

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010
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    Otto Adang
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    ABSTRACT: En general, l’avaluació sobre operatius policials de gran envergadura es limita a casos de desordre sever i es dificulta per la tensió emergent per la recerca de culpes i l’aprenentatge per al futur. L’avaluació, però, hauria de ser un mitjà per identificar les pràctiques recomanables i millorar la professionalitat, en lloc de ser un instrument per sancionar o justificar. Per a un cos policial que està interessat en l’aprenentatge organitzatiu no és rellevant si va haver-hi o no desordre greu. El Grup de Treball de Cooperació Policial de la Unió Europea va acordar formar uns equips d’avaluació policial amb integrants de diferents països per dur a terme, de manera voluntària, avaluacions sobre la gestió de l’ordre públic en el context de partits de futbol internacionals. La iniciativa té l’objectiu de contribuir significativament a l’aprenentatge organitzatiu facilitant la identificació de pràctiques recomanables, l’intercanvi d’experiències i el desenvolupament continu de normes professionals.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2009
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    ABSTRACT: This article provides the background to an international project on use of force by the police that was carried out in seven countries. Force is often considered to be the defining characteristic of policing and much research has been conducted on the determinants, prevalence and control of the use of force, particularly in the United States. However, little work has looked at police officers' own views on the use of force, in particular the way in which they justify it. Using a hypothetical encounter developed for this project, researchers in each country conducted focus groups with police officers in which they were encouraged to talk about the use of force. The results show interesting similarities and differences across countries and demonstrate the value of using this kind of research focus and methodology. Yes Yes
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Crime Law and Social Change
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    ABSTRACT: This article focuses on a research project conducted in six jurisdictions: England, The Netherlands, Germany, Australia, Venezuela, and Brazil. These societies are very different ethnically, socially, politically, economically, historically and have wildly different levels of crime. Their policing arrangements also differ significantly: how they are organised; how their officers are equipped and trained; what routine operating procedures they employ; whether they are armed; and much else besides. Most relevant for this research, they represent policing systems with wildly different levels of police shootings, Police in the two Latin American countries represented here have a justified reputation for the frequency with which they shoot people, whereas at the other extreme the police in England do not routinely carry firearms and rarely shoot anyone. To probe whether these differences are reflected in the way that officers talk about the use of force, police officers in these different jurisdictions were invited to discuss in focus groups a scenario in which police are thwarted in their attempt to arrest two youths (one of whom is a known local criminal) by the youths driving off with the police in pursuit, and concludes with the youths crashing their car and escaping in apparent possession of a gun, It might be expected that focus groups would prove starkly different, and indeed they were, but not in the way that might be expected. There was little difference in affirmation of normative and legal standards regarding the use of force. It was in how officers in different jurisdictions envisaged the circumstances in which the scenario took place that led Latin American officers to anticipate that they would shoot the suspects, whereas officers in the other jurisdictions had little expectation that they would open fire in the conditions as they imagined them to be.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Crime Law and Social Change
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    ABSTRACT: This paper contributes to the science of crowd dynamics and psychology by examining the social psychological processes related to the relative absence of "hooliganism" at the Finals of the 2004 Union Européenne de Football Association (UEFA) Football (Soccer) Championships in Portugal. Quantitative data from a structured observational study is integrated with data from a questionnaire survey of a group associated ubiquitously with 'hooliganism'--namely England fans. This analysis provides support for the contention that the absence of 'disorder' can be attributed in large part to the non-paramilitary policing style adopted in cities hosting tournament matches. Evidence is presented which suggests that this style of policing supported forms of non-violent collective psychology that, in turn, served to psychologically marginalise violent groups from the wider community of fans. The study highlights the mutually constructive relationships that can be created between psychological theory, research, policing policy and practice, particularly in relation to the successful management of 'public order'. The paper concludes by exploring some of the wider implications of this research for theory, policy, the management of crowds, social conflict, and human rights more generally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Psychology Public Policy and Law

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