Otto M.J. Adang

Otto M.J. Adang
Politieacademie · Knowledge and Research

prof dr

About

45
Publications
28,585
Reads
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850
Citations
Introduction
I am a behavioural scientist interested in aggression, reconciliation and collective behaviour, specifically in the way in which individuals regulate conflicts and social tension. I have published in social psychology, investigative psychology, social simulation, criminal justice, criminology, police studies, human rights, ethology, primatology. For the connection between my research on chimpanzees and humans, see interview by Michael Hagmann in Science, vol 289, p. 572, 28 July 2000).
Additional affiliations
April 2016 - present
University of Groningen
Position
  • Professor of Security and Collective Behavior
July 2004 - October 2010
University of Liverpool
July 2004 - present
Politieacademie
Position
  • Chair, Public order management

Publications

Publications (45)
Article
Several European countries have recently been confronted with mutually arranged confrontations between hooligan groups in a predesignated setting. This article explores the significance of this form of collective violence for those involved and how this relates to existing collective violence theory. In addition to international and national questi...
Article
This study explores individual characteristics linked to an increased risk of persistence in collective violence. A sample of collective violence offenders (n = 438) was identified based on individuals’ involvement in a collective violence incident in 2011/2012 or due to them being recorded in a police database of ‘known’ football hooligans. For th...
Chapter
This chapter introduces pioneering studies that explore the applicability and integrative potential of a relational perspective for group conflict and reconciliation between police and civilians. It shows how interactions at the institutional, group, and individual levels affect whether or not a transformation from conflictive to cooperative group...
Article
Since the 1970s theoretical and empirical work on public violence has mainly focused on the context in which public violence takes place, assuming that public violence offenders are ordinary people acting in extraordinary circumstances. Recent studies however indicate that ‘hooligans’ share many characteristics with other violent offenders, which h...
Article
The article outlines a methodology for systematically observing collective violence (and public order policing in relation to it). Specific attention is given to matters of sampling and measurement and to the way in which observational challenges have been met in comparison with participant observational studies of demonstrations and football match...
Article
Full-text available
This paper sets out to describe and explore experiences gained in the course of ten years with a non-blaming, nonadversarial learning methodology, as applied in the context of the policing of major events, where at the request of a host, peers gather data during events as they occur and a one-sided focus on errors is avoided. This peer review metho...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interaction of police and citizen representatives during critical moments in reconciliation processes through a relational model. Design/methodology/approach – Based on 26 in-depth interviews with key actors in three different cases of media-salient police-citizen group conflict, the interactio...
Article
Two dominant perspectives explaining collective violence differ in the extent to which they ascribe influence to individual and contextual factors. Our analysis of a project X disorder in the Netherlands shows organized groups were not involved. Instead spontaneous group formation and identification were observed, confirming socio-contextual theory...
Article
For several years the Netherlands has been facing group violence around football matches and other recreational events. Offenders involved may be characterized as notorious troublemakers, incidental offenders or ‘new hooligans’. Notorious troublemakers and new hooligans actively look for risky situations. Their behavior is related to both contextua...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a relational perspective to the analysis of the interaction process from confrontation to cooperation between police and civilians. By exploring a single case study on riots between Dutch youths of Moluccan descent and the police during New Year's Eve 2007, followed by a peaceful celebration a year later in 2008, the process o...
Article
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The use of computer simulations in crowd research is a powerful tool to describe and analyse complex social systems. This paper presents CROSS, a generic framework to model crowd simulations as a social scientific tool for understanding crowd behaviour. In CROSS, individuals are represented by social-cognitive agents that are affected by their soci...
Article
Following disturbances during the EU summit in Gothenburg in 2001, the Swedish police adopted a new concept, called special police tactics, for the policing of public order. In 2006, the Swedish National Police Board decided to start a 3-year project to develop a long term strategy for knowledge development with regard to these tactics, integrating...
Article
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Pocos estudios han analizado directamente qué pasa durante los eventos colectivos y qué factores contribuyen al inicio y a la escalada de la violencia colectiva. En este artículo, se presenta y analiza información obtenida a través de observaciones sistemáticas de alrededor de 60 partidos de fútbol y 77 protestas en Holanda, considerado como un rie...
Chapter
Full-text available
In 1986, Fyfe drew attention to what he called the split-second syndrome: the feeling that since no two street situations are alike, it is impossible to train officers in other than very broad tactical skills. The split-second syndrome is based on the mistaken idea that decisions officers make in dealing with dangerous situations are typically made...
Article
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For the European football championships (Euro 2000) held in Belgium and the Netherlands in 2000, authorities embarked on a strategy that involved maximal use of international police co-operation. To evaluate the effort, feedback from foreign police officers deployed during Euro 2000 was explicitly sought. In each host city a team of observers carri...
Article
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This paper presents a case study of the riots in the Dutch neighbourhood of Ondiep (Utrecht) that took place after a police officer shot a local resident with fatal consequences on 11 March 2007. It is based on a study carried out by the Police Academy of The Netherlands and the Tilburg School of Politics and Public Administration (University of Ti...
Book
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This report presents the results of an international comparative study into public disorder and collective violence in relation to large-scale events carried out in Germany, Great Britain and Sweden. The study was carried out in parallel to a Dutch study that sought to answer the question whether events at a dance festival in Hoek van Holland in au...
Article
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Police forces differ in the methods of intervention used to maintain law and order in major events that endanger public order, like high risk soccer matches and certain public demonstrations. Traditionally, the emphasis on police performance and training is put on riot control tactics and use of nonlethal weapons, from batons and chemicals to water...
Article
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The FIFA World Championships 2006 in Germany have been praised for their positive atmosphere and described as a ‘fairy tale’. Yet, more than 9000 persons were arrested. This paper presents an analysis of police tactics and deployments and their relation to the frequency of incidents and the group relations between fans and between fans and police....
Article
Long-term data on the occurrence of “teasing” in young chimpanzees living in the Arnhem Zoo chimpanzee colony are presented. They strengthen the hypotheses—presented in earlier papers—concerning the existence of two functional forms of this so-called quasi-aggressive behaviour and provide insight into the way in which they develop. Developmental ch...
Article
This study examines how Dortmund police dealt with the dilemma of providing for both a ‘time to make friends’ and security at the high-risk game between Germany and Poland during the World Cup 2006. It was expected that the application of a friendly but firm low profile approach would establish positive group relations and marginalize disorderly be...
Article
Full-text available
En general, l’avaluació sobre operatius policials de gran envergadura es limita a casos de desordre sever i es dificulta per la tensió emergent per la recerca de culpes i l’aprenentatge per al futur. L’avaluació, però, hauria de ser un mitjà per identificar les pràctiques recomanables i millorar la professionalitat, en lloc de ser un instrument per...
Article
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This article focuses on a research project conducted in six jurisdictions: England, The Netherlands, Germany, Australia, Venezuela, and Brazil. These societies are very different ethnically, socially, politically, economically, historically and have wildly different levels of crime. Their policing arrangements also differ significantly: how they ar...
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This article provides the background to an international project on use of force by the police that was carried out in seven countries. Force is often considered to be the defining characteristic of policing and much research has been conducted on the determinants, prevalence and control of the use of force, particularly in the United States. Howev...
Article
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This paper contributes to the science of crowd dynamics and psychology by examining the social psychological processes related to the relative absence of "hooliganism" at the Finals of the 2004 Union Européenne de Football Association (UEFA) Football (Soccer) Championships in Portugal. Quantitative data from a structured observational study is inte...
Book
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At a European level, on several occasions, the EU Police Cooperation Working Party (PCWP) identified the need for continuous evaluation and review of measures taken by Member States to counter football-related violence. At the April 26, 2005 meeting the Dutch delegation proposed to the PCWP internationally composed police peer review evaluation tea...
Article
Much public order policing is still based on the assumption that crowds are inherently irrational and dangerous. We argue that this approach is both misinformed and counter-productive because it can lead to policing interventions that increase the influence of those advocating violence in the crowd. We challenge traditional assumptions about crowd...
Article
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This paper presents an analysis of collective behaviour among England football fans attending the European football championships in Portugal (Euro2004). Given this category's violent reputation, a key goal was to explore the processes underlying their apparent shift away from conflict in match cities. Drawing from the elaborated social identity mo...
Article
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Purpose – This paper examines potential correlates of the effectiveness of oleoresin capsicum (OC) or pepper spray and police officer satisfaction with its performance during use-of-force encounters. Design/methodology/approach – Based on surveys completed by police officers, superior officers, and substitute prosecutors, data on nearly 800 uses of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper uses recent developments in crowd psychology as the basis for developing new guidelines for public order policing. Argues that the classical view of all crowd members as being inherently irrational and suggestible, and therefore potentially violent, is both wrong and potentially dangerous. It can lead to policing strategies that respond...
Article
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The paper presents data on street trials held with pepper spray in four police forces in The Netherlands and compares these with other research findings, specifically with regard to the safety and effectiveness of pepper spray and the position of pepper spray in the use-of-force continuum. There is little doubt that the use of Oleoresin Capsicum ca...
Thesis
Young chimpanzees in the Arnhem Zoo chimpanzee colony are frequently observed throwing sticks and stones at adult groupmembers, slapping or punching them. This behaviour becomes noticeable at the age of two and continues until adolescence, at about the age of nine. Even occasional punishment does not discourage the youngsters from persisting in thi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Quasi-aggressive behaviour, or provocative behaviour seems to be a means for young chimpanzees to acquire information from their targets. They information they obtain helps them to function properly in their social environment.The special value of the study discussed here lies in the deeper insight it provides about the way in which chimpanzee youn...
Article
Youngsters in the Arnhem Zoo chimpanzee colony frequently "bother" adult group-members. They throw sticks and sand at them, hit them from behind, etc. , and dash away immediately. This occurs without apparent instigation and in spite of the fact that they may be punished. Earlier data led to the hypothesis that this so-called quasi-aggressive behav...
Article
Juveniles and infants in the large chimpanzee colony in Arnhem Zoo (The Netherlands) regularly direct seemingly "annoying" behaviour towards senior group-members. It is not clear whether this "annoying" behaviour is best regarded as a form of play or as a form of aggression or whether it falls into an intermediate category. An inventarisation of th...

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