Otmar Hilliges

Otmar Hilliges
ETH Zurich | ETH Zürich · Department of Computer Science

Professor

About

214
Publications
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12,677
Citations

Publications

Publications (214)
Article
A unique challenge in creating high-quality animatable and relightable 3D avatars of real people is modeling human eyes, particularly in conjunction with the surrounding periocular face region. The challenge of synthesizing eyes is multifold as it requires 1) appropriate representations for the various components of the eye and the periocular regio...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce the dynamic grasp synthesis task: given an object with a known 6D pose and a grasp reference, our goal is to generate motions that move the object to a target 6D pose. This is challenging, because it requires reasoning about the complex articulation of the human hand and the intricate physical interaction with the object. We propose a...
Preprint
Full-text available
A unique challenge in creating high-quality animatable and relightable 3D avatars of people is modeling human eyes. The challenge of synthesizing eyes is multifold as it requires 1) appropriate representations for the various components of the eye and the periocular region for coherent viewpoint synthesis, capable of representing diffuse, refractiv...
Preprint
Efficient exploration is a crucial challenge in deep reinforcement learning. Several methods, such as behavioral priors, are able to leverage offline data in order to efficiently accelerate reinforcement learning on complex tasks. However, if the task at hand deviates excessively from the demonstrated task, the effectiveness of such methods is limi...
Article
Kinesthetic garments provide physical feedback on body posture and motion through tailored distributions of reinforced material. Their ability to selectively stiffen a garment's response to specific motions makes them appealing for rehabilitation, sports, robotics, and many other application fields. However, finding designs that distribute a given...
Preprint
We use our hands to interact with and to manipulate objects. Articulated objects are especially interesting since they often require the full dexterity of human hands to manipulate them. To understand, model, and synthesize such interactions, automatic and robust methods that reconstruct hands and articulated objects in 3D from a color image are ne...
Preprint
Full-text available
Kinesthetic garments provide physical feedback on body posture and motion through tailored distributions of reinforced material. Their ability to selectively stiffen a garment's response to specific motions makes them appealing for rehabilitation, sports, robotics, and many other application fields. However, finding designs that distribute a given...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neural face avatars that are trained from multi-view data captured in camera domes can produce photo-realistic 3D reconstructions. However, at inference time, they must be driven by limited inputs such as partial views recorded by headset-mounted cameras or a front-facing camera, and sparse facial landmarks. To mitigate this asymmetry, we introduce...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a novel method to learn Personalized Implicit Neural Avatars (PINA) from a short RGB-D sequence. This allows non-expert users to create a detailed and personalized virtual copy of themselves, which can be animated with realistic clothing deformations. PINA does not require complete scans, nor does it require a prior learned from large da...
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Hugs are complex affective interactions that often include gestures like squeezes. We present six new guidelines for designing interactive hugging robots, which we validate through two studies with our custom robot. To achieve autonomy, we investigated robot responses to four human intra-hug gestures: holding, rubbing, patting, and squeezing. Thirt...
Preprint
To make 3D human avatars widely available, we must be able to generate a variety of 3D virtual humans with varied identities and shapes in arbitrary poses. This task is challenging due to the diversity of clothed body shapes, their complex articulations, and the resulting rich, yet stochastic geometric detail in clothing. Hence, current methods to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human grasping synthesis has numerous applications including AR/VR, video games, and robotics. While some methods have been proposed to generate realistic hand-object interaction for object grasping and manipulation, they typically only consider the hand interacting with objects. In this work, our goal is to synthesize whole-body grasping motion. G...
Preprint
Traditional morphable face models provide fine-grained control over expression but cannot easily capture geometric and appearance details. Neural volumetric representations approach photo-realism but are hard to animate and do not generalize well to unseen expressions. To tackle this problem, we propose IMavatar (Implicit Morphable avatar), a novel...
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Full-text available
Capturing the dynamically deforming 3D shape of clothed human is essential for numerous applications, including VR/AR, autonomous driving, and human-computer interaction. Existing methods either require a highly specialized capturing setup, such as expensive multi-view imaging systems, or they lack robustness to challenging body poses. In this work...
Preprint
Upsampling videos of human activity is an interesting yet challenging task with many potential applications ranging from gaming to entertainment and sports broadcasting. The main difficulty in synthesizing video frames in this setting stems from the highly complex and non-linear nature of human motion and the complex appearance and texture of the b...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we contribute a simple yet effective approach for estimating 3D poses of multiple people from multi-view images. Our proposed coarse-to-fine pipeline first aggregates noisy 2D observations from multiple camera views into 3D space and then associates them into individual instances based on a confidence-aware majority voting technique....
Preprint
Due to the lack of camera parameter information for in-the-wild images, existing 3D human pose and shape (HPS) estimation methods make several simplifying assumptions: weak-perspective projection, large constant focal length, and zero camera rotation. These assumptions often do not hold and we show, quantitatively and qualitatively, that they cause...
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We present Hand ArticuLated Occupancy (HALO), a novel representation of articulated hands that bridges the advantages of 3D keypoints and neural implicit surfaces and can be used in end-to-end trainable architectures. Unlike existing statistical parametric hand models (e.g.~MANO), HALO directly leverages 3D joint skeleton as input and produces a ne...
Preprint
Full-text available
In natural conversation and interaction, our hands often overlap or are in contact with each other. Due to the homogeneous appearance of hands, this makes estimating the 3D pose of interacting hands from images difficult. In this paper we demonstrate that self-similarity, and the resulting ambiguities in assigning pixel observations to the respecti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Acquiring accurate 3D annotated data for hand pose estimation is a notoriously difficult problem. This typically requires complex multi-camera setups and controlled conditions, which in turn creates a domain gap that is hard to bridge to fully unconstrained settings. Encouraged by the success of contrastive learning on image classification tasks, w...
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Full-text available
Hand pose estimation is difficult due to different environmental conditions, object- and self-occlusion as well as diversity in hand shape and appearance. Exhaustively covering this wide range of factors in fully annotated datasets has remained impractical, posing significant challenges for generalization of supervised methods. Embracing this chall...
Preprint
Despite significant progress, we show that state of the art 3D human pose and shape estimation methods remain sensitive to partial occlusion and can produce dramatically wrong predictions although much of the body is observable. To address this, we introduce a soft attention mechanism, called the Part Attention REgressor (PARE), that learns to pred...
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Full-text available
Deep generative models have recently demonstrated the ability to synthesize photorealistic images of human faces with novel identities. A key challenge to the wide applicability of such techniques is to provide independent control over semantically meaningful parameters: appearance, head pose, face shape, and facial expressions. In this paper, we p...
Preprint
Neural implicit surface representations have emerged as a promising paradigm to capture 3D shapes in a continuous and resolution-independent manner. However, adapting them to articulated shapes is non-trivial. Existing approaches learn a backward warp field that maps deformed to canonical points. However, this is problematic since the backward warp...
Article
In this paper we address the challenge of exploration in deep reinforcement learning for robotic manipulation tasks. In sparse goal settings, an agent does not receive any positive feedback until randomly achieving the goal, which becomes infeasible for longer control sequences. Inspired by touch-based exploration observed in children, we formulate...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we address the challenge of exploration in deep reinforcement learning for robotic manipulation tasks. In sparse goal settings, an agent does not receive any positive feedback until randomly achieving the goal, which becomes infeasible for longer control sequences. Inspired by touch-based exploration observed in children, we formulate...
Article
We present HiDe, a novel hierarchical reinforcement learning architecture that successfully solves long horizon control tasks and generalizes to unseen test scenarios. Functional decomposition between planning and low-level control is achieved by explicitly separating the state-action spaces across the hierarchy, which allows the integration of tas...
Preprint
Full-text available
Receiving a hug is one of the best ways to feel socially supported, and the lack of social touch can have severe negative effects on an individual's well-being. Based on previous research both within and outside of HRI, we propose six tenets ("commandments") of natural and enjoyable robotic hugging: a hugging robot should be soft, be warm, be human...
Preprint
The task of estimating the 6D pose of an object from RGB images can be broken down into two main steps: an initial pose estimation step, followed by a refinement procedure to correctly register the object and its observation. In this paper, we propose a new method for 6D pose estimation refinement from RGB images. To achieve high accuracy of the fi...
Chapter
Many object pose estimation algorithms rely on the analysis-by-synthesis framework which requires explicit representations of individual object instances. In this paper we combine a gradient-based fitting procedure with a parametric neural image synthesis module that is capable of implicitly representing the appearance, shape and pose of entire obj...
Chapter
We propose a novel algorithm for the fitting of 3D human shape to images. Combining the accuracy and refinement capabilities of iterative gradient-based optimization techniques with the robustness of deep neural networks, we propose a gradient descent algorithm that leverages a neural network to predict the parameter update rule for each iteration....
Article
Full-text available
How do people decide how long to continue in a task, when to switch, and to which other task? It is known that task interleaving adapts situationally, showing sensitivity to changes in expected rewards, costs, and task boundaries. However, the mechanisms that underpin the decision to stay in a task versus switch away are not thoroughly understood....
Chapter
Estimating 3D hand pose from 2D images is a difficult, inverse problem due to the inherent scale and depth ambiguities. Current state-of-the-art methods train fully supervised deep neural networks with 3D ground-truth data. However, acquiring 3D annotations is expensive, typically requiring calibrated multi-view setups or labour intensive manual an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many computer vision tasks rely on labeled data. Rapid progress in generative modeling has led to the ability to synthesize photorealistic images. However, controlling specific aspects of the generation process such that the data can be used for supervision of downstream tasks remains challenging. In this paper we propose a novel generative model f...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper we propose a convolutional autoencoder to address the problem of motion infilling for 3D human motion data. Given a start and end sequence, motion infilling aims to complete the missing gap in between, such that the filled in poses plausibly forecast the start sequence and naturally transition into the end sequence. To this end, we pr...
Chapter
Estimating eye-gaze from images alone is a challenging task, in large parts due to un-observable person-specific factors. Achieving high accuracy typically requires labeled data from test users which may not be attainable in real applications. We observe that there exists a strong relationship between what users are looking at and the appearance of...
Chapter
Gaze estimation is a fundamental task in many applications of computer vision, human computer interaction and robotics. Many state-of-the-art methods are trained and tested on custom datasets, making comparison across methods challenging. Furthermore, existing gaze estimation datasets have limited head pose and gaze variations, and the evaluations...
Preprint
We propose a novel algorithm for the fitting of 3D human shape to images. Combining the accuracy and refinement capabilities of iterative gradient-based optimization techniques with the robustness of deep neural networks, we propose a gradient descent algorithm that leverages a neural network to predict the parameter update rule for each iteration....
Preprint
Many object pose estimation algorithms rely on the analysis-by-synthesis framework which requires explicit representations of individual object instances. In this paper we combine a gradient-based fitting procedure with a parametric neural image synthesis module that is capable of implicitly representing the appearance, shape and pose of entire obj...
Preprint
Gaze estimation is a fundamental task in many applications of computer vision, human computer interaction and robotics. Many state-of-the-art methods are trained and tested on custom datasets, making comparison across methods challenging. Furthermore, existing gaze estimation datasets have limited head pose and gaze variations, and the evaluations...
Preprint
Full-text available
Estimating eye-gaze from images alone is a challenging task, in large parts due to un-observable person-specific factors. Achieving high accuracy typically requires labeled data from test users which may not be attainable in real applications. We observe that there exists a strong relationship between what users are looking at and the appearance of...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper proposes an approach to detect information relevance during decision-making from eye movements in order to enable user interface adaptation. This is a challenging task because gaze behavior varies greatly across individual users and tasks and groundtruth data is difficult to obtain. Thus, prior work has mostly focused on simpler target-s...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a generative model for stroke-based drawing tasks which is able to model complex free-form structures. While previous approaches rely on sequence-based models for drawings of basic objects or handwritten text, we propose a model that treats drawings as a collection of strokes that can be composed into complex structures such as diagrams...
Article
We propose an approach to capture subjective first-person view (FPV) videos by drones for automated cinematography. FPV shots are intentionally not smooth to increase the level of immersion for the audience, and are usually captured by a walking camera operator holding traditional camera equipment. Our goal is to automatically control a drone in su...
Article
3D gaze tracking from a single RGB camera is very challenging due to the lack of information in determining the accurate gaze target from a monocular RGB sequence. The eyes tend to occupy only a small portion of the video, and even small errors in estimated eye orientations can lead to very large errors in the triangulated gaze target. We overcome...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a novel architecture for the task of 3D human motion modelling. We argue that the problem can be interpreted as a generative modelling task: A network learns the conditional synthesis of human poses where the model is conditioned on a seed sequence. Our focus lies on the generation of plausible future developments over lon...
Preprint
Estimating 3D hand pose from 2D images is a difficult, inverse problem due to the inherent scale and depth ambiguities. Current state-of-the-art methods train fully supervised deep neural networks with 3D ground-truth data. However, acquiring 3D annotations is expensive, typically requiring calibrated multi-view setups or labor intensive manual ann...
Preprint
Full-text available
We are releasing a dataset of diagram drawings with dynamic drawing information. The dataset aims to foster research in interactive graphical symbolic understanding. The dataset was obtained using a prompted data collection effort.
Preprint
Full-text available
We present HiDe, a novel hierarchical reinforcement learning architecture that successfully solves long horizon control tasks and generalizes to unseen test scenarios. Functional decomposition between planning and low-level control is achieved by explicitly separating the state-action spaces across the hierarchy, which allows the integration of tas...
Article
In this paper we propose a robotic vision task with the goal of enabling robots to execute complex assembly tasks in unstructured environments using a camera as the primary sensing device. We formulate the task as an instance of 6D pose estimation of template geometries, to which manipulation objects should be connected. In contrast to the standard...