Ossi Nokelainen

Ossi Nokelainen
University of Jyväskylä | JYU ·  Department of Biological and Environmental Science

PhD (Ecology and Evolutionary Biology)

About

38
Publications
11,695
Reads
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717
Citations
Introduction
I am broadly interested in animal coloration, polymorphism and predator-prey interactions. I use multispectral imaging, vision modeling and experimental approaches at the interface of sensory and evolutionary ecology. I am especially interested how animals see the world and how perception shapes the function of coloration in animals. Follow me on Twitter: Evolutionary biologist. Birder. Explorer.
Additional affiliations
September 2014 - September 2015
University of Cambridge
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Host plant ecology of Bicyclus safitza butterfly in South Africa.
April 2013 - present
University of Jyväskylä
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (38)
Article
Nokelainen and Stevens introduce strategies of concealment among animals and plants.
Article
Full-text available
The Miocene radiation of C4 grasses under high-temperature and low ambient CO2 levels occurred alongside the transformation of a largely forested landscape into savanna. This inevitably changed the host plant regime of herbivores, and the simultaneous diversification of many consumer lineages, including Bicyclus butterflies in Africa, suggests that t...
Article
Full-text available
Polymorphic warning signals in aposematic species are enigmatic because predator learning and discrimination should select for the most common coloration, resulting in positive frequency-dependent survival selection. Here, we investigated whether differential mating success could create sufficiently strong negative frequency-dependent selection fo...
Article
Full-text available
1.Polymorphism in warning coloration is puzzling because positive frequency-dependent selection by predators is expected to promote monomorphic warning signals in defended prey. 2.We studied predation on the warning-coloured wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) by using artificial prey resembling white and yellow male colour morphs in five separ...
Article
Full-text available
Rojas et al provide a quickguide to animal warning signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
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The definition of colour polymorphism is intuitive: genetic variants express discretely coloured phenotypes. This classification is, however, elusive as humans form subjective categories or ignore differences that cannot be seen by human eyes. We demonstrate an example of a 'cryptic morph' in a polymorphic wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis), a ph...
Article
A well‐known example of visual camouflage in birds is the plumage coloration of the Eurasian Treecreeper Certhia familiaris, yet this species’ camouflage has never been objectively quantified. Here, we quantify treecreeper camouflage in its boreal forest habitat, test whether treecreepers better match tree backgrounds at nest site, territory or hab...
Article
Full-text available
The giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) is an iconic mammal, but the function of its black-and-white coloration is mysterious. Using photographs of giant pandas taken in the wild and state-of-the-art image analysis, we confirm the counterintuitive hypothesis that their coloration provides camouflage in their natural environment. The black fur bl...
Article
Full-text available
A big question in behavioral ecology is what drives diversity of color signals. One possible explanation is that environmental conditions, such as light environment, may alter visual signaling of prey, which could affect predator decision-making. Here, we tested the context-dependent predator selection on prey coloration. In the first experiment, w...
Article
Full-text available
Aposematic organisms warn predators of their unprofitability using a combination of defenses, including visual warning signals, startling sounds, noxious odors, or aversive tastes. Using multiple lines of defense can help prey avoid predators by stimulating multiple senses and/or by acting at different stages of predation. We tested the efficacy of...
Article
Vision is a vital attribute to foraging, navigation, mate selection and social signalling in animals, which often have a very different colour perception in comparison to humans. For understanding how animal colour perception works, vision models provide the smallest colour difference that animals of a given species are assumed to detect. To determ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding what maintains the broad spectrum of variation in animal phenotypes and how this influences survival is a key question in biology. Frequency dependent selection – where predators temporarily focus on one morph at the expense of others by forming a “search image” – can help explain this phenomenon. However, past work has never tested r...
Article
Full-text available
Warning signals are predicted to develop signal monomorphism via positive frequency‐dependent selection (+FDS) albeit many aposematic systems exhibit signal polymorphism. To understand this mismatch, we conducted a large‐scale predation experiment in four countries, among which the frequencies of hindwing warning coloration of the aposematic moth,...
Article
Full-text available
Deserts and semi-deserts, such as the Sahara-Sahel region in North Africa, are exposed environments with restricted vegetation coverage. Due to limited physical surface structures, these open areas provide a promising ecosystem to understand selection for crypsis. Here, we review knowledge on camouflage adaptation in the Sahara-Sahel rodent communi...
Article
Full-text available
The coconut crab Birgus latro , the largest terrestrial decapod, is under threat in most parts of its geographical range. Its life cycle involves two biomes (restricted terrestrial habitats near the coast, and salt water currents of the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans). Its dependence on coastal habitat means it is highly vulnerable to the habit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Warning signals are predicted to develop signal monomorphism via positive frequency-dependent selection (+FDS) albeit many aposematic systems exhibit signal polymorphism. To understand this mismatch, we conducted a large-scale predation experiment in four locations, among which the frequencies of hindwing warning coloration of aposematic Arctia pla...
Article
Full-text available
Camouflage helps animals to hide from predators and is therefore key to survival. Although widespread convergence of animal phenotypes to their natural environment is well established, there is a lack of knowledge about how species compromise camouflage accuracy across different background types in their habitat. Here we tested how background match...
Article
Full-text available
1.Predation is an important selective pressure and some prey have evolved conspicuous warning signals that advertise unpalatability (i.e. aposematism) as an antipredator defence. Conspicuous colour patterns have been shown effective as warning signals, by promoting predator learning and memory. Unexpectedly, some butterfly species from the unpalata...
Article
Full-text available
Animals from many taxa, from snakes and crabs to caterpillars and lobsters, change appearance with age, but the reasons why this occurs are rarely tested. We show the importance that ontogenetic changes in coloration have on the camouflage of the green shore crabs (Carcinus maenas), known for their remarkable phenotypic variation and plasticity in...
Preprint
1. Predation is an important selective pressure and some prey have evolved warning colour signals advertising unpalatability (i.e. aposematism) as an antipredator strategy. Unexpectedly, some butterfly species from the unpalatable tribe Ithomiini possess transparent wings, an adaptation rare on land but common in water where it helps avoiding preda...
Article
Full-text available
Chemically defended animals often display conspicuous color patterns that predators learn to associate with their unprofitability and subsequently avoid. Such animals (i.e., aposematic), deter predators by stimulating their visual and chemical sensory channels. Hence, aposematism is considered to be "multimodal." The evolution of warning signals (a...
Article
Full-text available
Coconut crabs (Birgus latro) are strikingly variable in coloration, but the significance of this colour diversity has never been investigated. We studied coloration, morphology, behaviour and background matching of adult coconut crabs, the world’s largest terrestrial invertebrate, at the western edge of its distribution on Pemba Island, Tanzania. A...
Article
Developmental plasticity enables organisms to cope with environmental heterogeneity, such as seasonal variation in climatic conditions, and is thought to affect a species' capability to adapt to environments with novel seasonal and ecological dynamics. We studied developmental plasticity of the widespread tropical butterfly, Bicyclus safitza, which...
Article
Full-text available
Phenotype–environment associations in coloration often involve camouflage, enabling organisms to blend into their environment and thereby reducing predatory attacks. The nature of any associations may vary among receivers with different visual systems and at different spatial scales, but these effects have rarely been investigated together. We stud...
Data
Figure S1. The relationship between female oviposition preference and the two principal components of larval performance.
Data
Table S1. Between group post hoc comparisons of female oviposition preference, larval growth and survival.
Data
Table S2. Average values of leaf traits by treatment group and species.
Data
Table S3. Regression analyses of female oviposition preference and larval performance with respect to leaf traits of the host plants.
Article
Full-text available
Many plants and animals advertise unpalatability through warning signals in the form of colour and shape. Variation in warning signals within local populations is not expected because they are subject to directional selection. However, mounting evidence of warning signal variation within local populations suggests that other selective forces may be...
Article
Full-text available
Animals can avoid predation by masquerading as objects that are not food to their predators. Alder moth Acronicta alni larvae go through an impressive ontogenetic change from masquerade to highly conspicuous appearance: early larval stages resemble bird droppings but in the last instar the larval coloration changes into striking yellow-and-black st...
Article
Full-text available
Warning signals are expected to evolve towards conspicuousness and monomorphism, and thereby hamper the evolution of multiple colour morphs. Here, we test fitness responses to different rearing densities to explain colour polymorphism in aposematic wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) males. We used larval lines sired by white or yellow adult ma...
Article
Full-text available
Melanin production is often considered costly, yet beneficial for thermoregulation. Studies of variation in melanization and the opposing selective forces that underlie its variability contribute greatly to understanding natural selection. We investigated whether melanization benefits are traded off with predation risk to promote observed local and...
Article
Full-text available
Predation pressure is expected to drive visual warning signals to evolve toward conspicuousness. However, coloration of defended species varies tremendously and can at certain instances be considered as more camouflaged rather than conspicuous. Recent theoretical studies suggest that the variation in signal conspicuousness can be caused by variatio...
Article
Full-text available
Most research into the adaptive significance of warning signals has focused on the colouration and patterns of prey animals. However, behaviour, odour and body shape can also have signal functions and thereby reduce predators' willingness to attack defended prey. European vipers all have a distinctive triangular head shape; and they are all venomou...
Article
Full-text available
The coloration of species can have multiple functions, such as predator avoidance and sexual signalling, that directly affect fitness. As selection should favour traits that positively affect fitness, the genes underlying the trait should reach fixation, thereby preventing the evolution of polymorphisms. This is particularly true for aposematic spe...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
This project investigates multiple selection forces that aposematic and colour polymorphic wood tiger moth face in the wild. This system helps us to understand how predation by birds, diseases, sexual selection and thermoregulation shape phenotypes of individuals.