Oscar Gonzalez

Oscar Gonzalez
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | UNC · Department of Psychology and Neuroscience

PhD

About

27
Publications
5,344
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
307
Citations
Introduction
I'm a psychometrician by training, and I focus on how different aspects of psychological measurement affect the conclusions we make from causal models (i.e., statistical mediation) and prediction models (i.e., machine learning).
Additional affiliations
June 2018 - present
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
June 2013 - June 2018
Arizona State University
Field of study
  • Quantitative Methods
August 2008 - June 2012
University of Notre Dame
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (27)
Article
In psychology, the causal process between 2 variables can be studied with statistical mediation analysis. To make a causal interpretation about the relation between variables, researchers who use the statistical mediation model make many assumptions about the variables in the model, among which are measurement assumptions about the mediator. For ex...
Article
Assessments are commonly used to make a decision about an individual, such as grade placement, treatment assignment, job selection, or to inform a diagnosis. A psychometric approach to classify respondents based on the assessment would aggregate items into a score, and then each respondent's score is compared to a cut score. In contrast, a machine...
Article
When scores are used to make decisions about respondents, it is of interest to estimate classification accuracy (CA), the probability of making a correct decision, and classification consistency (CC), the probability of making the same decision across two parallel administrations of the measure. Model-based estimates of CA and CC computed from the...
Article
Full-text available
Statistical mediation analysis is used to investigate mechanisms through which a randomized intervention causally affects an outcome variable. Mediation analysis is often carried out in a pretest-posttest control group design because it is a common choice for evaluating experimental manipulations in the behavioral and social sciences. There are fou...
Article
Screening measures are used in psychology and medicine to identify respondents who are high or low on a construct. Based on the screening, the evaluator assigns respondents to classes corresponding to different courses of action: Make a diagnosis versus reject a diagnosis; provide services versus withhold services; or conduct further assessment ver...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers and prevention scientists often develop interventions to target intermediate variables (known as mediators) that are thought to be related to an outcome. When researchers target a mediating construct measured by self-report, the meaning of the self-report measure could change from pretest to posttest for the individuals who received the...
Article
Brief measures are important in psychology research because they reduce participant burden. Researchers can select items from longer measures either to build a short-form or to administer items conditional on a participant’s previous responses. Researchers who carry out these item selection strategies either focus on estimating a precise score on t...
Chapter
In psychology and medicine, diagnostic and screening measures are often used to make decisions by comparing the observed score to a cut score. If these measures contain items that exhibit measurement bias, then there might be systematic inaccuracies of who gets “caught” by the selection process. Traditionally, approaches that flag items for bias do...
Article
When items in a screening measure exhibit differential item functioning (DIF) across groups (e.g., males vs. females), DIF might affect which individuals are “caught” in the screening. This phenomenon is common, but DIF detection procedures do not typically provide guidance on whether the presence of DIF will meaningfully affect screening accuracy....
Article
Full-text available
Self-regulation is studied across various disciplines, including personality, social, cognitive, health, developmental, and clinical psychology; psychiatry; neuroscience; medicine; pharmacology; and economics. Widespread interest in self-regulation has led to confusion regarding both the constructs within the nomological network of self-regulation...
Article
In psychology, there have been vast creative efforts in proposing new constructs and developing measures to assess them. Less effort has been spent in investigating construct overlap to prevent bifurcated literatures, wasted research efforts, and jingle-jangle fallacies. For example, researchers could gather validity evidence to evaluate if two mea...
Article
Full-text available
Mediation analysis is a methodology used to understand how and why behavioral phenomena occur. New mediation methods based on the potential outcomes framework are a seminal advancement for mediation analysis because they focus on the causal basis of mediation. Despite the importance of the potential outcomes framework in other fields, the methods a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Nearly all studies treat the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire as five independent scales (one measuring each of the five facets), yet almost no methodological work has examined the psychometric structure of the facets independently. We address this issue using factor analytic methods. Methods Exploratory and confirmatory factor model...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is a self-report measure of mindfulness with forms of several different lengths, including the FFMQ-39, FFMQ-24, and FFMQ-15. We use item response theory analysis to directly compare the functioning of these three forms. Methods Data were drawn from a non-clinical Amazon Mechanical Turk st...
Article
Grit, the passion and perseverance for long-term goals, has received attention from personality psychologists because it predicts success and academic achievement. Grit has also been criticized as simply another measure of self-control or conscientiousness. A precise psychometric representation of grit is needed to understand how the construct is u...
Article
Self-regulation is a broad construct representing the general ability to recruit cognitive, motivational and emotional resources to achieve long-term goals. This construct has been implicated in a host of health-risk behaviors, and is a promising target for fostering beneficial behavior change. Despite its clear importance, the behavioral, psycholo...
Article
Monte Carlo simulations are an important tool for researchers to study statistical properties of estimators, such as parameter bias, or the limits of various modeling approaches. Typically, the immense amount of data produced by Monte Carlo studies is analyzed with regression or analysis of variance, and researchers are faced with making arbitrary...
Article
Statistical mediation analysis is used to investigate intermediate variables in the relation between independent and dependent variables. Causal interpretation of mediation analyses is challenging because randomization of subjects to levels of the independent variable does not rule out the possibility of unmeasured confounders of the mediator to ou...
Article
Full-text available
When testing a statistical mediation model, it is assumed that factorial measurement invariance holds for the mediating construct across levels of the independent variable X. The consequences of failing to address the violations of measurement invariance in mediation models are largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to systematically...
Article
Full-text available
Statistical mediation analysis allows researchers to identify the most important mediating constructs in the causal process studied. Identifying specific mediators is especially relevant when the hypothesized mediating construct consists of multiple related facets. The general definition of the construct and its facets might relate differently to a...
Article
Full-text available
Methods to assess the significance of mediated effects in education and the social sciences are well studied and fall into two categories: single sample methods and computer-intensive methods. A popular single sample method to detect the significance of the mediated effect is the test of joint significance, and a popular computer-intensive method t...