Oscar Calvo-Gonzalez

Oscar Calvo-Gonzalez
World Bank · Poverty and Equity Global Practice

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26
Publications
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580
Citations

Publications

Publications (26)
Article
In 2011 the Government of El Salvador implemented a reform to the liquefied gas (LPG) subsidy that increased the welfare of households in all but the top two deciles of the income distribution. However, the reform turned out to be rather unpopular, including among winners. This paper relies on ad hoc household surveys conducted before the implement...
Article
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Do public sector employees earn less than their counterparts in the private sector? This paper addresses this question in the case of Peru, a country where civil service reform is being debated yet the only available empirical studies on wage differentials date back to the late 1980s. Using data from the 2009 national household survey, the authors...
Article
In the past three decades, emerging countries have gone through extensive decentralization reforms. Yet, there are no studies assessing quantitatively the relative importance of various factors known to affect the success of decentralization. This paper builds on a comprehensive dataset the authors constructed for Peru, which merges municipal fisca...
Article
Why in many economies households and firms borrow and make deposits in foreign currency? Expanding on the existing literature, our framework addresses this question allowing for interest rate differentials and access to foreign funds to play a role in explaining this process of asset substitution or financial dollarization. Using a newly compiled d...
Article
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Soaring commodity prices in 2007 and 2008 raised concerns that volatility was also rising, which would have implications for welfare and therefore for the design of public policy interventions. The literature focuses on trends in commodity prices rather than their volatility characteristics. This paper contributes by examining commodity price volat...
Article
Using a historical case study this article provides an example of how heterogeneity of interests within a government may affect the interplay between country ownership of reforms and conditionality in IMF-supported programs. The case study also highlights how pro-reformers’ preferences may be conditional on reforms advancing their personal agendas....
Article
Full-text available
This paper develops a model to explain the determinants of financial dollarization. Expanding on the existing literature, our framework allows interest rate differentials to play a role in explaining financial dollarization. It also accounts for the increasing presence of foreign banks in the local financial sector. Using a newly compiled data set...
Article
The security of property rights is fragile under dictatorships. This is particularly so if economic agents are uncertain as to whether the regime will last. As a result, private investment is withheld and economic performance is poor. Spain was in such a situation after World War II. However, as the Cold War intensified the United States became int...
Chapter
Bank credit to the private sector has seen a significant increase among many Central, Eastern, and South-eastern European (CEE) countries.2 To what extent can this credit expansion be explained by the rapid transition from a centrally-planned to a market-based economy in just over a decade? This question brings to the fore the importance of the dev...
Chapter
Credit growth has taken center stage in the policy arena in Central, Eastern, and South-eastern Europe (CEE).2 To some extent, this has not been a surprising development. Indeed, given the under-development of the financial sector at the beginning of the transition, and particularly with regard to lending to the private sector, financial deepening...
Article
This paper reviews current discussions on reforming the European Union (EU) budgetary procedure and assesses the main reform proposals that have been suggested thus far. It argues that prospects for reforms are presently hampered by the complex interplay between supranational and intergovernmental decision modes and the requirement of any budgetary...
Article
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This paper reviews the strategies announced by the ten countries joining the European Union in May 2004 with regard to their intentions for participation in ERM II and the adoption of the euro. The paper examines the economic rationale of the monetary integration strategies declared by most acceding countries with a view to identifying also their p...
Thesis
This thesis advances our understanding of the effects of foreign aid programmes in the Spanish economy during the 1950s. It does so by concentrating on three aspects. First, it considers the contribution to economic growth of aid-financed goods by relieving input bottlenecks. Results from an input-output analysis downplay the alleged importance of...
Article
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RESUMEN ¿Cuáles fueron los efectos que la ayuda americana tuvo en la economía española de los años cincuenta? Este artículo afronta esta pregunta desde una perspectiva alejada de los enfoques que, enfatizando el desahogo de embotellamientos productivos, habían sido predominantes hasta la fecha en la historiografía económica española. Se elabora aqu...
Article
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Recent research has established a positive and causal link between financial development and economic growth in the long run. For this reason, financial sector reform has been regarded as conducive to faster growth in transition countries. In Southeast Europe, however, reform efforts in the first half of the 1990s failed to prevent inflationary fin...

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