Orsi Valkó

Orsi Valkó
Institute of Ecology and Botany · Lendület Seed Ecology Research Group

PhD

About

219
Publications
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Publications

Publications (219)
Article
Full-text available
Grassland managers and scientists are increasingly interested in cost-effective alternative ways of grassland biodiversity conservation. Prescribed burning is a promising management tool which should be integrated in the planning of management efforts. In addition, small-scale prescribed burning is an effective fire suppression strategy to decrease...
Article
Abstract For an effective conservation and management in grasslands it is essential to understand mechanisms sustaining biodiversity. To gain knowledge is especially crucial in stressed grasslands harbouring a unique flora and fauna, like alkali grasslands. Aboveground vegetation, seed bank and environmental factors were studied in three stands of...
Article
Soil seed bank is an important driver of vegetation dynamics, particularly in fire-prone Mediterranean ecosystems. In this study, we disentangle the effects of fire-related cues on the dynamics of the soil seed bank in semiarid oak forests of western Iran. Soil samples were collected in two types of forests: below closed canopy or below the open ca...
Article
The most widespread nature-based solution for mitigating climate change is tree planting. When realized as forest restoration in historically forested biomes, it can efficiently contribute to the sequestration of atmospheric carbon and can also entail significant biodiversity and ecosystem service benefits. Conversely, tree planting in naturally op...
Article
A Mogyorós-halom Öcsöd és Békésszentandrás határán fekszik, a 18. században már határpont volt. A népvándorlás korában temetőt, a középkorban falvat létesítettek itt különböző népcsoportok. A 18. század végén már tanyásodott agrárkörnyezetben ábrázolják, az 1970-es évekig jellemzően szántották a területet. A kurgánt az évszázadok során számos bolyg...
Preprint
Seed sowing is widely used for the restoration of species-rich grasslands but still there are knowledge gaps regarding the most suitable application of different seed mixtures. We tested the effect of seed mixtures application timing on the establishment of sown forbs and weed control. 36 experimental plots with nine sowing treatments were establis...
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As we enter the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, there is an increasing need for finding nature-based solutions for the restoration of grasslands across the globe. Besides seed sowing, alternative restoration methods that build on locally available propagule sources, such as hay transfer, should also be considered and given high prio...
Article
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Background: Soil seed banks play a central role in vegetation dynamics and may be an important source of ecological restoration. However, the vast majority of seed bank studies examined only the uppermost soil layers (0-10 cm); hence, our knowledge on the depth distribution of seed bank and the ecological significance of deeply buried seeds is limi...
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Large bird species, such as cranes are involved in human‐wildlife conflicts as they often forage in croplands. The Eurasian crane (Grus grus) is a large iconic bird species, protected across Europe, which, thanks to conservation programs and its ability to utilize croplands for foraging, shows a strongly increasing population trend. This exaggerate...
Preprint
Large bird species, such as cranes are involved in human-wildlife conflicts as they often forage in croplands. The Eurasian crane (Grus grus) is a large iconic bird species, protected across Europe, which, thanks to conservation programs and its ability to utilize croplands for foraging, shows a strongly increasing population trend. This exaggerate...
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A decrease in habitat amount and connectivity causes immediate or delayed species extinctions in transformed landscapes due to reduced functional connections among populations and altered environmental conditions. We assessed the effects of present and historical grassland amount and connectivity as well as local habitat factors typical of the pres...
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One of the main goals of the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 is to avoid further loss of biodiversity and to restore ecosystems. These efforts can be facilitated by compiling the main research topics related to conservation biology to provide new evidence for the most urgent knowledge gaps, and publicise it to researchers, research funders and po...
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Zoochory is an ecologically and evolutionarily important seed dispersal type. The decline and extinction of seed-dispersing large herbivores severely threatens dispersal-driven ecosystem processes in many regions. Hence the relative importance of small rodents and lagomorphs (Glires, Mammalia) as dispersal vectors might increase due to their ubiqui...
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Fragmented natural habitats within human-transformed landscapes play a key role in preserving biodiversity. Ants as keystone species are essential elements of terrestrial ecosystems; thus, it is important to understand the factors influencing their presence. In a large-scale multi-site study, we surveyed ant assemblages using sweep netting and D-va...
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The growing global population size and the increasing mobility of people can make humans as a potentially super-effective dispersal vector of plant propagules. Therefore, human-vectored dispersal (HVD) on clothing and footwear can be an effective way of the dispersal of invasive alien species (IAS). This can be especially problematic in protected a...
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Restoration of degraded drylands is urgently needed to mitigate climate change, reverse desertification and secure livelihoods for the two billion people who live in these areas. Bold global targets have been set for dryland restoration to restore millions of hectares of degraded land. These targets have been questioned as overly ambitious, but wit...
Article
A full list of affiliations appears at the end of the paper. R estoration ecology is rapidly advancing in response to the ever-expanding global decline in ecosystem integrity and its associated socioeconomic repercussions 1-4. Nowhere are these dynamics more evident than in drylands, which help sustain 39% of the world's human population 5 but rema...
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Aims Understanding fine-grain diversity patterns across large spatial extents is fundamental for macroecological research and biodiversity conservation. Using the GrassPlot database, we provide benchmarks of fine-grain richness values of Palaearctic open habitats for vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and complete vegetation (i.e., the sum of the...
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Changes in climate, land use, and land management impact the occurrence and severity of wildland fires in many parts of the world. This is particularly evident in Europe, where ongoing changes in land use have strongly modified fire patterns over the last decades. Although satellite data by the European Forest Fire Information System provide large-...
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Questions: Which environmental factors influence fine-grain beta diversity of vegetation and do they vary among taxonomic groups? Location: Palaearctic biogeographic realm. Methods: We extracted 4,654 nested-plot series with at least four different grain sizes between 0.0001 m² and 1,024 m² from the GrassPlot database, covering a wide range of di...
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Aims We tested the establishment success of grassland species in the presence or absence of zoochory by livestock and identified the traits associated with successful establishment. Location Hortobágy National Park, Hungary. Methods In six restored species-poor grasslands we established two species-rich 16 m²-sized source plots per site in 2013....
Article
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This special issue is a collection of articles about the conservation, restoration and biodiversity of Palaearctic grasslands and was initiated by the Eurasian Dry Grassland Group at the 15th Eurasian Dry Grassland Conference (EDGC), held at Graz, Austria in 2019. The papers in this special issue cover a range of grassland habitats from montane dry...
Data
Conceptual figure summarizing our hypotheses how different drivers could influence fine-grain β-diversity via changing mean occupancy of species, based on the findings of our study and theoretical considerations. Fine-grain β-diversity (and likewise for larger grain sizes) is mathematically linked to mean occupancy, which can be decomposed into (i)...
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Prescribed burning (PB), the planned and controlled application of fire is a well-established tool for biodiversity conservation in a plethora of habitats globally. In European grasslands that are threatened hotspots of biodiversity, PB has the potential to address challenges related to several threats such as abandonment, climate change or invasiv...
Article
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Due to the intensified land use in transformed landscapes, grassland biodiversity is often restricted to habitat fragments inadequate for arable use or for urban development. In continental parts of Eurasia, the ∼600,000 ancient burial mounds (called "kurgans") built by nomadic tribes of the steppes are amongst the most widespread landmarks providi...
Article
Overgrazing causes serious problems for rangeland ecosystems and human livelihoods globally. Sheep grazing paddocks with fixed fences have become increasingly widespread in Europe; however, their effects on biodiversity have rarely been discussed. Our aim was to measure the degradation of grassland vegetation in an experimental sheep paddock in Cen...
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Small natural features (SNFs), such as road verges, midfield islets, rocky outcrops and ancient burial mounds, provide safe havens for species of natural habitats in human-modified landscapes; therefore, their great ecological importance is in contrast to their small size. SNFs often have a high topographical heterogeneity and abiotic conditions, w...
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Karst landscapes are among the topographically most complex systems with various microhabitats, where species can persist despite unfavourable macro-environmental changes. These microhabitats can also function as stepping stones during range shifts. Although the enclosed depressions (dolines, sinkholes or tiankengs) of karst landscapes may act as s...
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Transdisciplinary approaches that provide holistic views are essential to properly understand soil processes and the importance of soil to society and will be crucial in the future to integrate distinct disciplines into soil studies. A myriad of challenges faces soil science at the beginning of the 2020s. The main aim of this overview is to assess...
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In intensively used landscapes biodiversity is often restricted to fragmented habitats. Exploring the biodiversity potential of habitat fragments is essential in order to reveal their complementary role in maintaining landscape-scale biodiversity. We investigated the conservation potential of dry grassland fragments in the Great Hungarian Plain, i....
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Availability and dispersal of target plant propagules and applied management techniques can considerably affect the success of grassland restoration. In our study we explored the effect of sheep grazing on plant species composition of an early staged recovering grassland, which developed on newly created soil surfaces. We recorded the presence and...
Article
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Grasslands are widespread elements of urban greenspace providing recreational, psychological and aesthetic benefits to city residents. Two urban grassland types of contrasting management dominate urban greenspaces: frequently mown, species-poor short-cut lawns and less intensively managed, near-natural tall-grass meadows. The higher conservation va...
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Due to increased human mobility, cloth-dispersed propagules can be transported over long distances, which would not have been bridged otherwise. We studied a potentially important component of human mediated seed dispersal by assessing the effects of laundry washing on the dispersed propagules. We studied the germination of 18 species, which have m...
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Burrow-dwelling rodents are often considered ecosystem engineer species in arid environments. They create distinct habitat patches by building burrows: they move large amounts of soil, mix soil layers and change soil properties locally. Our aim was to explore the role of Steppe Marmot as an ecosystem engineer in shaping the plant species compositio...
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Due to large-scale agricultural intensification, grasslands are often restricted to habitat islands in human-transformed landscapes. There are approximately half a million ancient burial mounds built by nomadic steppic tribes in the Eurasian steppe and forest steppe zones, which act as habitat islands for dry grassland vegetation. Land use intensif...
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Agricultural intensification has resulted in severe declines in the extent and diversity of seminatural habitats in Europe, whereas the extent of secondary habitats has increased considerably. River embankments have become one of the most extensive and widespread secondary habitats in former floodplains. We compared the diversity patterns of second...
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Increasing urbanization worldwide calls for more sustainable urban development. Simultaneously, the global biodiversity crisis accentuates the need of fostering biodiversity within cities. Policies supporting urban nature conservation need to understand people’s acceptance of biodiversity-friendly greenspace management. We surveyed more than 2,000...
Article
Sowing grasses supports the rapid development of a closed perennial vegetation, which makes the method universally suitable for fast and effective landscape‐scale restoration of grasslands. However, to increase their diversity and to create a natural‐like species‐rich grassland is a challenging task. Understanding the role of seed bank compositiona...
Article
Questions Plant invasions are considered among the biggest threats to biodiversity worldwide. In a full‐factorial greenhouse experiment we analysed the effect of soil burial depth and litter cover on the germination of invasive plants. We hypothesised that (i) burial depth and litter cover affect the germination of the studied species, (ii) the eff...
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Wildfire occurrence is influenced by climate, vegetation and human activities. A key challenge for understanding fire-climate-vegetation interactions is to quantify the effect vegetation has in mediating fire regime. Here, we explore the relative importance of Holocene land cover and dominant functional forest type, and climate dynamics on biomass...
Article
Wildfire occurrence is influenced by climate, vegetation and human activities. A key challenge for understanding the risk of fires is quantifying the mediating effect of vegetation on fire regimes. Here, we explore the relative importance of Holocene land cover, land use, dominant functional forest type, and climate dynamics on biomass burning in t...
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The Nostoc genus is a well-known heterocytous, filamentous cyanobacterium which can be found all over the world. The size of terrestrial and/or freshwater colonies can be microscopic and macroscopic as well. In addition, Nostoc species are one of the most common photosynthetic cyanobacterial partners in symbiotic interactions. Terrestrial cyanobact...
Article
For 491 vascular plant species we provide original data of five leaf traits: fresh mass, dry mass, leaf area (LA), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). We are focusing on species that are rare and/or endemic to the Pannonian Ecoregion. We provide data on more than 200 species, which are not yet included in the TRY database....
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Woody plants in water‐limited ecosystems affect their environment on multiple scales: locally, natural stands can create islands of fertility for herb layer communities compared to open habitats, but afforestation has been shown to negatively affect regional water balance and productivity. Despite these contrasting observations, no coherent multisc...
Article
Sowing of grass seed mixtures is a feasible and cost‐effective method for landscape‐scale grassland restoration. However, sowing only grasses usually leads to species‐poor and dense swards, where the establishment of target forbs is hampered by microsite and propagule limitation. To overcome these limitations and increase the diversity of species‐p...
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Full-text available
Aim: Species-area relationships (SARs) are fundamental scaling laws in ecology although their shape is still disputed. At larger areas power laws best represent SARs. Yet, it remains unclear whether SARs follow other shapes at finer spatial grains in continuous vegetation. We asked which function describes SARs best at small grains and explored how...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sowing of grass seed mixtures is a feasible and cost-effective method for landscape-scale grassland restoration. However, sowing only grasses usually leads to species-poor and dense grass sward, where the establishment of target forbs is hampered both by microsite and propagule limitation. To overcome these limitations and increase the diversity of...
Preprint
Full-text available
For the improvement and maintenance of the desirable ecological value of grasslands it is necessary to manage them in a way which maintains their structure and their long-term functioning. Extensive grazing plays a crucial role in the seasonal biomass removal, thereby it prevents litter accumulation and shrub encroachment. Defoliation and biomass r...