Orr Spiegel

Orr Spiegel
Tel Aviv University | TAU · School of Zoology

PhD

About

64
Publications
36,586
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,146
Citations
Introduction
I'm a faculty member at the School of Zoology, Tel Aviv University. I work on behavioral and movement ecology. Please visit my lab's homepage at https://orrspiegel.wixsite.com/orrspiegel Cheers, Orr
Additional affiliations
August 2018 - present
Tel Aviv University
Position
  • Lecturer
July 2018 - August 2019
Tel Aviv University
Position
  • Lecturer
September 2013 - present
University of California, Davis
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Full-text available
Fleshy-fruited plants are usually dispersed by an array of frugivores, differing in the effectiveness of the dispersal service they provide to the plant. Body size differences among frugivores are hypothesized to affect seed dispersal distances and consequently their effectiveness as dispersers. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effectiven...
Article
Full-text available
Animal movements exhibit an almost universal pattern of fat-tailed step-size distributions, mixing short and very long steps. The Lévy flight foraging hypothesis (LFFH) suggests a single optimal food search strategy to explain this pattern, yet mixed movement distributions are biologically more plausible and often convincingly fit movement data. To...
Article
Full-text available
1.Understanding how animals interact with their physical and social environment is a major question in ecology but separating between these factors is often challenging. Observed interaction rates may reflect social behavior – preferences or avoidance of conspecifics or certain phenotypes. Yet, environmental spatiotemporal heterogeneity also affect...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have established the ecological and evolutionary importance of animal personalities. Individual differences in movement and space-use, fundamental to many personality traits (e.g. activity, boldness and exploratory behaviour) have been documented across many species and contexts, for instance personality-dependent dispersal syndromes...
Article
When individual animals make decisions, they routinely use information produced intentionally or unintentionally by other individuals. Despite its prevalence and established fitness consequences, the effects of such social information on ecological dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesize results from ecology, evolutionary biology, an...
Preprint
Background. Movement is central to understanding the ecology of animals. The most easily definable segments of an individual’s lifetime track (i.e., movement path defined by a relocation data time series) are its diel activity routines (DARs). This definability is due to fixed start and end points set by a 24-hour clock that depends on the individu...
Article
Protected areas are intended as tools in reducing threats to wildlife and preserving habitat for their long-term population persistence. Studies on ranging behavior provide insight into the utility of protected areas. Vultures are one of the fastest declining groups of birds globally and are popular subjects for telemetry studies, but continent-wid...
Article
Home ranges, the region within which animals interact with their environment, constitute a fundamental aspect of their ecology. Home range (HR) sizes and locations commonly reflect costs and benefits associated with diverse social, biotic and abiotic factors. Less is known, however, about how these factors affect intra‐specific variation in HR size...
Preprint
Full-text available
Spatial and social behaviour are fundamental aspects of an animal’s biology, and the social and spatial environments are indelibly linked through mutual causes and shared consequences. Behavioural variation at the “spatial-social interface”, which we define as the intersection of social and spatial aspects of individuals’ phenotypes and environment...
Article
Full-text available
Translocated animals typically find themselves in a novel environment in which they must establish a home range in a manner that will maximize their fitness. We hypothesized that the initial establishment of a home range is followed by adjustments expressed as home range shifting, and occurs as familiarity with the landscape increases, until the ho...
Article
Full-text available
1. Modern, high‐throughput animal tracking increasingly yields ‘big data’ at very fine temporal scales. At these scales, location error can exceed the animal’s step size, leading to mis‐estimation of behaviours inferred from movement. ‘Cleaning’ the data to reduce location errors is one of the main ways to deal with position uncertainty. Though dat...
Article
Individual variation in movement is profoundly important for fitness and offers key insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of populations and communities. Nonetheless, individual variation in fine‐scale movement behaviours are rarely examined even though animal tracking devices offer the long‐term, high‐resolution, repeatable data in natur...
Article
Full-text available
Vultures and condors are among the most threatened avian species in the world due to the impacts of human activities. Negative perceptions can contribute to these threats as some vulture species have been historically blamed for killing livestock. This perception of conflict has increased in recent years, associated with a viral spread of partial a...
Article
Despite growing attention to the ecological and evolutionary importance of consistent individual differences in behaviour (animal personality), long-term field studies quantifying factors associated with behavioural repeatability remain rare. Here, we studied animal personalities over an 8-year period, representing 6 study years, in a wild populati...
Article
Full-text available
Ecologists have long been interested in linking individual behavior with higher‐level processes. For motile species, this ‘upscaling’ is governed by how well any given movement strategy maximizes encounters with positive factors, and minimizes encounters with negative factors. Despite the importance of encounter events for a broad range of ecologic...
Article
Full-text available
Several bird species have adapted to foraging in landfills, although these sites are known to represent significant sources of emissions of toxic semi-volatile chemicals including the halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and emerging compounds). The objective of this study was to investigate the associat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Modern, high-throughput animal tracking studies collect increasingly large volumes of data at very fine temporal scales. At these scales, location error can exceed the animal’s step size, leading to mis-estimation of key movement metrics such as speed. ‘Cleaning’ the data to reduce location errors prior to analyses is one of the main ways movement...
Article
Timing of activity can reveal an organism's efforts to optimize foraging either by minimizing energy loss through passive movement or by maximizing energetic gain through foraging. Here, we assess whether signals of either of these strategies are detectable in the timing of activity of daily, local movements by birds. We compare the similarities of...
Article
Timing of activity can reveal an organism's efforts to optimize foraging either by minimizing energy loss through passive movement or by maximizing energetic gain through foraging. Here, we assess whether signals of either of these strategies are detectable in the timing of activity of daily, local movements by birds. We compare the similarities of...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Significant portion of terrestrial landscape is shared with wildlife, inherently involving conflicts between animal conservation and agriculture (Lemly et al., 2000). Mammals and birds may damage crops directly by eating and trampling (e.g.,wild boars), or indirectly by damaging infrastructure, mainly irrigation systems. We used motion sensitive ca...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. Ecologists have long been interested in linking individual behavior with higher-level processes. For motile species, this 'upscaling' is governed by how well any given movement strategy maximizes encounters with positive factors, and minimizes encounters with negative factors. Despite the importance of encounter events for a broad range of ecolo...
Article
Individual hosts vary substantially in their parasite loads. However, whether individual hosts have consistently different loads remains uncertain. If so, hosts that have consistently high parasite loads may serve as key reservoirs or super‐spreaders. Thus, identifying whether individuals persistently differ in their parasitism and the factors that...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the drivers promoting sociality over solitariness in animal species is imperative for predicting future population trends and informing conservation and management. In this study we investigate the social structure of a desert dwelling population of striped hyena Hyaena hyaena. This species is historically regarded as strictly solitar...
Article
Adriana A. Maldonado-Chaparro and Damien R. Farine, Demographic processes in animal networks are a question of time Amiyaal Ilany, Complex societies, simple processes Orr Spiegel and Noa Pinter-Wollman, Placing the effects of demography on networks in ecological context Ipek G. Kulahci, Individual differences can affect how networks respond to demo...
Article
Full-text available
Decision-making agents face a fundamental trade-off between exploring new opportunities with risky outcomes versus exploiting familiar options with more certain but potentially suboptimal outcomes. Although mediation of this trade-off is essential to adaptive behavior and has for decades been assumed to modulate performance, the empirical consequen...
Article
Animal movements are important drivers of nutrient redistribution that can affect primary productivity and biodiversity across various spatial scales. Recent work indicates that incorporating these movements into ecosystem models can enhance our ability to predict the spatio-temporal distribution of nutrients. However, the role of animal behaviour...
Article
Full-text available
Decisions made while searching for settlement sites (e.g., nesting, oviposition) often have major fitness implications. Despite numerous case studies, we lack theory to explain why some species are thriving while others are making poor habitat choices after environmental change. We develop a model to predict (1) which kinds of environmental change...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics and ecosystem structure and function. Nonetheless, it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside the migratory period, we...
Article
Home range estimation is routine practice in ecological research. While advances in animal tracking technology have increased our capacity to collect data to support home range analysis, these same advances have also resulted in increasingly autocorrelated data. Consequently the question of which home range estimator to use on modern, highly autoco...
Article
Full-text available
Climate-driven environmental change and land-use change often interact in their impact on biodiversity, but these interactions have received little scientific attention. Here we study the effects of climate-driven environmental variation (i.e. vegetation greenness) and land-use (protected versus unprotected areas) on body condition of vulture nestl...
Article
Full-text available
Movement is often used to indicate host vigour, as it has various ecological and evolutionary implications, and has been shown to be affected by parasites. We investigate the relationship between tick load and movement in the Australian sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa Grey, 1825) using high resolution GPS tracking. This allowed us to track individual...
Article
Rapid increases in human population and per‐capita waste production have resulted in accelerated growth in the size and number of landfills. We propose that microbiota within landfills can contribute to a better understanding of the Anthropocene thus far. Because landfills are characterized by conditions that are uncommon in natural, non‐anthropoge...
Article
Full-text available
Though epidemiology dates back to the 1700s, most mathematical representations of epidemics still use transmission rates averaged at the population scale, especially for wildlife diseases. In simplifying the contact process, we ignore the heterogeneities in host movements that complicate the real world, and overlook their impact on spatiotemporal p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Though epidemiology dates back to the 1700s, most mathematical representations of epidemics still use transmission rates averaged at the population scale, especially for wildlife diseases. In simplifying the contact process, we ignore the heterogeneities in host movements that complicate the real world, and overlook their impact on spatiotemporal p...
Article
Full-text available
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint wer...
Article
Full-text available
Social network analyses allow researchers to describe patterns of social interactions and their consequences in animal societies. Since direct observations in natural settings are often difficult, researchers often use tracking technologies to build proximity-based social networks. However, because both social behaviour (e.g. conspecific attraction...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a conceptual framework integrating animal personalities, movement ecology, social networks and parasite transmission. For directly transmitted parasites, parasite transmission depends on social interaction patterns that can be quantified using social network metrics. For indirectly transmitted parasites, the key can be transmission netw...
Article
Full-text available
Uncertainties regarding food location and quality are among the greatest challenges faced by foragers and communal roosting may facilitate success through social foraging. The information centre hypothesis (ICH) suggests that uninformed individuals at shared roosts benefit from following informed individuals to previously visited resources. We test...
Chapter
We report on 35. years of research into behavior and ecology of the Australian sleepy lizard, Tiliqua rugosa. We describe the unusually long monogamous pairing period in this lizard before mating takes place each spring, and the long-term persistence of mating pairs, reforming each spring for up to 27. years. We review hypotheses, observations, and...
Article
Full-text available
Natural selection theory suggests that mobile animals trade off time, energy and risk costs with food, safety and other pay-offs obtained by movement. We examined how birds make movement decisions by integrating aspects of flight biomechanics, movement ecology and behaviour in a hierarchical framework investigating flight track variation across sev...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding space use remains a major challenge for animal ecology, with implications for species interactions, disease spread, and conservation. Behavioural type (BT) may shape the space use of individuals within animal populations. Bolder or more aggressive individuals tend to be more exploratory and disperse further. Yet, to date we have limit...
Article
Full-text available
Trends Members of animal groups often vary in their phenotypes (e.g., personality, morphology). Many recent studies have shown how different aspects (e.g., phenotypic average, variation, extreme) of GPC affect group-level outcomes (e.g., foraging success, mating system). Group-level outcomes can shape selection when individual and group phenotypes...
Article
Full-text available
[Online at: http://www.actazool.org/paperdetail.asp?id=12483] Natal dispersal, the movement of an organism from its birthplace to the site of first reproduction, is fundamental to many ecological and evolutionary processes. Mechanistically, individual dispersal decisions can depend on both individual phenotype and environmental cues. In particular,...
Article
Full-text available
The study of animal movement is experiencing rapid progress in recent years, forcefully driven by technological advancement. Biologgers with Acceleration (ACC) recordings are becoming increasingly popular in the fields of animal behavior and movement ecology, for estimating energy expenditure and identifying behavior, with prospects for other poten...
Article
Full-text available
The need to obtain food is a critical proximate driver of an organism's movement that shapes the foraging and survival of individual animals. Consequently, the relationship between hunger and foraging has received considerable attention, leading to the common conception that hunger primarily enhances a "food-intake maximization" (FIMax) strategy an...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The search phase is a critical component of foraging behavior, affecting interspecific competition and community dynamics. Nevertheless, factors determining interspecific variation in search efficiency are still poorly understood. We studied differences in search efficiency between the lappet-faced vulture (Torgos tracheliotus; LFV) and th...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods The search phase is a critical component of foraging behavior, and search efficiency can strongly affect individual fitness and the outcome of interspecific competition. Thus differences in search efficiency among species can have important implications for community dynamics and conservation. Yet we still understand p...
Article
Full-text available
Integrating biomechanics, behavior and ecology requires a mechanistic understanding of the processes producing the movement of animals. This calls for contemporaneous biomechanical, behavioral and environmental data along movement pathways. A recently formulated unifying movement ecology paradigm facilitates the integration of existing biomechanics...
Article
Full-text available
1. The directed-dispersal (DrD) hypothesis constitutes one of the main explanations for the adaptive value of seed dispersal in spatially heterogeneous environments. Traditionally, the DrD hypothesis asserts non-random arrival to specific sites where establishment conditions are independently favourable. Yet, enhanced arrival might negatively affec...
Article
Full-text available
The directed-dispersal (DrD) hypothesis, one of the main explanations for the adaptive value of seed dispersal, asserts that enhanced (nonrandom) arrival to favorable establishment sites is advantageous for plant fitness. However, as anticipated by the ideal free distribution theory, enhanced seed deposition may impair site suitability by increasin...
Chapter
Full-text available
IntroductionSix generalizations on LDD mechanismsA vector-based perspective on the evolution and predictability of long-distance seed dispersalFuture directionsAcknowledgementsReferences
Article
Full-text available
1. Understanding the causes and consequences of animal flight speed has long been a challenge in biology. Aerodynamic theory is used to predict the most economical flight speeds, minimizing energy expenditure either per distance (maximal range speed, Vmr) or per time (minimal power speed, Vmp). When foraging in flight, flight speed also affects pre...
Article
Full-text available
Movement is important to all organisms, and accordingly it is addressed in a huge number of papers in the literature. Of nearly 26,000 papers referring to movement, an estimated 34% focused on movement by measuring it or testing hypotheses about it. This enormous amount of information is difficult to review and highlights the need to assess the col...
Article
Full-text available
Growing recognition of the importance of long-distance dispersal (LDD) of plant seeds for various ecological and evolutionary processes has led to an upsurge of research into the mechanisms underlying LDD. We summarize these findings by formulating six generalizations stating that LDD is generally more common in open terrestrial landscapes, and is...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapters of this book on seed dispersal are divided into four parts: (1) frugivores and frugivory (8 chapters); (2) seed and seedling shadows (7 chapters); (3) seed fate and establishment (eight chapters); and (4) management implications and conservation (six chapters). The book presents both recent advances and reviews of current knowledge.
Article
1. Some of the most damaging invasive plants are dispersed by frugivores and this is an area of emerging importance in weed management. It highlights the need for practical information on how frugivores affect weed population dynamics and spread, how frugivore populations are affected by weeds and what management recommendations are available. 2. F...

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Studying the demography and movement ecology of the golden jackal population of Harod and Springs Valleys in northern Israel. Aimed at providing conservation and management recommendations, and an interface for management of future rabies outbreaks in the region.
Archived project
Research on dispersal ecology from my time in Dr. Karen Mabry's lab. For ongoing research, please see Dr. Mabry's work.