Orlando M Lourenço

Orlando M Lourenço
University of Lisbon | UL · Faculty of Psychology

Ph D (Developmental Psychology

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79
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Introduction
Orlando M Lourenço is an emeritus professor (Faculty of Psychology, University of Lisbon). Orlando does empirical research and theoretical work in his own lab (Porto city) in the areas of developmental psychology, educational sychology, cognitive psychology, and philosophy of science. He is considered to be an expert in Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Kohlberg's theory of moral development, and Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory. He has published a lot in many prestigious international journals and served as reviewer for these journals. He belonged to Board of Directors of the Jean Piaget Society (1996-2000) and was a visiting professor in 1987 (Indiana University, USA). Aretaic morality, the idea of logical necessity in children and eco values are his current scientific interests

Publications

Publications (79)
Article
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Although the deontic, responsibility/caring, and aretaic moralities have been extensively investigated, the relation among them, namely the relation between the aretaic and the deontic and responsibility moralities, have rarely been studied. To fill in this gap is the main goal of this study. In the first part, we set the context for the study of t...
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O problema da necessidade lógica ou conhecimento necessário é central na teoria de Piaget. Este estudo examinou essa necessidade no desempenho de 80 crianças na prova de conservação de líquidos. Estas crianças tinham sido avaliadas previamente como pré-operatórias (40) ou operatórias (40) com base no seu desempenho numa fase pré-experimental na pro...
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This study examined the child's understanding of the idea of logical necessity in 40 preoperational and 40 operational children in the context of a number conservation task and a liquids conservation task. The first task followed the typical Piagetian clinical method. The second task also used this method, but it employed counter-suggestions that P...
Article
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This study examined the child's understanding of the idea of logical necessity in 40 preoperational and 40 operational children in the context of a number conservation task and a liquids conservation task. The first task followed the typical Piagetian clinical method. The second task also used this method, but it employed counter-suggestions that P...
Article
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The main goal of this article is to present, and discuss on, Piaget's legacy to human development as it encompasses the development of both individuals and countries. Although Piaget had been more interested in the former than the latter, it makes sense to speak about Piaget's legacy to human development because these two forms of development, indi...
Chapter
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This entry is focused on the main intertwined philosophical underpinnings of the views of Jean *Piaget(1896-1980)on education. It relates these to his theory of psychological development and also points to some misunderstandings of Piaget's view
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This entry is focused on the main intertwined philosophical and psychological underpinnings of the views of Jean Piaget (1896–1980) on education. It relates these to his theory of psychological development and also points to some misinterpretations of Piaget’s views
Article
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The domain approach of Turiel and colleagues has emerging as the dominant paradigm in the field of social development, moral development in particular. If it is proven correct, Piaget's and Kohlberg's structural accounts of moral development must be radically modified and possibly even discarded. After an introduction where we set the context for o...
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In this entry on Piaget, I elaborate a bit of Piaget's wiews on education. I ague that Piaget's views on education are based on his epistemological assumptions and psychological findings. Thus, for Piaget, education is a double scientific process in that teachers should master their area of specialization and be well versed in the details of the i...
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This article revolves around the "Why be moral?" question, a fundamental ethical question raised by Kohlberg & Ryncarz (1990) in the field of moral development. The study is in three parts. In the first part, Introduction, I refer to this fundamental ethical question and the questions related to it. In the second part, I compare Kohlberg's response...
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This article revolves around the “Why be moral?” question, a fundamental ethical question raised by Kohlberg and Ryncarz (1990) in the field of moral development. The study is in three parts. In the first part, Introduction, I refer to this fundamental ethical question and the questions related to it. In the second part, I compare Kohlberg’s respon...
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Neste artigo, analisamos a série televisiva Super Pai, um programa com elevados níveis de audiência, em particular entre crianças e adolescentes, à luz da teoria de desenvolvimento moral de Kohlberg. Mais especificamente, depois da leitura e análise das sinopses de um conjunto de 73 episódios, escolhemos dois que tinham conteúdos morais mais explíc...
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Environmental problems cannot be ignored any more. In this paper, we present a few results of a research carried out in a sample of people from Lisbon (Kahn & Lourenço, 2000). In this research we tried to explore some aspects of one's understanding of the ontogenesis of human relationship with nature. The sample consisted of 120 participants evenly...
Article
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The central purpose of this study was to provide additional support for interpreting the development of prosocial behaviour in children in accordance with a theoretical perspective which integrates the two micromodels Piaget used in succession to explain the child's transition from preoperational to operational thought: a cost-gain evaluation (Piag...
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This study examines developmental aspects of children's appraisals of antisocial acts by integrating the two micromodels Piaget used at different points in his research programme to describe and explain the child's transition from pre-operational to operational thought. One model guided by game theory involves a cost-gain evaluation, and is mainly...
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Resumo O objectivo central deste estudo foi examinar em que extensão a abordagem Piagetiana proposta recentemente por Lourenço (1993, 2003) para explicar aspectos desenvolvimentistas no comportamento anti-social e pró-social da criança seria ou não desafiada se fossem introduzidos alguns procedimentos metodológicos não utilizados em estudos anterio...
Chapter
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Taken a whole, the chapters included in the second part of this book offer much food for thought. Taken together, the chapters are focused on the role of communication, metacommunication, and coconstruction processes within specific personal-cultural domains related to human development. My commentary is in three parts. In the first part, Positive...
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To characterize what gets published in specialized Portuguese journals of psychology, we analyzed the articles published from 1996 to 2003 in three journals: Psicologia: teoria, investigação e prática, associated with the University of Minho; Psychologica, associated with the University of Coimbra; and Análise Psicológica, associated with the Insti...
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The chapter is in four parts. First, I briefly summarize extant accounts of children’s development of prosocial behavior, and I discuss the main ideas that lie at the heart of the Piagetian perspective advocated here (see also Lourenço, 1990, 1993a, 1994a). In the second part, I present diverse findings that provide support for the Piagetian framew...
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Carpendale & Lewis's (C&L's) critique of traditional accounts of “theory of mind” is well taken, but the alternative theory they propose is premature at its best, unconvincing at its worst. The proposed theory is ad hoc and confirmatory in its findings; vague and generic in its claims; and unjustified and unnecessary in its (putative) novelty.
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This study attempts to make conceptual and empirical sense of Turiel's dispute with Kohlberg concerning the child's moral competence. Forty-eight children from two age-levels (24 6-year-olds, and 24 8-year-olds; Experiment 1), and 20 young adults aged between 17 and 21 years (Experiment 2) were confronted with hypothetical situations in which two a...
Article
This study examines whether German and Portuguese 5- to 6-, and 8- to 9-year-old children distinguish between the feelings attributed to a victimizer or to themselves if they were the victimizers in two hypothetical moral violations (stealing and breaking a promise), and how they morally evaluate the emotions they attribute to victimizers and the p...
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This study examines a Portuguese TV program in terms of Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The program, which is called Super-Pai, has a broad audience, in particular among children and adolescents. After the reading and analysis of the synopses of a set of 73 episodes, we chose those ones (i.e., episode # 4 and episode # 18) whose verbalizati...
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This study contributes to our understanding of the origins and development of the human relationship with nature. The authors interviewed 120 participants (aged approximately 10 years, 5 months; 13 years, 6 months; 16 years, 7 months; and 19 years, 4 months) in Lisbon, Portugal, about environmental moral issues that involved water pollution, air po...
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Borrowing from Wittgenstein’s and Drury’s ideas, this article shows that, by overlooking Wittgenstein’s message about the danger of words and the importance of the grammar and clarification of concepts, some developmentalists sometimes fall prey to the fallacy of the alchemists, the fallacy of Molière’s doctor, the fallacy of the “missing hippopota...
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The main goal of this commentary is to identify points of convergence and divergence between current developmental research and Piaget's theory. I restrict my attention to the Piagetian concepts of developmental processes, stages, and structures. I also show that if we want to critically assess these three concepts of Piaget's theory, we have to mo...
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The “A-not-B” error is consistent with an old memory principle, Jost's Law. Quantitative properties of the effect can be explained by a dynamic model for habituation that is also consistent with Jost. Piaget was well aware of the resemblance between adult memory errors and the “A-not-B” effect and, contrary to their assertions, Thelen et al.'s anal...
Article
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Environmental problems cannot be ignored any more. In this paper, we present a few results of a research carried out in a sample of people from Lisbon (Kahn & Lourenço, 2000). In this research we tried to explore some aspects of one’s understanding of the ontogenesis of human relationship with nature. The sample consisted of 120 participants evenly...
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ABSTRACT: In this essay we introduce the idea of an epistemic triangle, with factual, theoretical, and conceptual investigations at its vertices, and argue that whereas scientific progress requires a balance among the three types of investigations, psychology’s epistemic triangle is stretched disproportionately in the direction of factual investiga...
Presentation
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Esta apresentação, resultante de uma entrevista que me foi feita pelos estudantes de Piscologia da Universidade de Lisboa, e publicada na Revista Phallus, reflecte sobre os males que afectam a Universidade Portuguesa. Embora tenha sido efectuada em 2000, é ainda relativamente actual.
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This study examines children's attributions of positive and negative emotions to victimizers in an «is» or factual, and in an «ought» or deontic condition, and relates such emotions with a measure of children's prosocial behavior in an opportunity-to-donate situation. Fifty-four children from two age levels (i.e., 5- to 6-year-olds, and 8- to 9-yea...
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The author distinguishes aretaic moral judgments (regarding moral worthiness) from deontic moral judgments (regarding moral obligation. Possible relations between aretaic and deontic judgments are explored, and suggestions are made for future research directions
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The author distinguishes aretaic moral judgments (regarding moral worthiness) from deontic moral judgments (regarding moral obligation). Possible relations between aretaic and deontic judgments are explored, and suggestions are made for future research directions.
Article
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Abstract: This paper is critical comment on a Grobecker's (1998) article entitled, Redefining mathematics ‘disabilities’. We point to some agreements and disagreements with the main ideas Grobecker expresses in her article. More precisely, we argue that Grobecker’s frequent use of terms from physics, thermodynamics and non-linear, dynamic systems t...
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In this chapter I argue for a positive conception of peace. The chapter is divided into four sections. First, I argue that there is much to be gained if peace education and development are viewed in terms of a basic moral injunction incorporating both Kohlberg’s ethic of justice (to respect others’ rights; Kohlberg, 1984) and Gilligan’s ethic of ca...
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Psychologists (and educationists) often forget Wittgenstein's deep message that «what we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence». In this talk, I argue that psychologists (and educationists) tend to fall prey to (a) the «fallacy of the alchemists», viz., to use obscure terms and thereby think that one has obtained a deeper insight; (b) the...
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In recent years, postmodern critiques have enlarged in scope, and increasingly confronted traditional social scientists with challenges: epistemic, methodological, and moral. In this article, we offer a two-pronged response. First, we speak to problems within postmodern theory itself. We argue that, when taken seriously, the theory leads to contrad...
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Abstract: The happy/unhappy victimizer phenomenon is a central issue in the research on the child’s understanding of moral emotions. In this study, we examined the prevalence of this phenomenon in a sample of 32 5-6- old-children and 32 9-10-old- children, namely whether the happy victimizer pattern decreases when children are asked to attribute em...
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Piaget's theory has been subject to what may be called its standard interpretation. Although made possible by Piaget's ambiguity about some of his key concepts (e.g., stage and structure), such an interpretation is greatly due to its focus on Piaget's structural-stage theory at the expense of his equilibration theory, and also to its emphasis on fa...
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This article is based (a) on Newman´s (1992) characterization of nursing conceptions in terms of categorization, integration and transformation; (b) on the resemblance between these conceptions and Condon´s (1986) caring levels; and on the parallelism between these caring levels and Kohlberg´s (1984) levels of moral reasoning. The main goals of thi...
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The main goal of this research was to re-examine contradictions between several published studies of age-related changes in children's attributions of moral emotions to transgressors, and to analyse the robustness of young children's tendency to fall into the happy victimizer pattern (is. to expect a wrongdoer to feel good rather than bad after hav...
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This article presents an empirical study on the fun-damental-educational error. Participants were 96 children (i.e., 48 first-graders and 48 fourth-graders), their teachers (N=96) and their parents (N=192; i.e., 96 mothers and 96 fathers). Each participant was first presented with hypothetical scenarios involving both violations of, and adherences...
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This study, which is an Italian translation of an English version, examines how preschool children’s prosocial behavior can be promoted through a program based on a Piagetian approach to the development of altruism in children (see Lourenço, 1990, 1993). Sixty-two children’s ability to construct physical, psychological, and moral gain in prosocial...
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Recent narrative, contextual, and postmodern approaches to the study of moral development are examined relative to Kohlberg's justice-based theory of moral development. The comparison proceeds along five dimensions – values relevance, legitimacy, universality, rationality, and commensurability. Contrary to Kohlberg's alternatives, narrative approac...
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The developmental theory of Jean Piaget has been criticized on the grounds that it is conceptually limited, empirically false, or philosophically and epistemologically untenable. This study attempts to rebut these criticisms by showing that most of them (a) derive from widespread misinterpretations of the work of Piaget; (b) fail to appreciate the...
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ABSTRACT: This article elaborates on Kohlberg’s just community approach as a specific case of moral education. More precisely, this study (a) presents the main aspects of that approach; (b) presents the main results of that approach when it was applied to some USA schools, (c) elaborates on the several advantages of that kind of moral education; a...
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SUMMARY Framed in Piaget’s recent proposal of a “logical of meanings”, two experiments explored the role of entailment and familiarity as they influence conditional reasoning performance on the four classical arguments or inference rules (i.e., Modus Ponens, Modus Tollens, Denial of Antecedent, and Affirmation of Consequent). In Experiment 1, 100...
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ABSTRACT This is the text of an invited lecture presented at The First Meetings of the Portuguese Psychological Society, held in Coimbra, November, 20-21, 1992. This presentation consists of three parts. In the first part, entitled, If you want to get ahead, get a theory, we make some theoretical considerations about what might be called «a strong...
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Cognitive-developmental theorists have maintained that children's development of altruism does really mean a movement from centration to decentration. In this paper we make a different claim. Borrowing from the two micromodels Piaget used, in succession, to account for the child's transition from preoperational to operational throught (i.e., a cost...
Article
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Cognitive-developmental theories have maintained that children’s development of altruism does really mean a movement from centration to decentration. In this paper we make a different claim. Borrowing from the two micromodels Piaget used, in succession, to account for the child’s transition from preoperational to operational thought (i.e., a cost-g...
Article
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Borrowing from Fuller's distinction between duty and aspiration, we examined Portuguese children's attributions of credit and blame for good and bad deeds in moral, prosocial, and academic norms. In addition, we made crosscultural comparisons with US and Japanese children, and suggested that the frequently reported tendency for children to give mor...
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ABSTRACT Drawing on the two micromodels Piaget used, in succession, to account for the child’s transition from preoperational to operational thought, the cost-perception/gain-construction hypothesis maintains that children’s development of altruism represents a movement from centration (i.e., cost-perception) to compensation (i.e., gain-constructio...
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ABSTRACT The main goal of this study was to test, in a Portuguese sample of three to four-year-old children, Siegal and Beattie’s (1991) explanation for the frequently reported tendency for young children to fail on false-belief tasks. Our sample consisted of 40 children, ranging in age from 3 years, 6 months to 4 years, 6 months. A11 of the childr...
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SUMMARY In this study we examined children’s distinction between moral norms and aesthetic issues. More precisely, we examined whether the child’s competence to capture, even at an early age, what is judged to be central in the moral domain (i.e., its objectivity, generalizability, and prescriptivity) is also a competence to grasp what is consider...
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ABSTRACT Moral development has been a continuous topic of research in psychological and educational domains. Kohlberg’s moral interview involving the production of justifications is recognized to be far too complex since it makes fine distinctions between content and structure. Rest’s Defining Issues Test (DIT), which involves the evaluation of di...
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ABSTRACT In this study we claim that young children’s little altruism may be explained via the integration of the two micro-models Piaget used in succession to account for the child’s transition from preoperational to operational thought: a cost-gain evaluation (Piaget, 1957), and the equilibration theory (Piaget, 1974). Thirty children of five-to-...
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ABSTRACT Kohlberg’s claim that moral stages form a structured wholeness)) has led him to a continuing evolution in the proposed definitions of moral judgment stages and in the accompanying assessment methodology. In effect. Kohlberg argued that early scoring systems did not make a rigorous enough distinction between «content» and «structure», and...
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This study provides some data to help explain the development of altruism in children in accordance with a theoretical perspective which integrates the two micromodels Piaget used successively to account for the child's transition from intuitive or preoperational to reversible or operational thought. One of those models is guided by games theory an...
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ABSTRACT This article is based on a study carried out with 148 nursing students at the first and third year of their Nursing Course. Its first goal was to assess nursing students’ level of moral development and their prevalent orientation toward nursing (i.e., care/cure orientation). The second goal was to examine whether nursing students’ moral de...

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