Orlando Espino

Orlando Espino
Universidad de La Laguna | ULL · Department of Cognitive, Social and Organisational Psychology

Phd

About

63
Publications
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491
Citations

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Full-text available
A new theory explains how people make hypothetical inferences from a premise consistent with several alternatives to a conclusion consistent with several alternatives. The key proposal is that people rely on a heuristic that identifies compatible possibilities. It is tested in 7 experiments that examine inferences between conditionals and disjuncti...
Article
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We report the results of an experiment to test the cognitive processes underlying inferences from negated conditionals, e.g., ‘it is not the case that if A then B’. The results show that people endorse not only the conditional conclusion ‘if A then not B’ but also ‘if not A then B’. We discuss the implications of the results for competing explanati...
Article
Full-text available
We report the results of two priming experiments that examine the comprehension of conditionals--for example, "if there are apples then there are oranges"--and biconditionals--for example, "if and only if there are apples then there are oranges". The first experiment showed that participants read a biconditional faster when it was primed by a true...
Article
An eye-movement monitoring experiment was carried out to examine the effects of the difficulty of the problem (simple versus complex problems) and the type of figure (figure 1 or figure 4) on the time course of processing categorical syllogisms. The results showed that the course of influence for these two factors is different. We found early proce...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The main aim of this research was to study the role of the difficulty (low versus high) and the initial representation of the premises (single versus dual representation) in illusory response in a conditional and biconditional reasoning task. Experiment 1 showed that when two problems differed in initial representation but they did not differ in di...
Article
Full-text available
Our goal was to study how people understand the negation of counterfactuals (such as “Antonio denied / said that it is false that if Messi had played, then Barcelona would have won”) and semifactuals (such as “Antonio denied that even if Messi had played, Barcelona would have won”). Previous studies have shown that participants negated basic condit...
Article
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Two eye-tracking experiments compared affirmative and negative counterfactuals, “if she had (not) arrived early, she would (not) have bought roses” and affirmative and negative causal assertions, “Because she arrived (did not arrive) early, she bought (did not buy) roses”. When participants heard a counterfactual, they looked on screen at words cor...
Article
When people understand a counterfactual such as “if it had been a good year, there would have been roses,” they simulate the imagined alternative to reality, for example, “there were roses,” and the actual reality, as known or presupposed, for example, “there were no roses.” Seven experiments examined how people keep track of the epistemic status o...
Article
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The mental model theory postulates that the meanings of conditionals are based on possibilities. Indicative conditionals—such as “If he is injured tomorrow, then he will take some leave”—have a factual interpretation that can be paraphrased as It is possible, and remains so, that he is injured tomorrow, and in that case certain that he takes some l...
Article
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We examine two competing effects of beliefs on conditional inferences. The suppression effect occurs for conditionals, for example, “if she watered the plants they bloomed,” when beliefs about additional background conditions, for example, “if the sun shone they bloomed” decrease the frequency of inferences such as modus tollens (from “the plants d...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments tracked participants’ eye-movements to examine the time course of comprehension of the dual meaning of counterfactuals, such as “if there had been oranges then there would have been pears.” Participants listened to conditionals while looking at images in the visual world paradigm, including an image of oranges and pears that corre...
Article
Full-text available
The main goal of this research is to study whether or not the order of presentation of the premises in a logical argument form, such as a conditional reasoning task, could affect the processing time of premises and conclusion and the conclusions that participants accept as valid in an evaluation task. One experiment is reported in which participant...
Article
Full-text available
When people understand a counterfactual such as “if the flowers had been roses, the trees would have been orange trees,” they think about the conjecture, “there were roses and orange trees,” and they also think about its opposite, the presupposed facts. We test whether people think about the opposite by representing alternates, for example, “poppie...
Poster
Full-text available
if he had arrived early, he would have bought roses' People represent two possibilities:-The conjecture: 'He arrived early and he bought roses'-The presupposed fact: 'He did not arrive early and he did not buy roses' (Byrne 2016) BUT, HOW PEOPLE UNDERSTAND A NEGATIVE COUNTERFACTUAL? 'if he had not arrived early, he would not have bought roses' When...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The main objective of this research is to study whether or not the order of presentation of the premises could affect the processing time of premises and conclusion in an evaluation task.
Article
The goal of this paper is to test the main predictions of the semantic hypothesis about the directional effect in double conditionals (such as, ‘A only if B/only if C, B’) with a construction task. The semantic hypothesis claims that directional effect can be explained by the inherent directionality of the relation between the relatum and the targe...
Article
We report the results of an experiment that examined the mental representations underlying the comprehension of complex conditional connectives (such as “A, on condition that B”) and the conditional if (such as “A, if B”). The mental representations during the comprehension stage were analysed using a “priming methodology”. The experiment showed th...
Article
We report the results of three experiments that examine the mental representations underlying the comprehension stages of negative exceptive conditionals using subjunctive mood (‘B a menos que A’, ‘B a no ser que A’; ‘B excepto que A’ = ‘B unless A’) and indicative mood (‘B excepto si A’ and ‘B salvo si A’ = ‘B except if A’). The mental representat...
Article
Full-text available
Directionality effect in deductive reasoning is a very well-known phenomenon that shows that the percentage of forward or backward inferences that participants make depends on the conditional form used. A new extension of the semantic hypothesis (Oberauer & Wilhelm, 2000) is presented to explain the directionality effect in double conditionals with...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We report the results of two experiments that examine the mental representations underlying the comprehension and reasoning stages of negative exceptive conditionals requiring the subjunctive ('B a menos que A' and 'B a no ser que A' = 'B unless A') and the indicative mood ('B excepto si A' and 'B salvo si A' = 'B except if A'). Metho...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we outline a mental model theory (Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991, 2002) of reasoning about the conditional except if. We report two experiments showing that the exceptive conditional except if exerted certain forms of semantic modulation and determined the inferences that individuals draw in an inference task (Experiment 1) and in a trut...
Article
Here we report the results of one priming experiment that examines the comprehension of exceptive conditionals—for example, ‘Mary will go out tonight except if she has an exam tomorrow’—and indicative conditionals—for example, ‘Mary will not go out tonight if she has an exam tomorrow’. The experiment showed that participants read the true possibili...
Article
Figural effect is a response bias that depends on the arrangement of the terms in syllogisms. The usual pattern in construction tasks is that participants tend to give A-C responses when the syllogisms are in figure 4(A-B/B-C), while the majority of their conclusions are in the opposite direction (C-A) for syllogisms in figure 1 (B-A/C-B). We repor...
Article
Full-text available
The task-switch paradigm has helped psychologists gain insight into the processes involved in changing from one activity to another. The literature has yielded consistent results about switch cost reconfiguration (abrupt offset in regular task-switch vs. gradual reduction in random task-switch; endogenous and exogenous components of switch cost; co...
Article
Two experiments showed that the difficult of conditional (conditional with one premise versus conditional with two premises) produce different kind of directional effect. In experiment 1, where the difficulty was low, it was found a directional effect for the conditional “if p, then q”: participants select more forward (from p to q) than backward i...
Article
Se presentan dos experimentos en los que se demuestra que la dificultad del condicional (una premisa o dos premisas) genera distintos tipos de efecto de direccionalidad. En el primer experimento, en el que se utilizó una premisa condicional, se encontraron efectos de direccionalidad sólo para el condicional �si p, entonces q�. En este condicional l...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the comprehension of different types of conditionals. We measured the reading time of sentences primed by different types of conditionals (Experiments 1 and 2). We found that the participants read not-p and not-q faster when it was primed by the conditional form p if q and they were slower to read p and q when it was primed by the condi...
Article
Full-text available
Presentamos dos experimentos realizados con la Tarea de Selección de Wason en los que se hace patente un curioso fenómeno. Dichos experimentos comparan una situación estándar de la tarea abstracta con otra, igualmente abstracta, en la que se pide a los sujetos que indiquen las tarjetas que habría que quitar para que la regla fuese verdadera para el...
Article
An interesting phenomenon has been found in two experiments using Wason's Selection Task. We compared a standard abstract version of the task with another equally abstract version in which participants are asked to select "those cards that we should remove for the rule to be true for the rest of the cards". From the logical point of view the patter...
Article
Full-text available
The authors examined in 3 experiments the comprehension of counterfactuals, such as "If it had rained, the plants would have bloomed," and semifactuals, such as "Even if it had rained, the plants would have bloomed," compared with indicative conditionals, "If it rained, the plants bloomed." The first experiment showed that people read the negative...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the current theories of reasoning about the comprehension of conditional statements. We used two types of conditional statement that are logically equivalent: if p then q and p only if q. The model theory of reasoning considers that these conditional forms differ in their initial meaning, because...
Article
Tested the model theory of syllogistic reasoning, which assumes that individuals can devise models of syllogistic premises when the middle terms are contiguous. When the arrangement (figures) of the terms is not appropriate, individuals have to perform additional processing operations. Results of Exp 1 ( n = 31) show that the time consumed by these...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo de esta investigación era explorar la existencia de algunas dimensiones afectivas y motivacionales básicas del espacio interpersonal. Nuestro punto de partida era que las personas evalúan el efecto de la conducta interpersonal en términos de vinculación y posición. Elaboramos un cuestionario que contenía situaciones de la vida cotidiana...
Article
The aim of this research was to explore the existence of certain of affective and motivational dimensions of the interpersonal space. The initial hypothesis was the notion that people evaluate the effects of interpersonal behavior in terms of bonding and position. A questionnaire was produced containing daily life situations and subjects were asked...
Article
Full-text available
Oaksford (2001) considers that the findings of Espino, Santamaría, and García Madruga (2000a) could be explained by the Probability Heuristics Model (PHM) proposed by Chater and Oaksford (1999). He specifically voices three objections, the two main ones being based on the fact that PHM is not a theory about syllogism representation. If this is the...
Article
Full-text available
We report five experiments showing that the activation of the end-terms of a syllogism is determined by their position in the composite model of the premises. We show that it is not determined by the position of the terms in the rule being applied (Ford, 1994), by the syntactic role of the terms in the premises (Polk & Newell, 1995; Wetherick & Gil...
Article
Se presentan dos experimentos con tareas de razonamiento silogístico que investigan la influencia del contenido semántico (materiales de identidad y materiales de inclusión)y la figura (figura 1 versus figura 2)durante la fase de comprensión de las premisas y la fase inferencial. El experimento 1 nos muestra que en una tarea de evaluación silogísti...
Article
Reasoners resist even the valid inferences, such asIf Lisa met her friend then she went to a play, Lisa met her friend, therefore she went to a play, when they are given an additional condition, e.g.,If Lisa had enough money then she went to a play.Four experiments test alternative accounts of this suppression effect. The first experiment shows tha...
Article
Full-text available
En: Cognitiva Madrid 1999, v. 11, n. 2; p. 133-151 Se presentan dos experimentos con tareas de razonamiento silogístico que investigan la influencia del contenido semántico ( materiales de identidad y materiales de inclusión) y la figura durante la fase de comprensión de las premisas y la fase inferencial. El experimento 1 muestra que en una tarea...
Article
Este artículo presenta un estudio normativo sobre el uso del condicional en el lenguaje escrito. Se partió de una muestra de textos en español con 450.000 palabras, en los que se identificaron 408 condicionales. Analizamos la cualidad de estos condicionales como indicativos simples, bicondicionales, contrafácticos, deónticos (de obligaciones, permi...
Article
Full-text available
En el presente estudio se investigan los efectos del ejercicio físico sobre cuatro medidas complementarias de ansiedad. Jóvenes universitarios de ambos sexos fueron asignados aleatoriamente a un grupo de entrenamiento físico programado o a un grupo de control sin ejercicio. El tratamiento duró 12 semanas, con tres sesiones semanales de una hora de...
Article
Full-text available
An advantage of first mention (reader' s faster access to participants mentioned first in a sentence), has previously been demonstrated both in English (Gernsbacher and Hargreaves, 1988; Gernsbacher, Hargreaves and Beeman 1989) and Spanish, where word order is a less important cue to assess semantic agency and syntactic subjecthood (Carreiras, Gern...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of regular physical exercise on four measures of self-reported anxiety were examined. Female and male undergraduates were randomly assigned to a physical training (3-one hour sessions for 12 weeks) or a waiting list control condition. The two groups were comparable in objective measures of physical capacity and skills, cardio-respirator...
Article
Full-text available
Se examina el efecto de la capacidad de la memoria operativa sobre los procesos de integración de información en la lectura de textos. Sujetos con diferente capacidad de memoria operativa leyeron textos bajo tres condiciones: (a) retrocesos posibles y tiempo libre de lectura, (b) tiempo libre (pero no retrocesos), y (e) presentación prejijada (tiem...
Article
Full-text available
En este artículo proponemos dos nuevos esquemas comprometidos en la representación cognitiva de la experiencia interpersonal: los Esquemas de Vinculación y Posición Interpersonal. Se trata de estructuras de conocimiento específicas del dominio interpersonal estrechamente orientadas a la acción, que conectan con propósitos interpersonales básicos de...
Article
1) Valor predictivo que tienen las medidas psicométricas de las aptitudes en especial las de habilidad espacial, verbal y la de inteligencia general, en el rendimiento académico. 2) Saber si hay una variable general del rendimiento o si las notas escolares y pruebas objetivas constituyen medidas independientes. 3) Investigar la asociación entre las...
Article
Bibliografía: p. 163-167 Conocer el valor predictivo que tienen las medidas psicométricas de las aptitudes, en especial las de habilidad espacial y mecánica, verbal, numérica y la de inteligencia general, en el rendimiento académico, 11844 alumnos de la población nacional, repartidos de la siguiente manera: 38.8 por ciento de Formación Profesional,...

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The main aim of this research was to study the role of the difficulty (low versus high) and the initial representation of the premises (single versus dual representation) in illusory response in a conditional and biconditional reasoning task