Orhan Kurt

Orhan Kurt
Kocaeli University · Department of Geomatics Engineering

Assoc.Prof.Dr

About

66
Publications
52,664
Reads
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35
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2004 - September 2017
Kocaeli University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
June 1996 - April 2004
Bülent Ecevit Üniversitesi
Position
  • Lecturer
Education
September 1996 - January 2003
Yildiz Technical University
Field of study
  • Geomatic
September 1992 - June 1996
Karadeniz Technical University
Field of study
  • Geomatic
September 1987 - July 1991
Karadeniz Technical University
Field of study
  • Geomatic

Publications

Publications (66)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Artificial Intelligence (AI) studies have found wide application today. The reason for this is that users can easily access the data and subprograms prepared in the GNU environment over the Internet. In addition, with the development of computer technology, AI systems have also reduced the modeling and interpretation burden of the user. When lookin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Central Projective Equations (CPE) in Geomatics Engineering (GE) as in Computer Vision (CV) are constituted by a similarity transformation from a 3D right-hand image coordinate system (in pixel) to a 3D right-hand Terrestrial Coordinate System (in meter). While the equations in CV generally have an implicit form as Calibration and Exterior Orientat...
Article
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The current deals with the determination of the ‘true’ geometrical shape of the Great theatre of Ephesus, which is the largest theatre in Asia Minor. To detect the geometrical form of the theatre a precise point dataset was created using terrestrial measurements performed directly on the theatre site. The well-known ellipse and circle fitting algor...
Conference Paper
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Engineers use various estimation methods to solve problems (such as earthquake prediction, deformation analysis, parameter estimation, etc.) in their study fields. We can divide these into two main groups. Hard Computing (HC) and Soft Computing (SC). Especially, since artificial intelligence (AI) studies have been gotten importance and the librarie...
Conference Paper
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Man-made structures move due to the mass pressure on them and/or the geotechnical properties of the land on which they are built. The velocities of their movements vary according to their mass density and the geological and tectonic behaviors of the land. These movements, which are fast at the beginning, should slow down and become stationary. Thes...
Article
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Least squares (LS) fitting, the most widespreadly used approach for ellipses, operates by minimizing the sum of squares of some error term measured at each data point. It is not an easy task to measure the accuracy of any fitting method in fitting elliptical sections since they rely on different error criteria. There is no unique criterion valid fo...
Conference Paper
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VLBI (Very Long Base Interferometer) observations are the most accurate geodetic technique for measuring intercontinental distances and easily downloaded from the web. In this study, new python software is developed to evaluate VLBI data in a geodetic network. Although the software can run in python environment independently or as lumped in QGIS (Q...
Conference Paper
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Static GNSS networks established for the relative fault movements are very sensitive to geological and geophysical characteristic around the fault. For this reason, the network point monuments should be set very carefully because of their effects on the deformation vectors. And, to determine any movements on them, we need to control any local movem...
Chapter
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To interpret and explain the mechanism of an engineering problem, the redundant observations are carried out by scientists and engineers. The functional relationships between the observations and parameters defining the model are generally non-linear. Those relationships are constituted by a non-linear equation system. The equations of the system a...
Article
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Two dimensional (2D) linear transformations are commonly used in a lot of field of Geomatics Engineering. Most used of them are similarity (Helmert) transformation between two orthogonal coordinate systems and affine transformation between an orthogonal and an oblique coordinate system. Since many users don’t have any idea on the geometry (for sour...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Evaluation of reference GNSS station (TUSAGA-Active, CORS-TR) measurements is carried out in short observation time spans. We need two requirements to make Precise Positioning (PP) in the times. The first is to use the relative positioning method and the second is to choose a robust integer ambiguity resolution method. The success of the second req...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
GIS (Geographical Information System) is a very useful tool to store, analyze and visualize any kind of data in the various study fields. To develop a GIS application in any study field, there is a lot of free GIS software. Some well-known software names can be given at this stage as QGIS (Quantum GIS), GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support...
Article
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To find 3D similarity transformation parameters (a scale, three rotational angles, and three translation elements) between two orthogonal coordinate systems in 3D is an ill-posed non-linear inverse problem by means of common points (their Cartesian components are known in the both systems). The problem can be solved via Linearized Least Squares (LL...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The best way to comprehend and test and develop a new or known mathematical model in any study area is to construct an artificial dataset with known model parameters. In this study, a mathematical algorithm of a simulated image taken with a digital camera has been given to test and develop mathematical models used (for internal and external orienta...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is always needed for a reliable horizontal and vertical controlling network in producing a digital basemap of any large area. Nowadays the horizontal controlling (the Cartesian coordinates of the network points in 2D or 3D) and the vertical controlling (orthometric heights of the network points) are ensured by GNSS and leveling observations resp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are some uncertainties between the administrative institutions (the National Real Estates, municipalities) and practitioners on the selection of the up level heights of the excavation filling fields tendered by the National Real Estate. The up level heights can be varied for the volume computation of the filling fields while these heights are...
Conference Paper
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There are two main techniques for height transformations from ellipsoid heights to orthometric heights or vise versa. These are the interpolation and estimation techniques. While the latter techniques do consider the uncertainties of the common points, the former techniques do not. Generally, to test the transformation results in the interpolation...
Conference Paper
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Euclidean Geometry covering the processes over the basic shapes constituted by relationships among points, lines, planes in 2D and 3D spaces is one of the important tools to get a talent that gains “a mathematical point of view” for a technical staff. Therefore, this study is organized to bring a technical student in a different perspective by a sh...
Conference Paper
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Dams, whose economical lives are planned within a century, are water structures which should be monitored continuously in terms of dam safety. Therefore, Namazgah and Yuvacık dams within responsibility area of Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality (KMM) and operated by a municipal corporation as named Izmit Water Co. (IWCO) are monitored for many years...
Article
Full-text available
3D similarity transformations are often used for datum transformation in Geomatic Engineering. The transformations are routinely performed between the point coordinates evaluated from GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) observations and the point coordinates given in national datum. A mathematical model established among two different 3D coo...
Article
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This paper presents a new approach for precision estimation for algebraic ellipse fitting based on combined least squares method. Our approach is based on coordinate description of the ellipse geometry to determine the error distances of the fitting method. Since it is an effective fitting algorithm the well-known Direct Ellipse Fitting method was...
Conference Paper
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Bir inşaat teknikeri haritacılık konuları ile iki derste yoğun olarak karşılaşılır. Bunlar, Topografya (Ölçme Bilgisi) ve Ulaştırma dersleridir. Topografya dersinin tamamı haritacılık konularından oluşurken, Ulaştırma dersinin önemli bir kısmı haritacılık konularını kapsamaktadır. Topografya dersi içerisinde inşaat teknikerinin; yatay ve düşey konu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Planning GPS observations are utilized from almanac files. There are four types almanac formats produced based on Keplerian orbital elements. The three {YUMA almanac file and SEM (USA), AGP (R)} of them is obtained from the internet, the fourth (AD Almanac Data) is achieved at the GPS occupation instant. In this study, it is shown how the almanac...
Article
Full-text available
This work addresses the issue of fitting a geometrical shape to the Hierapolis theater near the city of Denizli, Turkey. The aim of the study was to determine the geometrical shape of the theater that would best fit the set of measured site data points. The geometrical form of the theater was surveyed by using an electronic total station instrument...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Keplerian orbital elements indicating long and short periodic features can be represented by a combination of polynomial and trigonometric functions. In this study, how the long-arc orbital elements can be modelled with the combined functions are shown explicitly. The experimental results are achieved from the spectral analysis of the temporal chan...
Conference Paper
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Yol projelerinde farklı açıklık açısına sahip olan iki aliyman (doğru parçası) arasındaki geçişi yumuşatan kurplar (daire yayı) tasarlanır. Eğriliği sıfır olan aliymandan, eğriliği sıfırdan farklı olan kurba geçiş sürekliliğini sağlayabilmek için, bu geçişi yumuştan geçiş eğrilerinden yararlanılır. En iyi bilinen ve yaygın olarak kullanılan geçiş e...
Conference Paper
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Uydu yörünge parametreleri iki yönteme dayalı olarak belirlenir. Bunlar; analitik yöntem ve sayısal integrasyon yöntemleridir. Analitik yöntemlerde bir referans anına ait kepler elemanları ile bu referans anına göre hesaplanmış düzeltme terimleri analitik bağıntılara göre kullanılır. Sayısal yöntemlerde ise uydunun konumuna, konum hızına ve konum i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Today, GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) measurements which gave fast and reliable results are widely used for geodetic network densification. Since GNSS measurements are insufficient for the network points falling down in the fields covered forest or on valley or under high-voltage lines, the network is supported by additive terrestrial ob...
Conference Paper
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Güzergah seçimi gibi mekânsal bilgilere dayanan kararların alınmasında, optimizasyon modellerinin tek başına yeterli olamayacağı, bu konuda araştırma yapanlarca kabul edilen bir gerçektir. Dolayısıyla, optimizasyon ve simülasyon gibi modelleri içeren karar destek sistemlerinin etkin bir veri yönetimi ve analizi gereci olan bir bilgi sistemi ile ili...
Article
Full-text available
Ambiguity resolution stage constitutes most important part of evaluating GNSS observation. Estimation of correct ambiguities is directly related to mathematical model for all ambiguity resolution methods. The functional part of the mathematical model is established using DD (Double Differences) observables in a lot of academic and commercial softwa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In practice, the elements of setting out of the vertical curves (circular or parabolic) are computed the conventional formulas based on some geometric acceptances for simplicity. Most important one of those geometric acceptances is admitted that the height of PVC (Point of the Vertical Curve) and the height of PVT (Point of the Vertical Tangency) o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A GIS module improved to build a real water distribution network database and topology, verify, modify and update spatial data; perform spatial analysis; and provide both hard copy reporting and graphical display of results with the aim of using the methods and models that used for water distribution network design interactively by ArcGIS Desktop S...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since developed softwares for the water distribution design are not used interactively and the initial values and the restrictions required for the network solution have to be entered data from the screen or files, it is very hard to utilize from those software by nonexpert people. In this study, it is suggested some spatial algorithms to develop a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, the concept of pseudorange-based absolute positioning will be presented and some recommendations are given to solve the positioning problem. The atmospheric effects and the receiver clock errors are the main parts of the inaccuracy of the positioning if using the precise orbits. The tropospheric and the ionospheric effects are the co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
GNSS static and kinematic positioning with centimeter accuracy requires that the carrier phase ambiguities must be resolved. A lot of techniques have been developed to resolve the ambiguities instantaneously under some certain conditions. The conditions can be listed as follows; all observation types (carrier phase and pseudo range) collected in an...
Conference Paper
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In this contribution, we propose a standard way to establish GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) networks and how we take under control them before not carrying out GNSS observations in the theory part. Validation of the proposed way is applied on IZDOGAP (Project of monitoring Substructure of Natural Gas in Kocaeli via National Geodetic Netw...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The GPS/leveling is defined as obtaining orthometric heights at common points those only ellipsoidal heights are known using the estimated local geoid. The local geoid is determined by evaluating GPS observations at the control points, orthometric heights are known. Polynomial height transformation (surface fitting) is widely used in height transfo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Our country has active tectonic entities. Generally, the tectonic framework of the Eastern Mediterranean is dominated by the collision of the Arabian and African plates with the Eurasia. Recent GPS studies indicated kinematics of this active region. The active tectonic framework also caused to move geodetic network points. Therefore, a new dynamic...
Conference Paper
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In countries on tectonic plate movements, as a result of the distorting effects of plate movements of national country geodetic networks lose their homogenous characteristics, and non-concordances rise to upper level particularly around active fault lines. Earth’s crust movement to bring about necessity of updated to geoid and reference ellipsoid....
Conference Paper
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Besides determining the situations at the time (T) of measuring of generated C1 and C2 depending on TUTGA points, Large Scale Map and Map Information Production Regulation (BÖHHBÜY) has also required to determine the situations on epoch (To). This requires the necessity of estimating the velocity components of the newly generated points from the on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The GPS/levelling is defined as obtaining orthometric heights at common points those only ellipsoidal heights are known using the estimated local geoid. The local geoid is determined by evaluating GPS observations at the control points, orthometric heights are known. Polynomial height transformation (surface fitting) is widely used in height transf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Artificial Neural Networks are a class of non-linear computation models that have been successfully applied in many different application areas such as pattern recognition, prediction, process control and classification. The capabilities of ANNs for non-linear function approximation, data classification, non-parametric regression and non-linear dec...
Article
Full-text available
Province of Kocaeli is the most industrialized region of Turkey, therefore its environment and water sources must be continuously monitored to measure the level of industrial pollution and to determine what measures should be taken in the future for management of the mentioned pollution is used in an efficient, fast and economic manner for monitori...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Instantaneous precise positioning in GPS is up to correct estimation of integer ambiguity values for the phase observables with their millimeter precision. The ambiguity estimation is not trivial problem, due to very high altitude of the GPS satellites. The geometry of the satellite constellation above observer site in observation epoch causes high...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Uzaktan algılama yöntemiyle, fotogrametrik yöntemle elde edilmiş raster görüntülerden ya da taranmış grafik paftalardan vektör bilgi elde edebilmek için iki boyutlu Benzerlik ve Afin dönüşümleri yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Bunun için eşlenik noktalara ait konum bilgilerine ihtiyaç duyulur. Bu tür görüntü bilgilerinin geçerli konum bilgilerine d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nowadays, geodetic networks are evaluated with rapid and high accuracy GPS observations. It is not enough to make up the geodetic networks only for known standards. For the reasons, when the geodetic Networks are designed, at the same time the observation plan end the precision of the observation must be optimized. In this study, firstly the altern...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Both GPS technology having high accuracy and rapid surveying and software possibilities available for evaluating geodetic networks can easily be reached nowadays. As a result of this, geodetic networks should be reviewed from design phase with respect to precision and reliability for those expected functions. Finally, an suitable optimization strat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
GPS (Global Positioning System) ile milimetre duyarlıklı sonuçlara ulaşabilmek için milimetre duyarlıklı faz ölçülerini de içinde bulunduran bağıl konum belirleme yöntemi kullanılmalıdır. Milimetre duyarlıklı faz ölçülerinin en önemli eksikliği, oturum başlangıcındaki tam dalga boyu sayılarının bilinmemesidir. Doğrudan elde edilemeyen ve ilgili uyd...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Günümüzde yüksek doğruluklu ve hızlı ölçme olanağı sağlayan GPS teknolojisinin yanı sıra, jeodezik ağların değerlendirilmesine yönelik yeterli sayıda yazılım olanaklarına da ulaşılabilmektedir. Bu durumun bir sonucu olarak; mühendislik ağlarının kendilerinden beklenen işlevleri yeterince karşılayabilmeleri için; tasarım aşamasından başlamak üzere d...
Article
Full-text available
Gerçek Zamanlı Kinematik GPS ile konumlamanın doğruluğu; yörünge, iyonosfer ve troposferden kaynaklanan mesafeye bağımlı hatalardan ve sinyal yansıması ve anten faz merkezi kayıklıkları gibi istasyona bağlı hatalardan dolayı kısıtlanmaktadır. Durum esaslı konumlamanın temel fikri, GPS hata kaynaklarının her bir bileşeninine ait durumunu gerçek zama...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pratik uygulamalar için geliştirilmiş olan yazılımlarda GPS (Global Positioning System) ölçülerinin değerlendirme aşamaları; noktaların yaklaşık koordinatlarının bulunması (mutlak konum belirleme), baz bileşenlerinin hesaplanması (bağıl konum belirleme) ve baz bileşenlerinin ölçüler olarak ele alınıp ağ düzeninde tekrar dengelenmesi şeklindedir. No...
Conference Paper
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Simulation, which can simply define to imitate a similar thing from its reality, is used to test to evaluating methods for accuracy in our profession. In this study, the simulation is stood on ambiguity resolution and relative positioning. In the simulation, it is simulated GPS observation files with RINEX-V2.0 format using known approximate statio...
Conference Paper
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zet : Deformasyon izleme amaçlı olarak kurulan jeodezik ağların konum bilgilerinin elde edilmesinde, GPS (Global Positioning System) ölçüleri yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Duyarlı sonuçlarının elde edilebilmesi için ise GPS ölçü süreleri genellikle en az bir saat olacak ş ekilde planlanmaktaydı. Başlangıç Faz Belirsizliği (BFB
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The papers include the LS (Least Square) adjustment of a leveling network with condition and the computation of the precisions of observations and point heights.
Thesis
Full-text available
This research work proposes a new method or improves the well-known methods for ambiguity resolution at relative positioning with GPS (Global Positioning System), while effective factors on it are examined. For this reason, one of most known methods being LAMBDA (Least AMBiguity Decorelation Adjustment), which demonstrate general character of ambig...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
İki boyutlu benzerlik ve afin dönüşümleri mesleğimizin bir çok alanında yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Bunlardan en çok kullanılanı, benzerliği koruyan ve adını da buradan alan benzerlik (Helmert) dönüşümüdür. Diğeri ise, paralelliği koruyan afin dönüşümüdür. Bu dönüşümlerden hangisinin kullanılacağı, kişinin ön bilgileri ile ilintilidir ve bunu g...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
GPS (Global Positioning System) hızlı ve duyarlı ölçme olanağı sağlaması nedeniyle bir çok jeodezik uygulamada kulanılmaktadır. Bu nedenle, GPS ile konum bilgilerinin nasıl elde edildiği ve nasıl yorumlanması gerektiği hakkında kullanıcıların bilgi sahibi olmaları önmem kazanmaktadır. Konunun işleniş sırası, bazların değerlendirilmesi (bağıl konuml...
Article
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In this study, a summary of researches between January 1996 end September 1999 of the project carried out in Bolu-Yeniçağa by Depertment of Geodesy end Photogrammetry Engineering of Zonguldak Karaelmas University which the project is named "monitoring of surface displacement in the Western Black Sea Region" are presented. GİRİŞ Günümüzde tektonik k...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Büyük nirengi ağlarının dengelemesi sırasında bilgisayar belleğinin yetersiz kaldığı ya da GPS (Global Positioning System) gözlemlerinin ön değerlendirme aşaması olan mutlak konum koordinatlarının veya bağıl konum koordinatlarının hesaplanmasında kullanılabilecek bir yöntemdir. Bu çalışmada dolaylı ölçüler dengelemesi esas alınmıştır. Ancak benzer...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Jeodezik ağlar günümüzde; hızlı, ekonomik ve yüksek doğruluklu GPS (Global Positioning System) ölçüleri ile değerlendirilmektedir. Bu durumun bir sonucu olarak; uygulamalarda GPS ağları planlanırken, yalnızca ölçülerin doğruluklarına önem verilmekte, çoğunlukla ağ güvenirlik yönünden tam anlamıyla irdelenmemektedir. Bu çalışmada; gerçek bir GPS ağı...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Jeodezik ağlarda gerçekleştirilen ölçülerin topluca değerlendirilmesi aşamasında; herhangi bir ölçüdeki olası hatanın ortaya çıkarılabilme gücü ve bu hatanın koordinat bilinmeyenlerine etkisi, önemli güven ölçütlerindendir. Söz konusu güvenirlik isteklerinin yeterince karşılandığı durumlarda, uyuşumsuz ölçülerin yerleri büyük bir olasılıkla tam ola...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bu çalışmada ilk GPS ölçüleri olan kod, faz ve Doppler ölçüleri kısaca tanıtılarak, yaygın olarak kullanılan kod ve faz ölçülerinin ön değerlendirme aşamalarında kullanılan matematik modellerden ve duyarlık ölçütlerinden bahsedilecektir.
Thesis
Full-text available
Rapid developments in GPS (Global Positioning System) Technology increase use of this system in establishing a geodetic network. The network is usually made up with relative coordinates which are more precise than point coordinates. In the network design stage while the network is tried to correspond to desired purposes, an optimum economy problem...

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