Oren Griffiths

Oren Griffiths
Flinders University · School of Psychology

PhD, MPsych (Clin, Hons I), BPsych (Hons I)

About

51
Publications
8,121
Reads
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Citations
Introduction
Oren Griffiths currently works at the College of Education, Psychology and Social Work, Flinders University (Adelaide, Australia). Oren does research in Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Behavioural Science.
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - present
Flinders University
Position
  • Lecturer
August 2013 - August 2016
New York University
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Taught: Cognition, Social Psychology and Child & Adolescent Psychopathology.
January 2008 - December 2017
UNSW Sydney
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (51)
Article
Sensory suppression refers to the phenomenon that sensory input generated by our own actions, such as moving a finger to press a button to hear a tone, elicits smaller neural responses than sensory input generated by external agents. This observation is usually explained via the internal forward model in which an efference copy of the motor command...
Article
Full-text available
Self-generated stimuli have been found to elicit a reduced sensory response compared with externally-generated stimuli. However, much of the literature has not adequately controlled for differences in temporal predictability and temporal control of the stimuli. In two experiments, we compared the N1 (and P2) components of the auditory-evoked potent...
Article
Full-text available
Outcome predictability effects in associative learning paradigms describe better learning about outcomes with a history of greater predictability in a similar but unrelated task compared to outcomes with a history of unpredictability. Inspired by the similarities between this phenomenon and the effect of uncontrollability in Learned Helplessness pa...
Article
Amongst neurocognitive accounts of delusions, there is a growing consensus that it is the certainty with which delusions are held, rather than their content, that defines some beliefs as delusional. On a continuum model of psychosis this inappropriate certainty ought to be present (albeit in an attenuated form) in healthy adults who score highly in...
Article
Efficient learning requires allocating limited attentional resources to meaningful stimuli and away from irrelevant stimuli. This prioritization may occur via covert attention, evident in the activity of the visual cortex. We used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) to assess whether associability-driven changes in stimulus processing we...
Article
Previous studies of human associative learning have demonstrated that people's experience with a cueing stimulus will change how that cue is treated during subsequent learning. Typically, studies have shown that people pay more attention to cues that were informative in the past, and learn new information about these cues more rapidly (these cues a...
Article
Full-text available
Much empirical work and theoretical discussion in the associative learning literature has focussed on when and how a cue changes in its associability. A series of new findings in human learning preparations (collectively referred to as the “outcome predictability” effect) appear to show that outcomes vary in their capacity to enter into novel assoc...
Article
The human brain is an efficient, adaptive, and predictive machine, constructing a generative model of the environment that we then perceive and become conscious of. Here, we show that different types of prediction-errors – the discrepancies between top-down expectations and bottom-up sensory input – are integrated across processing levels and senso...
Article
Full-text available
Women are under-represented globally in leadership roles. One theory suggests that this imbalance is due to a mismatch between the qualities women are perceived to have, and the qualities desired in business leaders. Yet, little is known about whether this incongruence remains prevalent in the Australian business environment. To this end, this stud...
Article
Full-text available
Superstitions are common, yet we have little understanding of the cognitive mechanisms that bring them about. This study used a laboratory‐based analogue for superstitious beliefs that involved people monitoring the relationship between undertaking an action (pressing a button) and an outcome occurring (a light illuminating). The task was arranged...
Article
Within the domain of associative learning, there is substantial evidence that people (and other animals) select among environmental cues on the basis of their reinforcement history. Specifically, people preferentially attend to, and learn about, cueing stimuli that have previously predicted events of consequence (a predictiveness bias). By contrast...
Data
Syntax used for the analysis of the N1-component in the inner speech experiment (amplitude data). The data were analysed with this syntax using the program IBM SPSS Statistics (v. 23).
Data
Inner Speech Experiment - N1 amplitude and latency data.
Article
Background: There is evidence to suggest that people with established psychotic disorders show impairments in the mismatch negativity induced by a frequency-deviant sound (fMMN), and that these impairments worsen with the deterioration of psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to test whether individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show p...
Article
Full-text available
Efference copies refer to internal duplicates of movement-producing neural signals. Their primary function is to predict, and often suppress, the sensory consequences of willed movements. Efference copies have been almost exclusively investigated in the context of overt movements. The current electrophysiological study employed a novel design to sh...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has shown that perceptual processing of stimuli previously associated with high-value rewards is automatically prioritized, even when rewards are no longer available. It has been hypothesized that such reward-related modulation of stimulus salience is conceptually similar to an 'attentional habit'. Recording event-related potentials...
Chapter
Attention describes the collection of cognitive mechanisms that act to preferentially allocate mental resources to the processing of certain aspects of sensory input. This chapter describes important advances that have been made in recent years in elucidating the nature and operation of derived attention in studies of human learning. A dysfunction...
Article
A cross-modal symbolic paradigm was used to elicit EEG activity related to semantic incongruence. Twenty-five undergraduate students viewed pairings of visual lexical cues (e.g., DOG) with congruent (50% of trials) or incongruent (50%) auditory nonlexical stimuli (animal vocalizations; e.g., sound of a dog woofing or a cat meowing). In one conditio...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between learned variations in attention and schizotypy was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants low on a negative subscale of schizotypy exhibited an explicit bias in overt attention towards stimuli that were established as predictive of a trial outcome, relative to stimuli that were irrelevant. The same parti...
Article
Much of contemporary associative learning research is focused on understanding how and when the associative history of cues affects later learning about those cues. Very little work has investigated the effects of the associative history of outcomes on human learning. Three experiments extended the "learned irrelevance" paradigm from the animal con...
Article
A new cross-modal symbolic paradigm was used to elicit electroencephalographic (EEG) activity related to semantic incongruence. 25 undergraduate students viewed pairings of visual lexical cues (e.g. ‘DOG’) with matched (50% of trials) or mismatched (50%) auditory non-lexical stimuli (animal vocalizations; e.g. sound of a dog woofing or a cat meowin...
Article
Full-text available
Attention provides the gateway to cognition, by selecting certain stimuli for further analysis. Recent research demonstrates that whether a stimulus captures attention is not determined solely by its physical properties, but is malleable, being influenced by our previous experience of rewards obtained by attending to that stimulus. Here we show tha...
Article
Full-text available
Studies in laboratory animals have shown that the extinction of a conditioned stimulus, A, is regulated by the associative history of a second stimulus, X, when the two are extinguished in simultaneous compound: An inhibitory X protects A from extinction (Rescorla Learning & Behavior, 31, 124–132, 2003), whereas an excitatory X facilitates, and und...
Article
Introduction: There is now significant evidence that prediction error signalling is mediated by dopamine in the midbrain, and that dopamine dysfunction is implicated in people experiencing psychotic symptoms, including delusions. There has also been significant theorizing and experimentation concerning the remaining link in this triad, namely that...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies of human contingency learning investigated the influence of stimulus salience on the cue competition effect of blocking. These studies demonstrated that blocking (defined as a difference in responding to blocked and control cues) was greater for target cues that had high "semantic salience" than those of lower salience. Moreover partici...
Article
In laboratory contingency learning tasks, people usually give accurate estimates of the degree of contingency between a cue and an outcome. However, if they are asked to estimate the probability of the outcome in the presence of the cue, they tend to be biased by the probability of the outcome in the absence of the cue. This bias is often attribute...
Article
Cues that reliably predict an outcome in an initial phase of training (Phase 1) are learned faster in a second phase of training (Phase 2) than cues that were unreliable in Phase 1. This result is observed despite objectively equal relationships between the cues and the outcomes in Phase 2, and consequently constitutes a nonnormative bias in learni...
Data
Many modern learning theories assume that the amount of attention to a cue depends on how well that cue predicted important events in the past. Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in attention and recent theories of psychosis have argued that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are related to a failure of selective attentio...
Article
Full-text available
Many modern learning theories assume that the amount of attention to a cue depends on how well that cue predicted important events in the past. Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in attention and recent theories of psychosis have argued that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are related to a failure of selective attentio...
Article
Full-text available
In three experiments, we used the allergist task to examine the role of error correction mechanisms in the acquisition and extinction of causal judgments in people. Consistent with existing human and animal studies, acquisition of causal judgments was influenced by the discrepancy between the allergenic outcome and that predicted by all of the cues...
Article
Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is kno...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has examined how people predict unobserved features of an object when its category membership is ambiguous. The debate has focused on whether predictions are based solely on information from the most likely category, or whether information from other possible categories is also used. In the present experiment, we compared these cate...
Article
Models of attentional allocation in associative learning are typically structured according to one of two guiding principles: the predictiveness principle, which posits that attention is paid to cues that have reliably predicted an outcome in the past, or the uncertainty principle, which states that attention is paid to cues about which little is k...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments used eye-tracking procedures to investigate the relationship between attention and associative learning in human participants. These experiments found greater overt attention to cues experienced as predictive of the outcomes with which they were paired, than to cues experienced as nonpredictive. Moreover, this attentional bias persi...
Article
Full-text available
When people are uncertain about the category membership of an item (e.g., Is it a dog or a dingo?), research shows that they tend to rely only on the dominant or most likely category when making inductions (e.g., How likely is it to befriend me?). An exception has been reported using speeded induction judgments where participants appeared to use in...
Article
Walter G, Byrne S, Griffiths O, Hunt G, Soh N, Cleary M, Duffy P, Crawford G, Krabman P, Concannon P, Malhi G. Can young people reliably rate side effects of low-dose antipsychotic medication using a self-report survey?
Article
Full-text available
In three human causal learning experiments, we examined attentional modulation in the blocking task, in which participants typically learn little about a novel cue B when it is paired with a previously trained, predictive cue A. Evidence indicates that this blocking training led to a decrement in attention to the blocked cue B. The present experime...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely accepted that feedback is critical to guide the learning process and to make effective decisions. However, ideal feedback is relatively rare in our daily environments. Two multiple-cue judgment experiments examined whether biased and incomplete feedback leads to less accurate learning than comprehensive feedback. Experiment 1 found tha...
Article
Four experiments examined the role of selective attention in a new causal judgment task that allowed measurement of both causal strength and cue recognition. In Experiments 1 and 2, blocking was observed; pretraining with 1 cue (A) resulted in reduced learning about a 2nd cue (B) when those 2 cues were trained in compound (AB+). Participants also d...
Article
Full-text available
A series of experiments studied the amount learned about two food cues (A and B) whose presentation in a meal was followed by an allergy (+) in a fictitious patient. Participants were trained with A+ and C+ in Phase 1 and then with AB+ or AB++ in Phase 2. Subsequent testing revealed that BC was more allergenic than AD, showing that more had been le...
Article
The mere exposure effect is the commonly observed increase in pleasantness ratings of stimuli that have been given prior exposure. According to the fluency attribution account of the mere exposure effect, repeated presentations of a stimulus lead to increased ease of processing, which in turn is attributed to pleasantness. If so, processing fluency...

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
how previous experience influence subsequent learning