Onno van der Hart

Onno van der Hart
Utrecht University | UU · Division of Clinical and Health Psychology

PhD

About

378
Publications
283,897
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9,312
Citations
Introduction
My interest are centered around trauma-generated dissociation of the personality and the dissociative disorders I have a special interest in the history of these issues, including French 19th centruy pubications of hysteria. The works of Pierre Janet have a special place in all this.
Additional affiliations
January 1992 - December 2015
Utrecht University
Position
  • Professor emeritus of psychopathology of chronic trraumatization

Publications

Publications (378)
Article
In his commentary on my article, Trauma-related dissociation of the personality: An analysis of two conflicting models (Van der Hart, 2021), Schimmenti (2022) challenged my position that dissociative subsystems of the personality include their own sense of self and first-person perspective for identifying trauma-related dissociative symptoms—which...
Article
Full-text available
L’hypnose n’est pas seulement un phénomène induit par un thérapeute ou un hypnotiseur de scène, mais aussi, de manière bien maligne, par des auteurs d’abus sexuels et autres violences. De plus, une grande partie de l’expérience des victimes de traumatismes, en particulier celles souffrant d’un trouble dissociatif complexe tel que le Trouble Dissoci...
Book
Full-text available
Redécouvrir Pierre Janet et son influence sur le champs de la psychotraumatologie : des fondements aux approches contemporaines. L'oeuvre de Janet est fondamentale dans le traitement de la psychotraumatologie aujourd'hui. Sans comprendre les origines, on ne peut appliquer et comprendre les théories d'aujourd'hui. Un ouvrage incontournable pour tous...
Article
Full-text available
The author has been involved in the development of two conflicting theoretical models of trauma-related dissociation which has given rise to conceptual confusion—the more so because both models originally included the term ‘levels of dissociation.’ In one model, stemming from a so-called broad conceptualization, these ‘levels’ refer to a range of t...
Article
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There is a gap in research exploring the experiences and explanatory models of people labelled in local communities as possessed. While previous accounts often focused on the links between possession and dissociative disorders or psychosis, the current study elaborates on problems attributed to possession in women with features of personality disor...
Article
Endorsement of and identification with cultural beliefs about spirit possession can affect clinical presentations and explanatory models associated with sudden, uncontrollable behaviour. Although literature shows links between possession-form presentations and dissociative disorders, which is also a focus of this paper, few studies explore in detai...
Article
As the construct trauma-generated dissociation has received a wide range of meanings in recent years, it may be fruitful to re-visit Pierre Janet's original views. Having been the first researcher to study this phenomenon in depth, he concluded that so-called vehement emotions, that is, those that arise when a major challenge is beyond the individu...
Book
Rediscovering Pierre Janet explores the legacy left by the pioneering French psychologist, philosopher and psychotherapist (1859-1947), from the relationship of between Janet and Freud, to the influence of his dissociation theory on contemporary psychotraumatology. Divided into three parts, the first section places Janetian psychological analysis a...
Article
Both Pierre Janet and the neo-Janetian contemporary theory of structural dissociation of the personality (SDP) view dissociation as inherently pathological – trauma-related dissociation. However, since the late 19th century, other theories have viewed dissociative subsystems of the personality developing after traumatic experiences as continuous wi...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the etymology and historical uses of the terms psychosis, trauma, and dissociation, emphasizing current popular uses. Severe forms of psychological and behavioural dysfunction have been recognized since ancient times, leading to the development of concepts such as 'insanity', 'mania', and 'dementia'. For more than three centuri...
Chapter
The concept of hysterical psychosis (HP) suffered a curious fate in the history of psychiatry. Important observations were made about the phenomenology of HP and its curability through psychotherapy, particularly with the use of hypnosis. Pierre Janet described HP as a kind of 'waking dream' in which the subject could not differentiate between the...
Chapter
This chapter presents Pierre Janet's original analysis of hysterical psychosis's (HP's) dissociative nature, followed by a description of dissociative psychosis (DP) in terms of the modern theory of structural dissociation of the personality. It presents a number of forms of DP and discusses clinical applications of this theoretical approach using...
Article
To overcome their traumatic memories, survivors need to integrate them into their personality. In patients with complex dissociative disorders who generally have experienced severe and chronic relational traumatization, this integration requires a paced and regulated approach within a relational context. Management and resolution of traumatic memor...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the history of a 21-year-old female college student with total denial of pregnancy who experienced an acute dissociative reaction during the spontaneous delivery at home without medical assistance where the newborn died immediately. Psychiatric examination, self report questionnaires, legal documents, and witness reports hav...
Article
Wie bereits in einem früheren Artikel in dieser Zeitschrift dargelegt, können Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)-Behandler, die Patienten mit komplexen traumabezogenen Störungen behandeln, von der Kenntnis und der Anwendung der Theorie der strukturellen Persönlichkeitsdissoziation (TSPD) und der ihr zugehörigen Aktionspsychologie...
Article
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) – Psychotherapie kann eine bedeutende Rolle in der phasenorientierten Behandlung von komplexen traumabezogenen Störungen spielen. In einem vorangegangenen Artikel wurde die Behandlungsphase 1 im Sinne der Theorie der strukturellen Persönlichkeitsdissoziation und der ihr zugeordneten Aktionspsycho...
Article
Wie bereits in einem früheren Artikel in dieser Zeitschrift dargelegt, können Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)-Behandler, die Patienten mit komplexen traumabezogenen Störungen behandeln, von der Kenntnis und der Anwendung der Theorie der strukturellen Persönlichkeitsdissoziation (TSPD) und der ihr zugehörigen Aktionspsychologie...
Article
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) – Psychotherapie kann eine bedeutende Rolle in der phasenorientierten Behandlung von komplexen traumabezogenen Störungen spielen. In einem vorangegangenen Artikel wurde die Behandlungsphase 1 im Sinne der Theorie der strukturellen Persönlichkeitsdissoziation und der ihr zugeordneten Aktionspsycho...
Research
Full-text available
Book chapter in : Handbook of dissociation edited by Larry K. Michelson and William Ray, Plenum Press NY, 1996
Article
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Jak sugeruje poprzedni artykuł w niniejszym piśmie, znajomość i stosowanie teorii strukturalnej dysocjacji osobowości (TSDP) oraz towarzyszącej jej psychologii czynności może przynieść korzyści lekarzom stosującym terapię EMDR (odwrażliwiania za pomocą ruchu gałek ocznych) w leczeniu pacjentów ze złożonymi zaburzeniami potraumatycznymi. Wg teorii T...
Article
Full-text available
This study replicates and extends prior research on the relationship of childhood complex trauma with complex post-traumatic stress disorder (cPTSD) in adulthood, examining the role of psychoform and somatoform dissociation as a potential mediator. Childhood Complex Trauma (CCT), dissociation, and cPTSD were assessed in a large sample of adult psyc...
Article
Full-text available
A longitudinal study was conducted in order to assess the impact of the Ghislenghien disaster (July 30th, 2004) on physical, mental and social health in the affected population. The present study explored the risk for the development of four types of mental health disturbances (MHD) due to exposure to different aspects of this technological disaste...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background This paper investigates risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the different survivor groups involved in a technological disaster in Ghislenghien (Belgium). A gas explosion instantly killed five firefighters, one police officer and 18 other people. Moreover, 132 people were wounded among which many...
Article
Full-text available
La psychothérapie EMDR (désensibilisation et retraitement par les mouvements oculaires) peut jouer un rôle majeur dans le traitement orienté par phases de troubles complexes liés au trauma. En termes de la théorie de la dissociation structurelle de la personnalité et de sa psychologie de l'action associée, un article précédent a décrit le traitemen...
Article
Full-text available
Jak sugeruje poprzedni artykuł w niniejszym piśmie, znajomość i stosowanie teorii strukturalnej dysocjacji osobowości (TSDP) oraz towarzyszącej jej psychologii czynności może przynieść korzyści lekarzom stosującym terapię EMDR (odwrażliwiania za pomocą ruchu gałek ocznych) w leczeniu pacjentów ze złożonymi zaburzeniami potraumatycznymi. Wg teorii T...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The DSM-5 formally recognizes a dissociative subtype of PTSD ('PTSD with dissociative symptoms'). This nomenclative move will boost empirical and theoretical efforts to further understand the links between dissociation, trauma and PTSD. This paper examines the empirical literature showing that patients with PTSD can be divided into two dif...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress reactions in children after a technological disaster in Ghislenghien, Belgium in 2004. Children were assessed at five months (T1, N=128) and at fourteen months (T2; N=69). At T1 and T2 respectively, 7 % and 4 % of the responding children showed severe posttraumatic st...
Article
Full-text available
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) psychotherapy can play a major role in phaseoriented treatment of complex trauma-related disorders. In terms of the theory of structural dissociation of the personality and its related psychology of action, a previous article described Phase 1 treatment—Stabilization, Symptom Reduction, and Skill...
Article
Full-text available
La psychothérapie EMDR (désensibilisation et retraitement par les mouvements oculaires) peut jouer un rôle majeur dans le traitement orienté par phases de troubles complexes liés au trauma. En termes de la théorie de la dissociation structurelle de la personnalité et de sa psychologie de l'action associée, un article précédent a décrit le traitemen...
Article
Comme un précédent article dans ce journal l'a déjà proposé, les cliniciens EMDR (désensibilisation et retraitement par les mouvements oculaires) qui traitent des patients présentant des troubles complexes liés au trauma pourraient tirer bénéfice de la connaissance et de l'application de la théorie de la dissociation structurelle de la personnalité...
Article
Full-text available
As proposed in a previous article in this journal, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) clinicians treating clients with complex trauma-related disorders may benefit from knowing and applying the theory of structural dissociation of the personality (TSDP) and its accompanying psychology of action. TSDP postulates that dissociation o...
Article
Full-text available
Potentially traumatizing experiences by a primary caregiver during childhood (TPC) may lead to affect dysregulation, which is a hallmark of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood. Path analyses with bootstrap confidence intervals were used to explore the relationships of TPC and under- and overregulation of affect to BPD symptoms. Almos...
Article
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Background: To study difficulties in emotional functioning in two mental disorders that have been associated with difficulties in identifying and modulating emotions: borderline personality disorder (BPD) and somatoform disorder (SoD). Sampling and methods: In 472 psychiatric inpatients, difficulties in emotional functioning were measured using...
Article
Hypnotic techniques have been used for the psychological treatment of shell shock, battle fatigue, traumatic neuroses, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dissociative symptomatology. Hypnosis is a procedure used to facilitate therapy, and should be used only by properly trained professionals. Hypnotic responsiveness varies throughout the lif...
Article
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Borderline personality disorder and dissociation are strongly related. DSM-IV-R criteria of BPD, for instance, include isola- ted dissociative symptoms (APA, 1994). Two thirds of BPD may be diagnosed of a dissociative disorder. Both diagnoses have been related with high rates of childhood trauma. The close relationship between trauma, dissociation...
Article
Full-text available
The "standard of care" for clients with complex dissociative disorders and other complex trauma-related disorders is phase-oriented treatment. Within this frame, therapeutic progress can be enhanced by the use of imagery-based therapeutic techniques. In this article, the emphasis is on their application in phase 1 treatment, stabilization, symptom...
Article
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This article explores the experiences of fire and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel during and immediately after a technological event using a phenomenological approach. Personnel engaged in the rescue operations during and immediately after the Ghislenghien gas explosion reflected upon their experiences in their responses to a specially d...
Article
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Historical PerspectiveDissociation of the Personality in the Theory of Structural DissociationDissociation MeasurementsStructural Dissociation and Treatment PrinciplesConclusion References
Article
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Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS), also known as Complex posttraumatic stress disorder, was assessed in a sample (N = 472) of adult psychiatric patients with confirmed diagnoses of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Somatoform Disorders (SoD), comorbid BPD + SoD, or Affective or Anxiety Disorders (Psychiatric Controls...
Article
Full-text available
Borderline personality disorder and dissociation are strongly related. DSM-IV-R criteria of BPD, for instance, include isola- ted dissociative symptoms (APA, 1994). Two thirds of BPD may be diagnosed of a dissociative disorder. Both diagnoses have been related with high rates of childhood trauma. The close relationship between trauma, dissociation...
Article
Full-text available
Amid controversy regarding the psychobiological construct of dissociation, efforts to formulate a precise definition of dissociation are rare. Some understandings of dissociation are so broad that a host of common psychobiological phenomena would qualify as dissociative. Overly narrow conceptualizations of dissociation exclude phenomena that origin...
Article
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Affect regulation is often compromised as a result of early life interpersonal traumatization and disruption in caregiving relationships like in situations where the caretaker is emotionally, sexually or physically abusing the child. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood attachment-related psychological trauma and affec...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to develop an expertise-based prognostic model for the treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). We developed a survey in 2 rounds: In the first round we surveyed 42 experienced therapists (22 DID and 20 complex PTSD therapists), and in the second round we surve...
Data
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terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or...
Article
Full-text available
Affect dysregulation and dissociation may be associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and somatoform disorder (SoD). In this study, both under-regulation and over-regulation of affect and positive and negative somatoform and psychoform dissociative experiences were assessed. BPD and SoD diagnoses were confirmed or ruled out in 472 psyc...
Article
Full-text available
Although affect dysregulation is considered a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and somatoform disorders (SoD), remarkably little research has focused on prevalence and nature of affect dysregulation in these disorders. BPD and SoD diagnoses were confirmed or ruled out in 472 psychiatric inpatients using clinical interviews. T...
Article
Full-text available
As eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) has been increasingly applied in complex trauma-related disorders, including complex dissociative disorders, and trauma-related borderline personality disorder, EMDR practice may benefit from theories developed to account for the dissociative nature of these disorders, such as the theory of st...
Article
Full-text available
Many traumatized individuals alternate between re-experiencing their trauma and being detached from, or even relatively unaware of the trauma and its effects. At first sight one may be inclined to conceptualize detachment from trauma and re-experiencing of trauma as mental states. However, on closer scrutiny it becomes apparent that in both cases a...
Article
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There are few topics in modern life that are more repugnant to consider than the abuse of a child by the very persons entrusted with his care. K. B. Oettinger (1968, p. v) [1]. While the etiological significance of early trauma and abuse for mental health difficulties has long been on the periphery of psychological thought, it has rarely taken cent...
Article
Early literature on hysterical psychosisHysterical psychosis in Pierre Janet's dissociation theoryThe decline of hysteriaThe return of the diagnosis of hysterical psychosisSystematic and empirical studiesHysterical psychosis and reactive psychosisIntegration and concluding remarksReferences
Article
De bijdrage van Paul Lamers (2008) over risico’s en bijwerkingen van complexe traumabehandeling aan de rubriek ‘Forum’ vraagt om een repliek. De behandeling van mensen met complexe traumagerelateerde stoornissen en een geschiedenis van onder meer vroegkinderlijke chronische traumatisering is, zoals Lamers stelt, inderdaad complex, vergt veel van pa...