Olof Liberg

Olof Liberg
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | SLU · Department of Ecology

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137
Publications
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Publications

Publications (137)
Article
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Transboundary connectivity is a key component when conserving and managing animal species that require large areas to maintain viable population sizes. Wolves Canis lupus recolonized the Scandinavian Peninsula in the early 1980s. The population is geographically isolated and relies on immigration to not lose genetic diversity and to maintain long t...
Article
Poaching is an important limiting factor for many large carnivore populations worldwide and the effect that legal culling has on poaching rate on wolf (Canis lupus) is debated. We used data linked to population monitoring and research to analyze rate and risk of disappearance without known cause for territorial pair-living wolves (n = 444) in Swede...
Article
Full-text available
Inbreeding (mating between relatives) is a major concern for conservation as it decreases individual fitness and can increase the risk of population extinction. We used whole-genome resequencing of 97 grey wolves (Canis lupus) from the highly inbred Scandinavian wolf population to identify 'identical-by-descent' (IBD) chromosome segments as runs of...
Article
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Wolves (Canis lupus) and moose (Alces americanus) have been studied since 1958 on 540-squarekilometer Isle Royale National Park, in Lake Superior. Wolves arrived there across the ice around 1949, and the population once increased to about 50, averaging about 25 annually (Mech 1966, Jordan et al. 1967, Vucetich and Peterson 2009). However, for vario...
Article
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Apex predators may affect mesopredators through intraguild predation and/or supply of carrion from their prey, causing a trade-off between avoidance and attractiveness. We used wildlife triangle snow-tracking data to investigate the abundance of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolf (Canis lupus) occurrence as well as lan...
Technical Report
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Since the reestablishment of the wolf population in Scandinavia during the 1980s, there have been conflicts related to the coexistence of wolves and people, mostly regarding loss of livestock and dogs, people’s fear, and competition for moose. To reduce conflicts, knowledge about wolf dispersal patterns is essential for management policies, but has...
Data
Appendix S1. Summary of winter tracking efforts. Appendix S2. Expanded methods description Appendix S3. Coefficient of correlation between highly correlated covariates (r > 0.60). Appendix S4. Test of the robustness of the centroid and buffer method.
Data
Appendix S1 Supplementary methods and results. Fig. S1 Annual average inbreeding and genetic contribution of founders among cohorts. Table S1 Microsatellite loci, their chromosomal position (Chr), number of alleles, expected heterozygosity (HE) and observed homosygosity (HO) among breeding individuals 1983–2012 and the percentage of these individ...
Article
Full-text available
Natural populations are becoming increasingly fragmented which is expected to affect their viability due to inbreeding depression, reduced genetic diversity and increased sensitivity to demographic and environmental stochasticity. In small and highly inbred populations, the introduction of only a few immigrants may increase vital rates significantl...
Article
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For socially monogamous species, breeder bond dissolution has important consequences for population dynamics, but the extent to which extrinsic or intrinsic population factors causes pair dissolution remain poorly understood, especially among carnivores. Using an extensive life‐history data set, a survival analysis and competing risks framework, we...
Article
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Background Sarcoptic mange, a parasitic disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, is regularly reported on wolves Canis lupus in Scandinavia. We describe the distribution and transmission of this parasite within the small but recovering wolf population by analysing 269 necropsy reports and performing a serological survey on 198 serum samples co...
Article
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Following protection measures implemented since the 1970s, large carnivores are currently increasing in number and returning to areas from which they were absent for decades or even centuries. Monitoring programmes for these species rely extensively on non-invasive sampling and genotyping. However, attempts to connect results of such studies at lar...
Article
p>Following protection measures implemented since the 1970s, large carnivores are currently increasing in number and returning to areas from which they were absent for decades or even centuries. Monitoring programmes for these species rely extensively on non-invasive sampling and genotyping. However, attempts to connect results of such studies at l...
Article
Full-text available
Predation and hunter harvest constitute the main mortality factors affecting the size and dynamics of many exploited populations. The re-colonization by wolves (Canis lupus) of the Scandinavian Peninsula may therefore substantially reduce hunter harvest of moose (Alces alces), the main prey of wolves. We examined possible effects of wolf presence o...
Article
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The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreo...
Data
Shape files of current and historical distribution maps of large carnivore species in Europe. Also available from http://datadryad.org/resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.986mp
Article
Full-text available
The conservation of large carnivores is a formidable challenge for biodiversity conservation. Using a data set on the past and current status of brown bears (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), gray wolves (Canis lupus), and wolverines (Gulo gulo) in European countries, we show that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one larg...
Article
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Full text access here: http://beheco.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/08/20/beheco.aru134.full Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by m...
Article
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The functional response of a predator describes the change in per capita kill rate to changes in prey density. This response can be influenced by predator densities, giving a predator-dependent functional response. In social carnivores which defend a territory, kill rates also depend on the individual energetic requirements of group members and the...
Chapter
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Med ulvens tilbakekomst og bestandsøkning i Skandinavia spurte mange om ulven ville påvirke klauvviltbestanden og redusere elgjaktens avkast-ning. Det Skandinaviske Ulveforskningsprosjektet SKANDULV (http:// skandulv.nina.no/) har derfor fokusert mye av forskningen på ulvens rolle som rovdyr. Ved å merke ulv med GPS og lete etter byttedyrrester på...
Data
Background: Reestablishment of apex predators influences the availability and distribution of biomass for scavengers and can therefore be an important agent for structuring species communities. We studied how the re-colonization of the Scandinavian Peninsula by wolves (Canis lupus) affected the amount and temporal variation in use of moose (Alces a...
Article
Full-text available
Reestablishment of apex predators influences the availability and distribution of biomass for scavengers and can therefore be an important agent for structuring species communities. We studied how the re-colonization of the Scandinavian Peninsula by wolves (Canis lupus) affected the amount and temporal variation in use of moose (Alces alces) carcas...
Article
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Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx - the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1) before and after lynx re-es...
Article
The increase and range extension of wolves (Canis lupus L) and brown bears ( Ursus arctos L) in Scandinavia inevitably impacts moose (Alces alces L.) populations and, as a consequence, the size and composition of the hunter harvest must be adjusted. We used a sex- and age-structured moose population model to delineate optimal harvest strategies und...
Article
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Home range size in mammals is a key ecological trait and an important parameter in conservation planning, and has been shown to be influenced by ecological, demographic and social factors in animal populations. Information on space requirements is especially important for carnivore species which range over very large areas and often come into direc...
Article
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Twenty-eight anesthetic events were carried out on 24 free-ranging Scandinavian gray wolves (Canis lupus) by darting from a helicopter with 5 mg medetomidine and 250 mg ketamine during winter in 2002 and 2003. Mean±SD doses were 0.162±0.008 mg medetomidine/kg and 8.1±0.4 mg ketamine/kg in juveniles (7-10 mo old) and 0.110±0.014 mg medetomidine/kg a...
Article
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The domestication of dogs was an important episode in the development of human civilization. The precise timing and location of this event is debated and little is known about the genetic changes that accompanied the transformation of ancient wolves into domestic dogs. Here we conduct whole-genome resequencing of dogs and wolves to identify 3.8 mil...
Article
We studied the effect of a recolonizing wolf (Canis lupus L., 1758) population on a resident lynx (Lynx lynx (L., 1758)) population in south-central Sweden. Wolf and lynx share the same prey species, western roe deer (Capreolus capreolus (L., 1758)), and the size difference between the two species suggests a strong potential for interference compet...
Article
Traditional predation theory assumes that prey density is the primary determinant of kill rate. More recently, the ratio of prey-to-predator has been shown to be a better predictor of kill rate. However, the selective behavior of many predators also suggests that age structure of the prey population should be an important predictor of kill rate. We...
Article
The Scandinavian wolf population is jointly monitored by Norwegian and Swedish authorities. Monitoring is made annually. Wolves are classified in different categories. Family groups (>= 3 animals sharing a territory), territorial pairs, other stationary wolves, and vagrants. Also number of reproductions are determined each year, and has the highest...
Article
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1. Understanding the role of predation in shaping the dynamics of animal communities is a fundamental issue in ecological research. Nevertheless, the complex nature of predator–prey interactions often prevents researchers from modelling them explicitly. 2. By using periodic Leslie–Usher matrices and a simulation approach together with parameters ob...
Article
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Dispersal patterns are male biased in most mammals whereas the patterns are less clear within the genus Lynx (four species), with findings ranging from male biased dispersal to males and females dispersing equally far and with equal frequency. In this study, we examined various aspects of natal dispersal by Eurasian lynx in Scandinavia by comparing...
Article
Full-text available
Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required kno...
Article
Mortality in radio-marked European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus (Linnaeus, 1758)) neonates was studied during 14 years in a mixed forest–agricultural landscape in Sweden. A total of 233 fawns were marked. Births were synchronized, with 79% occurring during 25 days and a peak between 25 May and 7 June encompassing 62% of the births. Overall mortali...
Article
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We studied the simultaneous activity patterns of a breeding wolf, Canis lupus, pair and five adult moose, Alces alces, cows from April to November 2004 in a wolf territory in southeastern Norway. All study animals were GPS collared, and we used a total of 8297 fixes to analyse their temporal activity patterns. We examined the daily activity rhythm...
Article
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We document a new record dispersal for wolves worldwide. The natal straight-line dispersal distance of a Global Positioning System-collared female wolf from the Scandinavian population was 1,092 km from southeast Norway to northeast Finland, with a multistage actual travel distance of >10,000 km. Natural gene flow to the isolated, inbred Scandinavi...
Article
To estimate wolf (Canis lupus) kill rates from fine-scale movement patterns, we followed adult wolves in 3 territories of the Scandinavian wolf population using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) during the winters of 2001–2003. The resulting 6 datasets of 62–84 study days gave a total of 8,747 hourly GPS positions. We visited clusters of positions i...
Article
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Little is known about traits under sexual selection in territorial mammals with low sexual size dimorphism. We examined the potential for sexual selection on male body mass and antler length in the European roe deer Capreolus capreolus, a territorial ungulate in which males are less than 10% heavier than females. Independently, both body mass and a...
Article
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Over 6,000 GPS fixes from two wolves (Canis lupus) and 30,000 GPS fixes from five moose (Alces alces) in a wolf territory in southern Scandinavia were used to assess the static and dynamic interactions between predator and prey individuals. Our results showed that wolves were closer to some of the moose when inside their home ranges than expected i...
Article
We examined chase distances of gray wolves Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 hunting moose Alces alces and roe deer Capreolus capreolus, and recorded details of encounters between wolves and prey on the Scandinavian Peninsula, 1997–2003. In total, 252 wolf attacks on moose and 64 attacks on roe deer were registered during 4200 km of snow tracking in 28 wo...
Article
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We investigated age-specific variation in male yearly breeding success (YBS) using genetic estimates obtained from 2 populations of a territorial ungulate, the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). YBS in both populations was markedly age-structured, with 3 distinct stages, supporting the dome-shaped pattern of variation commonly reported for ag...
Article
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Scandinavian free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) are endangered, such that laboratory data to assess their health status is increasingly important. Although wolves have been studied for decades, most biological information comes from captive animals. The objective of the present study was to establish reference intervals for 30 clinical chemical and...
Article
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It is commonly assumed that the propensity to disperse and the dispersal distance of mammals should increase with increasing density and be greater among males than among females. However, most empirical evidence, especially on large mammals, has focused on highly polygynous and dimorphic species displaying female-defence mating tactics. We tested...
Article
1. Territoriality is commonly associated with resource defence polygyny, where males are expected to gain access to females by anticipating how resources will influence female distribution and competing for resource-rich sites to establish their zone of dominance. 2. We tested this hypothesis in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) by simultaneo...
Article
Full-text available
So far the vast majority of studies on large carnivore predation, including kill rates and consumption, have been based on winter studies. Because large carnivores relying on ungulates as prey often show a preference for juveniles, kill rates may be both higher and more variable during the summer season than during the rest of the year leading to s...
Article
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