Olli Sippula

Olli Sippula
University of Eastern Finland | UEF · Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences & Department of Chemistry

PhD

About

150
Publications
30,259
Reads
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3,517
Citations
Citations since 2016
79 Research Items
2797 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Introduction
My research focuses on aerosol emissions from combustion and industrial processes, their environmental effects and emission control techniques. The research topics cover the effects of combustion technologies and fuels on emission chemical and physical properties, and emission transformation and environmental impacts in the atmosphere. The development of novel exhaust gas after-treatment technologies and circular economy aspects of combustion processes are as well part of my research activities
Additional affiliations
June 2012 - June 2013
University of Rostock
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2011 - present
University of Eastern Finland

Publications

Publications (150)
Article
Full-text available
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from small-scale wood combustion emissions are not well represented by current emissions inventories and models, although they contribute substantially to the global atmospheric particulate matter (PM) levels. This type of SOA is formed via the oxidation of combustion-emitted volatile organic compounds, induc...
Article
The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a medium-speed four-stroke marine engine, operated on both heavy fuel oil (HFO) and distillate fuel (DF), was studied under various operating conditions. PM emission factors for organic matter, elemental carbon (soot), inorganic species and a variety of organic compounds were determ...
Article
Full-text available
Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling. To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular...
Article
There is a need to develop feasible PM reduction methods for small-scale biomass combustion installations due to their high PM emissions. In this work, we evaluated the potential of a novel prototype small-scale heat exchanger (PHX) designed for high particle emission reduction. In addition, the role of the different deposition mechanisms in such a...
Article
The combustion of wood in small-scale appliances emits significant amounts of particulate and gaseous pollutants into the atmosphere, leading to impaired air quality and adverse health and climate effects. Simple and easily implemented reduction techniques are needed to address this issue. In this study, different air staging strategies in a sauna...
Article
Membrane transporters are important for maintaining brain homeostasis by regulating the passage of solutes into, out of, and within the brain. Growing evidence suggests neurotoxic effects of air pollution exposure and its contribution to neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), yet limited knowledge is available on the exact...
Poster
Full-text available
Rare earth elements (REEs) have significant importance in modern technologies such as automobiles, computers, electronic equipment, wind turbines, precision-guided weapons, electric vehicles and audio equipment. Industrial and agricultural activities can release REEs into the surrounding environment which leads to deteriorating plants and human hea...
Article
Several studies indicate that short-sea shipping is an important source of air pollution for coastal areas and port cities. This paper reports results of a non-reactive particles dispersion model and a new set of experiments implemented for the Channel of Procida (Italy), an area with a high signal-to-noise ratio, due to intense marine traffic and...
Article
The health effects of exposure to secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are still limited. Here, we investigated and compared the toxicities of soot particles (SP) coated with β-pinene SOA (SOA βPin-SP) and SP coated with naphthalene SOA (SOA Nap-SP) in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) residing at the air-liquid interface. SOA βPin-SP m...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from anthropogenic or biogenic gaseous precursors in the atmosphere substantially contribute to the ambient fine particulate matter [PM ≤2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] burden, which has been associated with adverse human health effects. However, there is only limited evidence on their di...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiological studies reveal that air pollution exposure may exacerbate neurodegeneration. Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are pollutants that remain unregulated in ambient air by environmental agencies. Due to their small size (<100 nm), UFPs have the most potential to cross the bodily barriers and thus impact the brain. However, little information e...
Article
Full-text available
Small-scale wood combustion is a significant source of particulate emissions. Atmospheric transformation of wood combustion emissions is a complex process involving multiple compounds interacting simultaneously. Thus, advanced methodology is needed...
Article
Full-text available
Soil and water contaminations are caused by rare earth elements (REEs) due to mining and industrial activities, that threaten the ecosystem and human health. Therefore, phytoremediation methods need to be developed to overcome this problem. To date, little research has been conducted concerning the phytoremediation potential of Salix for REEs. In t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Epidemiological studies reveal that air pollution exposure may exacerbate neurodegeneration. Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are pollutants that remain unregulated in ambient air by environmental agencies. Due to their small size (<100nm), UFPs have the most potential to cross the bodily barriers and thus impact the brain. However, little information ex...
Article
Solid fuel usage in residential heating and cooking is one of the largest sources of ambient and indoor air particulate matter, which causes adverse effects on the health of millions of peoples worldwide. Emissions from solid fuel combustion, such as biomass or coal, are detrimental to health, but toxicological responses are largely unknown. In the...
Article
Although biomass fuel has always been regarded as a source of sustainable energy, it potentially emits polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). This study investigated PCDD/F emissions from industrial boilers fired with three types of biomass fuel (i.e., bagasse, coffee residue, and biomass pellets) via stack sampling and labo...
Article
Air pollution emitted by residential biomass combustion (RBC) is known cause of adverse health and climate effects. Currently, manufacturers of stoves and fireplaces are facing challenges due to tightening emission regulations, such as the Ecodesign Directive in the European Union. Consequently, there is a demand for new emission control solutions...
Article
Full-text available
The absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) describes the spectral dependence of light absorption by aerosols. AAE is typically used to differentiate between different aerosol types for example., black carbon, brown carbon, and dust particles. In this study, the variation of AAE was investigated mainly in fresh aerosol emissions from different fuel and...
Article
Full-text available
Utilization of natural gas fuels in heavy duty vehicles offers an effective solution to reduce global warming and improve urban air quality. However, there are problems related to catalyst durability and release of unburned methane (methane slip). Catalyst durability can be achieved through clever designs of both catalyst material and its regenerat...
Article
Full-text available
During the bioethanol production process, vast amounts of residues are generated as process waste. To extract more value from lignocellulosic biomass and improve process economics, these residues should be used as feedstock in additional processes for the production of energy or fuels. In this paper, barley straw was used for bioethanol production...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Advancement in the instrumentation techniques made it possible to identify the compositions and concentrations of various chemicals, such as organic compounds or metals in combustion aerosols. However, the prediction of combustion aerosol-induced toxicity end points in lung epithelium cells is difficult due to the large number of non-lin...
Article
Full-text available
New particulate matter (PM) filtering technologies are needed to meet the emission regulations for small combustion appliances. In this work, we investigate the performance of a novel electrical particle filtration system, the single needle shielded corona charger (SCC), which offers an advantageous solution for PM control in boilers by enhancing p...
Article
Anthropogenic air pollution has a severe impact on climate and human health. The immense molecular complexity and diversity of particulate matter (PM) is a result of primary organic aerosol (POA) as well as secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). In this study, a direct inlet probe (DIP), i.e., atmospheric solids analysis probe (ASAP), with ion mobility...
Article
Development of thermal processes for selective recovery of Zn and other valuable elements from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash requires comprehensive knowledge of the impact of gas atmosphere on the volatile behaviour of the element constituents of the ash at different reaction temperatures. This study assesses the partitioning of...
Article
Full-text available
Background Wood combustion emissions have been studied previously either by in vitro or in vivo models using collected particles, yet most studies have neglected gaseous compounds. Furthermore, a more accurate and holistic view of the toxicity of aerosols can be gained with parallel in vitro and in vivo studies using direct exposure methods. Moreov...
Article
Full-text available
Residential wood combustion (RWC) emits large amounts of gaseous and particulate organic aerosol (OA). In the atmosphere, the emission is transformed via oxidative reactions, which are under daylight conditions driven mainly by hydroxyl radicals (OH). This continuing oxidative ageing produces secondary OA and may change the health- and climate-rela...
Article
This study assesses the potential of thermal processing for detoxification of wood-combustion ashes that contain high levels of Cr and Cd. Thermal treatment (1000 °C) of bottom ash and fly ash in an oxidising gas (air) atmosphere resulted in: low volatilisation of Cd and most other heavy metals, oxidation of Cr in the ashes to Cr (VI), and, in the...
Article
Municipal solid waste incineration fly ashes can contain high concentrations of Zn and other valuable elements including Cu, Pb, Sn, and Sb. These elements can potentially be separated from fly ashes by selectively volatilising and condensing them in thermal processes. This study presents a thermal process for production of zinc concentrates from f...
Article
The industrial combustion of biomass, which has always been considered a source of clean and sustainable energy, might be phased out in China because it is believed to cause extremely high emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are the key precursors in the formation of ozone and haze, although the emission factors have rarely been m...
Article
Full-text available
Generally, large-scale production of graphene is currently not commercially viable due to expensive raw materials, complexity and the high-energy consumption of the processes currently used in the production. The use of biomass precursors and energy efficient procedures for carbonization have been proposed to reduce the cost of the graphene materia...
Article
Ambient particulate matter (PM) is a leading global environmental health risk. Current air quality regulations are based on airborne mass concentration. However, PM from different sources have distinct chemical compositions and varied toxicity. Connections between emission control measures, air quality, PM composition, and toxicity remain insuffici...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Primary emissions of wood combustion are complex mixtures of hundreds or even over a thousand compounds, which pass through a series of chemical reactions and physical transformation processes in the atmosphere ( aging ). This aging process depends on atmospheric conditions, such as concentration of atmospheric oxidizing agents (OH radica...
Article
Full-text available
Sauna Stoves (SS) are simple wood combustion appliances used mainly in Nordic countries. They generate emissions that have an impact on air quality and climate. In this study, a new measurement concept for comparing the operation, thermal efficiency, and real-life fine particle and gaseous emissions of SS was utilized. In addition, a novel, simple,...
Article
This study assesses the volatility of 15 elements (As, Bi, C, Cd, Cl, Cu, K, Mn, Na, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sn, and Zn) during thermal processing of fly ashes obtained from four waste-to-energy plants and one wood-combustion plant. Differences in volatility in oxidising and reducing atmospheres (air and 10% H 2 /90% N 2) were assessed at two temperatures, 7...
Article
Airborne particles may effect on indoor air quality in schools. One significant particle source is outdoor dust and soil transported indoors on people's shoes, which may be resuspended, and further inhaled by pupils and teachers. In many Finnish schools, shoes are taken off by coat racks near the classrooms (shoe schools). The new course of action...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Residential wood combustion (RWC) emits large amounts of gaseous and particulate organic aerosol (OA). In the atmosphere, the emission is transformed via oxidative reactions, which are under daylight conditions driven mainly by hydroxyl radicals. This continuing oxidative aging produces secondary OA and may change the health- and climate-...
Article
Small-scale biomass combustion is an important source of fine particles in ambient air, causing adverse health and environmental effects. Thus, there is a clear need to develop efficient and feasible flue gas cleaning technologies for small-scale combustion appliances. In this study a novel electrical charging condensing heat exchanger (eCHX) for c...
Article
The combustion of spruce logwood in a modern residential stove was found to emit polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAH) with emission factors of 404 μg MJ⁻¹ of 35 analysed PAH, 317 μg MJ⁻¹ of 11 analysed Oxy-PAH and 12.5 μg MJ⁻¹ of 5 analysed OH-PAH, most of which are known as potential mutagen...
Article
In this study, the aerosol release from the silver-indium-cadmium control rods during the air-ingress phase of the QUENCH-18 bundle test was investigated both experimentally and by using simulation tools. During the QUENCH-18 test, the aerosol mass size distribution was measured using two Berner low pressure impactors, aerosol samples were collecte...
Article
There is currently great interest in replacing fossil-oil with renewable fuels in energy production. Fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO) made of lignocellulosic biomass is one such alternative to replace fossil oil, such as heavy fuel oil (HFO), in energy boilers. However, it is not known how this fuel change will alter the quantity and quality of emissi...
Article
Aerosols emitted from various anthropogenic and natural sources undergo constant physico-chemical transformations in the atmosphere, altering their impacts on health and climate. This paper presents the design and characteristics of a novel Photochemical Emission Aging Flow Tube Reactor (PEAR). The PEAR was designed to provide sufficient aerosol ma...
Article
In vitro, direct aerosol nanoparticle exposure of cells cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI) has shown great potential over the conventional submerged cell exposure methods due to exposure relevancy and more accurate dose determination. Here, we present a design of an ALI cell exposure device, the thermocollector, which applies thermophoresis...
Article
Small-scale batch combustion of wood is a major source of fine particles, black carbon emission and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Finland. The mass and chemical compositions of batch combustion emissions are known to be highly time-dependent. In this study, the gaseous and particulate batch combustion emissions of three European wood species...
Article
Industrial processes, coal combustion, biomass burning (BB), and vehicular transport are important sources of atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5) and contribute to ambient air concentrations of health-hazardous species, such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and oxygenated-PAHs (OPAH). In China, emission controls have been imp...
Article
Elemental carbon (EC) concentrations in the exhaust of a medium-speed marine engine was evaluated using thermal-optical analysis (TOA). Particulate matter (PM) samples were collected at 75% and 25% engine loads using residual and distillate fuels with sulphur contents of 2.5%, 0.5% and 0.1%, and a biofuel (30% of bio-component). The EC analysis of...
Article
Full-text available
Ambient inhalable particulate matter (PM) is a serious health concern worldwide, but especially so in China where high PM concentrations affect huge populations. Atmospheric processes and emission sources cause spatial and temporal variations in PM concentration and chemical composition, but their influence on the toxicological characteristics of P...
Article
Soot particles from combustion sources are known to have significant environmental effects. One of the major sources of soot particles is small-scale wood combustion, and there is an urgent need to develop methods to abate soot emissions from these appliances. The oxidation of soot particles in the combustion chamber is essential for the control of...
Article
Residential wood combustion (RWC) emits high amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into ambient air, leading to formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and various health and climate effects. In this study, the emission factors of VOCs from a logwood-fired modern masonry heater were measured using a Proton-Transfer-Reactor Time-of-Fligh...
Article
Full-text available
The consumption of wood fuel is markedly increasing in developing and industrialized countries. Known side effects of wood smoke inhalation manifest in proinflammatory signaling, oxidative stress, DNA damage and hence increased cancer risk. In this study, the composition and acute biological impact of emissions of state-of-the-art wood combustion c...
Article
Full-text available
Intensive forest harvesting techniques are being used in Finland to enhance the share of bioenergy. However, there are no clear indications as to how environmentally safe are these practices. We address this issue in the INDO-NORDEN project through field studies addressing the climate impacts on the ecosystem carbon balance. Also, we will address s...
Article
Combustion technologies of small-scale wood combustion appliances are continuously developed decrease emissions of various pollutants and increase energy conversion. One strategy to reduce emissions is the implementation of air staging technology in secondary air supply, which became an established technique for modern wood combustion appliances. O...
Article
Fly and bottom ashes are collected at power plants to reduce the environmental effects of energy production. However, handling the ashes causes health problems for operators, maintenance workers and truck drivers at the power plants. Hence, we evaluated ash loaders’ peak inhalation exposures to the chemical components of ash and diesel exhausts in...
Article
Small-scale pellet boilers and stoves became popular as a wood combustion appliance for domestic heating in Europe, North America and Asia due to economic and environmental aspects. Therefore, an increasing contribution of pellet boilers to air pollution is expected despite their general high combustion efficiency. As emissions of primary organic a...
Article
Nanomaterials (NM) exhibit novel physicochemical properties that determine their interaction with biological substrates and processes. Recent nano-technological advances are leading to wide usage of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in various fields. However, the increasing use of NPs has led to their release into environment and the toxicity of NPs on...
Article
Full-text available
Gaseous and particulate emissions from a ship diesel research engine were elaborately analysed by a large assembly of measurement techniques. Applied methods comprised of offline and online approaches, yielding averaged chemical and physical data as well as time-resolved trends of combustion by-products. The engine was driven by two different fuels...
Article
Small-scale wood combustion in wood-log fired appliances is commonly used for heat production in residential buildings, leading to significant particle and gaseous emissions and impaired air quality. Thus, there is a need for effective emission reduction methods for residential wood combustion. In this work, the operation and emissions of a novel h...
Article
Interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and implications for aerosol production, have raised particular scientific interest. Despite active research in this area, real anthropogenic emission sources have not been exploited for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction studies until now. This work examines these interactions using α-pine...
Article
Full-text available
Organic aerosols (OA) derived from small-scale wood combustion emissions are not well represented by current emissions inventories and models, although they contribute substantially to the atmospheric particulate matter (PM) levels. In this work, a 29 m³ smog chamber in the ILMARI facility of the University of Eastern Finland was utilized to invest...
Article
According to the World Health Organization particulate emissions from the combustion of solid fuels caused more than 110,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2010. Log wood combustion is the most prevalent form of residential biomass heating in developed countries, but it is unknown how the type of wood logs used in furnaces influences the chemical co...
Article
Residential wood combustion emissions are one of the major global sources of particulate and gaseous organic pollutants. However, the detailed chemical compositions of these emissions are poorly characterized due to their highly complex molecular compositions, non-ideal combustion conditions and sample preparation steps. In this study, the particul...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to air pollution resulting from fossil fuel combustion has been linked to multiple short-term and long term health effects. In a previous study, exposure of lung epithelial cells to engine exhaust from heavy fuel oil (HFO) and diesel fuel (DF), two of the main fuels used in marine engines, led to an increased regulation of several pathways...
Data
Metabolite List. List of final 34 metabolites identified in experimental intracellular samples. All compounds were identified with an in-house library. (EPS)