Olivier Girard

Olivier Girard
University of Western Australia | UWA · School of Human Science

PhD (Human movement sciences)

About

317
Publications
202,867
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
7,179
Citations
Introduction
http://www.oliviergirard.com/ My research is focused on identifying, quantifying and explaining mechanisms responsible for fatigue during high-intensity intermittent exercises performed by team- or racket-sport athletes under challenging environmental conditions (i.e. heat stress or hypoxia). I have published over 185 articles in peer-reviewed journals and 30 book chapters (>7500 citations; H-factor of 46) in the field of exercise physiology/sports biomechanics.
Additional affiliations
November 2016 - April 2018
Aspetar - Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital
Position
  • Researcher
April 2014 - December 2015
University of Lausanne
Position
  • Researcher
April 2008 - March 2014
Aspetar - Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (317)
Article
Full-text available
Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of resear...
Data
Purpose: Compare alterations in running mechanics during maximal treadmill sprints of different distances. Methods: Eleven physically active males performed short (100-m), medium (200-m) and long (400-m) running sprints on an instrumented treadmill. Continuous measurement of running kinetics/kinematics and spring-mass characteristics were record...
Article
Full-text available
Short-duration sprints ( Using laboratory and field-based protocols, performance analyses have consistently shown that fatigue during RSE typically manifests as a decline in maximal/mean sprint speed (i.e. running) or a decrease in peak power or total work (i.e. cycling) over sprint repetitions. A consistent result among these studies is that perfo...
Article
Full-text available
Central motor drive to active muscles is thought to be reduced during numerous exercise tasks so as to prevent excessive peripheral fatigue development. The purpose of the present study was to use hypoxia in order to exacerbate physiological perturbations during a novel, intermittent exercise task and to explore the time-course and interplay betwee...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To investigate differences in athletes' knowledge, beliefs, and training practices during COVID-19 lockdowns with reference to sport classification and sex. This work extends an initial descriptive evaluation focusing on athlete classification. Methods: Athletes (12,526; 66% male; 142 countries) completed an online survey (May-July 2020...
Article
Acute physiological, perceptual and biomechanical consequences of manipulating both exercise intensity and hypoxic exposure during treadmill running were determined. On separate days, eleven trained individuals ran for 45 s (separated by 135 s of rest) on an instrumented treadmill at seven running speeds (8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 km.h-1) in nor...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether walking with blood flow restriction (BFR) increases acute cardio-respiratory demands to the point that it can be considered an alternative for jogging. Sixteen physically active adults completed five experimental sessions (order randomised), comprising 10 min of treadmill exercise. Two sessions included unrestricted...
Article
Full-text available
Background Alpine skiers typically train using repeated practice runs requiring high bursts of muscle activity but there is little field-based evidence characterizing neuromuscular function across successive runs.PurposeTo examine the impact of repeated ski runs on electromyographic activity (EMG) of the knee extensors and flexors in elite alpine s...
Article
This study examined whether hypoxia during multi-set, high-load resistance exercise alters neuromuscular responses. Using a single-blinded (participants), randomised crossover design, eight resistance-trained males completed five sets of five repetitions of bench press at 80% of one repetition maximum in moderate normobaric hypoxia (inspiratory oxy...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is a safe and non-invasive treatment approach that uses brief, repetitive periods of breathing reduced oxygen air alternated with normoxia. While AIH is known to affect spinal circuit excitability, the effects of AIH on cortical excitability remain largely unknown. We investigated the effects of AIH on corti...
Article
Purpose: This study compared training loads and internal:external load ratios from an aerobic interval session at the highest perceptually sustainable intensity with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). Methods: On separate days, 14 endurance cyclists/triathletes completed four 4-minute self-paced aerobic cycling intervals at their highest...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To investigate the influence of shorter, more frequent rest breaks during simulated work (outdoor mining) in the heat on physical performance and psychophysiological responses. Methods On separate days, thirteen males undertook two 225 min simulation trials in the afternoon (12.00–3.45 pm) including 180 min of treadmill walking at a consta...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate acute performance and physiological responses to the manipulation of exercise-to-rest ratio (E:R) during repeated-sprint hypoxic training (RSH) in hot conditions. Twelve male team-sport players completed two experimental sessions at a simulated altitude of ∼3000 m (FIO2 0.144), air temperature of 40°C and re...
Article
Full-text available
We determined whether fatigue modifies the effect of custom foot orthoses manufactured from ethyl-vinyl acetate (EVA) and expanded thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) materials, both compared to standardized footwear (CON), on running mechanics, running economy, and perceived comfort. Eighteen well-trained, males ran on an instrumented treadmill for 6...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Identify whether the application of blood flow restriction (BFR) during walking influences fraction of expired oxygen (FeO2) and carbon dioxide (FeCO2) measures, key variables in the calculation of oxygen consumption (V̇O2) via indirect calorimetry. Design: Randomised cross-over. Methods: On separate visits, sixteen participants comple...
Article
Full-text available
Background Poorer sleep health outcomes have been documented in the general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. However, the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on sleep health outcomes in specific population groups, including the sporting community, has not been extensively investigated. This study evaluated sleep health outcomes and their relati...
Article
This study examined cardiovascular, perceptual, and neuromuscular fatigue characteristics during and after cycling intervals with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). Fourteen endurance cyclists/triathletes completed four 4-minute self-paced aerobic cycling intervals at the highest sustainable intensity, with and without intermittent BFR (60%...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Explore training-related knowledge, beliefs and practices of athletes and the influence of COVID-19-related lockdowns. Methods: Athletes [n = 12,526 classified: world-class (13%), international (21%), national (36%), state (24%), and recreational (6%)] completed an online survey (50 d; 17th May to 5th July 2020) exploring their trainin...
Article
Full-text available
This case study aimed to report blood markers and resting respiratory rate (RR) oscillations at sea level, during a 5-wk 3900 m altitude sojourn, and after returning to sea level in a 36-year-old professional wheelchair marathoner. Outcome measures plasma erythropoietin (EPO) concentration, hemoglobin, reticulocytes count, erythrocytes and hematocr...
Article
Introduction: Athletes engaged in repeated-sprint training in the heat can be at an increased risk of gastrointestinal ischemia and damage in response to a redistribution of blood to working skeletal muscles and the skin. This study investigated the effects of repeated sprinting in hot and cool conditions on markers of gastrointestinal damage. Me...
Article
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a combined hot and hypoxic environment on muscle oxygenation and performance during repeated cycling sprints. In a single-blind, counterbalanced, cross-over research design, 10 male athletes performed three sets of 3 × 10-s maximal pedaling interspersed with 40-s recovery between sprints un...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated sprint mechanical asymmetry in world‐class competitors and evaluate whether inter‐limb sex‐based differences in sprinting mechanics exist. The eight finalists in the men’s and women’s 100 m events at the 2017 IAAF World Championships were studied. Five high‐speed cameras (150 Hz) were used to capture two consecutive steps of the whole...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) sessions prescribed on the basis of a maximal value (peak power output, PPO) and a submaximal value (lactate threshold, LT) derived from graded exercise tests (GXTs) in normoxia and hypoxia. Methods: A total of ten males (aged 18-37) volunteered to participate...
Article
We determine whether mechanical asymmetries differ between dominant and non-dominant legs at fast treadmill speed. Stride temporal variables, derived from high-speed camera recordings, allowed to estimate leg and vertical stiffness through the sine-wave method in 31 uninjured males during treadmill running at 6.67 m.s⁻¹. Lower limb dominance was de...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThis study examined the effect of graded hypoxia during exhaustive intermittent cycling on subsequent exercise performance and neuromuscular fatigue characteristics in normoxia.Methods Fifteen well-trained cyclists performed an exhaustive intermittent cycling exercise (EICE 1; 15 s at 30% of anaerobic power reserve interspersed with 45 s of...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The aim of this study was to compare high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) sessions prescribed on the basis of a maximal value (peak power output, PPO) and a submaximal value (lactate threshold, LT) derived from graded exercise tests (GXTs) in normoxia and hypoxia. Methods: A total of ten men (aged 18–37) volunteered to participate in...
Poster
Full-text available
Methods Blood flow restriction training with heat stress: a new time-efficient strategy to induce hypertrophy and improve sport-specific physical performance!
Article
The present study aims to investigate the acute performance and physiological responses, with specific reference to muscle oxygenation, to ambient air temperature manipulation during repeated-sprint training in hypoxia (RSH). Thirteen male team-sport players completed one familiarisation and three experimental sessions at a simulated altitude of ∼3...
Article
This study quantified performance and physiological responses during multi-set resistance exercise to failure at light versus moderate loads in normoxia and systemic hypoxia. On separate visits, fifteen resistance-trained adults performed barbell biceps curl exercise trials (6 sets to failure, 2 min rest between sets) in four separate randomized co...
Article
Footwear with or without custom foot orthotics have the potential to improve comfort, but the link with running performance needs further investigation. We systematically reviewed the association of footwear comfort on running economy in recreational runners. Nine electronic databases were searched from inception to March 2020. Eligible studies inv...
Article
Purpose: The authors compared the effects of active preconditioning with local and systemic hypoxia during submaximal cycling. Methods: On separate visits, 14 active participants completed 4 trials. Each visit was composed of 1 preconditioning phase followed, after 40 minutes of rest, by 3 × 6-minute cycling bouts (intensity = 85% of critical po...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the effects of seasonal heat stress on cognitive function in outdoor workers. Thirty-nine workers from an oil and gas industry in the Middle-East volunteered for cognitive testing before (5.30 to 7.00 am) and after (3.30 to 5.00 pm) their daily work-shift in hot (August – average daily temperature: ~41°C) and temperate (January – ave...
Article
Full-text available
Objective We examined whether mild heat exposure alters performance, perceptual responses and neural drive to the quadriceps during two sets of repeated sprints matched for initial mechanical output. Design Repeated measures. Methods Twelve males performed 10 × 6-s sprints (recovery = 30 s), followed 6 min later by 5 × 6-s sprints (recovery = 30...
Article
Background While changes in cardiorespiratory variables during graded exercise tests (GXTs) are well described, less is known about running mechanical alterations. Purpose We determined mechanical breakpoints during GXT and compared their temporal location with thresholds in ventilation. Methods Thirty-one recreational male runners completed cont...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the effect of applying BFR during rest periods of repeated cycling sprints on muscle oxygenation. Methods: Seven active males performed 5 × 10-s maximal pedaling efforts with 40-s passive rest, with or without BFR application during rest period. BFR was applied for 30 s between sprints (between 5 and 35 s int...
Article
Smith, NDW, Scott, BR, Girard, O, and Peiffer, JJ. Aerobic training with blood flow restriction for endurance athletes: potential benefits and considerations of implementation. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Low-intensity aerobic training with blood flow restriction (BFR) can improve maximal oxygen uptake, delay the onset of blood lactate...
Article
This study describes asymmetry in key mechanical variables during a treadmill-based, running graded exercise test (GXT). Twenty-one recreationally trained male runners completed a continuous, maximal GXT on an instrumented treadmill, starting at 9 km.h⁻¹ with speed increases of +0.5 km.h⁻¹ every 30 s, for the determination of ventilatory threshold...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This study aimed to assess the influence of graded air temperatures during repeated-sprint training in hypoxia (RSH) on performance and physiological responses. Methods: Ten well-trained athletes completed one familiarization and 4 experimental sessions at a simulated altitude of 3000 m (0.144 FIO2) above sea level. Air temperatures uti...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeTo test the hypothesis that hypoxic re-exposure after return from natural altitude training is beneficial in retaining hematological and performance adaptations.Methods Eighteen mixed martial art fighters completed a 3-weeks natural altitude training camp at 2418 m. Afterwards, participants were randomly assigned to a living high-training lo...
Article
This study aimed to characterise bilateral asymmetry in running mechanics during perceptually regulated, high-intensity intermittent running in hypoxia and normoxia and examines whether inter-limb differences in running mechanics are modified between and within intervals. Nineteen trained runners completed 4 × 4-min treadmill running bouts (3-min p...
Book
Full-text available
This second edition of Qatar National Physical Activity Guidelines is written as a practical guideline reference and not necessarily as a scientific resource. It outlines the most updated knowledge and best practices regarding physical activity as it relates to health. The intention of this content is to be an immediate and easy resource of informa...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to elucidate changes in spatiotemporal and ground reaction force (GRF) variables during 90‐m overground decelerated sprinting and determinants of the decrease in running speed. In 14 sub‐elite male sprinters, a virtual 90‐m sprint was reconstructed during which spatiotemporal and GRF variables were averaged for four steps in maxima...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relationships between internal and external training load metrics across a 2-week 'in-season' microcy-cle in squash. 134 on-court and 32 off-court 'conditioning' sessions were completed by fifteen elite squash players with an average (±SD) of 11 ± 3 per player. During every session, external load was captured using a tri...
Article
Full-text available
We compared the effects of short-term, perceptually regulated training using interval-walking in hypoxia vs. normoxia on health outcomes in overweight-to-obese individuals. Sixteen adults (body mass index = 33 ± 3 kg·m-2) completed eight interval-walk training sessions (15 × 2 min walking at a rating of perceived exertion of 14 on the 6-20 Borg sca...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 outbreak has led to the implementation of strict restrictions in Australia, which have severely impacted sporting activities. Tennis is played by 6.2% of the population within the Oceania region, and is a valuable sport for maintaining social, mental and physical health. Current literature indicates the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To quantify the demands of specific on- and off-court sessions, using internal and external training load metrics, in elite squash. Methods: A total of 15 professional squash players (11 males and 4 females) wore a 100-Hz triaxial accelerometer/global positioning system unit and heart rate monitor during on-court "Group," "Feeding," "Gh...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To compare the effects of different hypoxia severities on exercise capacity, cardio-respiratory, tissue oxygenation and neuromuscular fatigue characteristics in response to exhaustive intermittent cycling. Methods: Eleven well-trained cyclists, repeated supra-maximal cycling efforts of 15 s (30% of anaerobic power reserve, 609 ± 23 W),...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in physical performance were assessed in response to two successive doubles badminton matches with implementation of ischemic pre-conditioning (IPC) or sham treatment during recovery period between matches. Eight French national team badminton players (4 males, 4 females) performed two successive doubles matches (2 × 45 min), with 60 min of...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: We determined whether running mechanics and leg muscle activity patterns for pre-activation (50 ms prior to foot contact) and loading (first half, second half and entire stance) phases vary between early, late and entire acceleration phases during repeated treadmill sprints. Methods: Ten male athletes performed three sets of five 5-s sp...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeTo examine physiological and technical responses to repeated-sprint training in normobaric hypoxia at ∼3,000 m (RSH, n = 11) or in normoxia (RSN, n = 11) compared to a control group (CON, n = 8) in well-trained tennis players. Participants were 28.8 ± 5.9 years old without any previous experience of training in hypoxia.Methods In addition to...
Article
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of competition level on running patterns for five playing position in the most successful 2014–2015 European rugby union team. Seventeen French rugby union championship and seven European rugby Champions Cup games were analysed. Global positioning system (sampling: 10 Hz) were used to determine...
Article
Objectives We investigated psycho-physiological responses to perceptually regulated interval walks in hypoxia versus normoxia in obese individuals. Design Within-participants repeated measures. Methods Ten obese adults (BMI = 32 ± 3 kg/m⁻²) completed a 60-min interval session (15 × 2 min walking at a rating of perceived exertion of 14 on the 6–20...
Article
Background: Training in hypoxia versus normoxia often induces larger physiological adaptations, while this does not always translate into additional performance benefits. A possible explanation is a reduced oxygen flux, negatively affecting training intensity and/or volume (decreasing training stimulus). Repeated Wingates (RW) in normoxia is an ef...
Article
We examined the extent to which Ramadan fasting affects badminton skill performance under simulated (i.e., competitive) match-play conditions. Ten male Muslim national-level badminton players performed a 40-min (2 sets x 20 min per set in each match) badminton single matches in a non-fasted (CON) and in Ramadan-fasted (RAM) state on separate occasi...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeTo investigate whether performing resistance exercise in hypoxia augments physiological and perceptual responses, and if altering work-rate by performing repetitions to failure compared to sub-maximally increases the magnitude of these responses.Methods Twenty male university students (minimum of 2 year resistance training experience) comple...
Article
We questioned whether changes in high-intensity locomotor and micro-movements patterns between the first and second part of each half depend on playing position in the 2014–2015 European rugby union championship winning team. Thirty-three rugby players were grouped according to five playing positions. Players were equipped with micro-electromechani...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeWe determined the effect of custom foot orthotics manufactured from ethyl-vinyl acetate (EVA) and expanded thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) materials, both compared to a control condition (CON; shoes only) during repeated sprints on running mechanical alterations.Methods Eighteen males performed eight, 5-s sprints with 25-s recovery on an in...