# Oliver T. SchmidtUniversity of California, San Diego | UCSD · Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (MAE)

Oliver T. Schmidt

Doctor of Engineering

## About

86

Publications

34,762

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3,226

Citations

Citations since 2016

Introduction

Additional affiliations

February 2015 - present

August 2009 - January 2015

December 2006 - July 2009

## Publications

Publications (86)

Simple aerodynamic configurations under even modest conditions can exhibit complex flows with a wide range of temporal and spatial features. It has become common practice in the analysis of these flows to look for and extract physically important features, or modes, as a first step in the analysis. This step typically starts with a modal decomposit...

Coherent features of a turbulent Mach 0.9, Reynolds number $10^{6}$ jet are educed from a high-fidelity large eddy simulation. Besides the well-known Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities of the shear layer, a new class of trapped acoustic waves is identified in the potential core. A global linear stability analysis based on the turbulent mean flow is con...

We consider the frequency domain form of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), called spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD). Spectral POD is derived from a space–time POD problem for statistically stationary flows and leads to modes that each oscillate at a single frequency. This form of POD goes back to the original work of Lumley (Stoc...

Informed by LES data and resolvent analysis of the mean flow, we examine the structure of turbulence in jets in the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes. Spectral (frequency-space) proper orthogonal decomposition is used to extract energy spectra and decompose the flow into energy-ranked coherent structures. The educed structures are general...

We present a conditional space–time proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) formulation that is tailored to the eduction of the average, rare or intermittent events from an ensemble of realizations of a fluid process. By construction, the resulting spatio-temporal modes are coherent in space and over a predefined finite time horizon, and optimally ca...

A semi-implicit fractional-step method that uses a staggered node layout and radial basis function-finite differences (RBF-FD) to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed. Polyharmonic splines (PHS) with polynomial augmentation (PHS+poly) are used to construct the global differentiation matrices. A systematic parameter study id...

The use of multitaper estimates for spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) is explored. Multitaper and multitaper-Welch estimators that use discrete prolate spheroidal sequences (DPSS) as orthogonal data windows are compared to the standard SPOD algorithm that exclusively relies on weighted overlapped segment averaging, or Welch’s method,...

We explore the potential of bispectral mode decomposition (BMD) for physical discovery in jet flows. BMD is a modal decomposition that is tailored to the extraction of flow structures involved in triadic interactions. Large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent forced and unforced round jets at $Re = 50,000$ and $M_j = 0.4$ are conducted and validate...

We aim to reconstruct the latent space dynamics of high dimensional, quasi-stationary systems using model order reduction via the spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD). The proposed method is based on three fundamental steps: in the first, once that the mean flow field has been subtracted from the realizations (also referred to as snapsho...

View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-4098.vid Radial basis function-based finite differences (RBF-FD) are used to develop a high-order mesh-free hydrodynamic stability analysis tool for complex geometries. Polyharmonic spline RBFs with polynomial augmentation (PHS+poly) are used to construct the discrete linearized Navier-Stokes...

View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-3345.vid The statistical analysis of non-axisymmetric turbulent jets using spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) is computationally costly; in particular, their non-axisymmetry precludes Fourier decomposition of the three-dimensional flow field into two-dimensional azimuthal modes. J...

A semi-implicit fractional-step method that uses a staggered node layout and radial basis function-finite differences (RBF-FD) to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed. Polyharmonic splines (PHS) with polynomial augmentation (PHS+poly) are used to construct the global differentiation matrices. A systematic parameter study id...

Experimental spatio-temporal flow data often contain gaps or other types of undesired artifacts. To reconstruct flow data in the compromised or missing regions, a data completion method based on spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) is developed. The algorithm leverages the temporal correlation of the SPOD modes with preceding and succeed...

We use spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) to extract and analyse coherent structures in the turbulent wake of a disk at Reynolds number $ {\textit {Re}} = 5 \times 10^{4}$ and Froude numbers $ {\textit {Fr}} = 2$ , 10. We find that the SPOD eigenspectra of both wakes exhibit a low-rank behaviour and the relative contribution of low-ran...

The use of multitaper estimates for spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) is explored. Multitaper and multitaper-Welch estimators that use discrete prolate spheroidal sequences (DPSS) as orthogonal data windows are compared to the standard SPOD method that exclusively relies on weighted overlapped segment averaging, or Welch's method, to...

The use of spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) to construct low-order models for broadband turbulent flows is explored. The choice of SPOD modes as basis vectors is motivated by their optimality and space-time coherence properties for statistically stationary flows. This work follows the modeling paradigm that complex nonlinear fluid dy...

Four different applications of spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) are demonstrated on large-eddy simulation data of a turbulent jet. These are: low-rank reconstruction, denoising, frequency–time analysis and prewhitening. We demonstrate SPOD-based flow-field reconstruction using direct inversion of the SPOD algorithm (frequency-domain...

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ABSTRACT
The mechanisms by which near-nozzle forcing alters the turbulence structure and far-field sound of turbulent jets are not well understood. We perform large-eddy simulations of subsonic and supersonic axisymmetric isothermal turbulent jets subjected to an axisymmetric periodic forcing. The triple decomposition framework and...

View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2021-2277.vid We study the dynamics of harmonically-forced jets under different forcing amplitudes covering linear and nonlinear response regimes. Using a combination of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements, Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (SPOD) and Bispectral Mode Decomposition...

View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2021-2154.vid Large-eddy simulation of a jet issuing from rectangular nozzles of aspect ratio 2 is performed. The nozzles are operating at their nominal design Mach number of 1.5. This operating condition and the geometry match those of the companion experiment conducted at Ohio State University. T...

Response modes computed via linear resolvent analysis of a turbulent mean-flow field have been shown to qualitatively capture characteristics of the observed turbulent coherent structures in both wall-bounded and free shear flows. To make such resolvent models predictive, the nonlinear forcing term must be closed. Strategies to do so include imposi...

We use spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) to extract and analyze coherent structures in the turbulent wake of a disk at Reynolds number $\Rey = 5 \times 10^{4}$ and Froude numbers $\Fro$ = $2, 10$. SPOD modes, which vary with modal index $(n)$ and frequency ($\Str$), are tracked as a function of streamwise distance up to $x/D = 100$ an...

The coherent structures in the turbulent wake of a disk at a moderately high Reynolds number (Re) of 50000 are examined using spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) which considers all three velocity components in a numerical database. The SPOD eigenvalues at a given streamwise (x) location are functions of azimuthal wave number (m), frequ...

This paper studies the amplitude of large-scale coherent wave-packet structures in jets, modeled by the parabolized stability equations (PSEs). Linear PSEs can retrieve the shape of the wave packets, but linearity leads to solutions with a free amplitude, which has traditionally been obtained in an ad hoc manner using limited data. We systematicall...

This paper studies the amplitude of large-scale coherent wave-packet structures in jets, modeled by the parabolized stability equations (PSEs). Linear PSEs can retrieve the shape of the wave packets, but linearity leads to solutions with a free amplitude, which has traditionally been obtained in an ad hoc manner using limited data. We systematicall...

The use of spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) to construct low-order models for broadband turbulent flows is explored. The choice of SPOD modes as basis vectors is motivated by their optimality and space-time coherence properties for statistically stationary flows. This work follows the modeling paradigm that complex nonlinear fluid dy...

Triadic interactions are the fundamental mechanism of energy transfer in fluid flows. This work introduces bispectral mode decomposition as a direct means of educing flow structures that are associated with triadic interactions from experimental or numerical data. Triadic interactions are characterized by quadratic phase coupling which can be detec...

The mechanics of extreme intensity events in the buffer and logarithmic layers of a turbulent channel at Re τ = 2000 is investigated. The 99.9th percentile of the most intense events in the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy is analysed by means of conditional space-time proper orthogonal decomposition. The computed spatio-temporal modes are c...

Three different applications of spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) are demonstrated on large-eddy simulation data of a turbulent jet. SPOD-based low-rank reconstruction can, in principle, be performed by direct inversion of a truncated SPOD. The spectral inversion of the SPOD problem, however, is not straight-forward as the algorithm r...

The directivity of noise from three large-eddy simulations of turbulent jets at Mach 0.7, 0.9, and 1.5 is investigated using spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD). The most energetic patterns of acoustic radiation are extracted using the far-field pressure 2-norm. Specialization of the norm to the far field is accomplished through localiz...

The interaction between various wavelike structures in screeching jets is considered via both experimental measurements and linear stability theory. Velocity snapshots of screeching jets are used to produce a reduced order model of the screech cycle via proper orthogonal decomposition. Streamwise Fourier filtering is then applied to isolate the neg...

Three amplification mechanisms present in turbulent jets, namely lift-up, Kelvin–Helmholtz and Orr, are characterized via global resolvent analysis and spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) over a range of Mach numbers. The lift-up mechanism was recently identified in turbulent jets via local analysis by Nogueira et al. (J. Fluid Mech., v...

Response modes computed via linear resolvent analysis of the turbulent mean-flow field have been shown to qualitatively capture characteristics of the observed turbulent coherent structures in both wall-bounded and free shear flows. To make such models predictive, the nonlinear forcing term must be closed either by including a self-consistent set o...

Response modes computed via linear resolvent analysis of the turbulent mean-flow field have been shown to qualitatively capture characteristics of the observed turbulent coherent structures in both wall-bounded and free shear flows. To make such models predictive, the nonlinear forcing term must be closed either by including a self-consistent set o...

Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) is applied to direct numerical simulation datasets of a lean and a stoichiometric methane–air turbulent premixed jet flame. SPOD is used to extract the coherent structures that correlate with the radiated sound by using an inner product based on a linearized disturbance energy. Two types of structures...

Triadic interactions are the fundamental mechanism of energy transfer in fluid flows. This work introduces bispectral mode decomposition as a direct means of educing flow structures that are associated with triadic interactions from experimental or numerical data. Triadic interactions are characterized by quadratic phase coupling which can be detec...

This paper discusses the spectral proper orthogonal decomposition and its use in identifying modes, or structures, in flow data. A specific algorithm based on estimating the cross-spectral density tensor with Welch’s method is presented, and guidance is provided on selecting data sampling parameters and understanding tradeoffs among them in terms o...

The directivity of noise from three large-eddy simulations of turbulent jets at Mach 0.7, 0.9 and 1.5 and the first three azimuthal wavenumbers is investigated using spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD). First, a weighting function for the pressure 2-norm that is localized to the far-field is employed to educe the overall most energetic...

The present article deals with turbulent inflow generation for use in large eddy or direct numerical simulations of boundary layer flows. The turbulent inflow is generated by synthetic volume forcing. The spatial and temporal properties of the synthetic eddies are obtained from resolvent mode analysis of turbulent mean data of a flat-plate flow at...

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ABSTRACT
We use spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) of two high-fidelity numerical simulation databases of turbulent jets at M = 0.9 and M = 1.5 to investigate the directivity of jet noise. By spatially windowing the SPOD, we investigate the dependence of the far-field pressure PSD as a function of radiation angle on fr...

Three amplification mechanisms present in turbulent jets, namely lift-up, Kelvin-Helmholtz, and Orr, are characterized via global resolvent analysis and spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) over a range of Mach numbers. The lift-up mechanism in turbulent jets, recently analyzed by Nogueira et al. (2019) via local analysis, is dominant at...

We apply spectral empirical orthogonal function (SEOF) analysis to educe climate patterns as dominant spatiotemporal modes of variability from reanalysis data. SEOF is a frequency-domain variant of standard empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, and computes modes that represent the statistically most relevant and persistent patterns from an...

Hydrodynamic instabilities are directly related to large-scale coherent structures that are correlated with jet noise emission. Unravelling and accurately predicting their fundamental dynamics shows a promising direction for designing quieter jet engines. In this study, we analyze high-fidelity large-eddy simulation data of a turbulent Mach 0.4 rou...

Large scale, elongated structures, similar those ones widely studied in wall-bounded flows, are also present in turbulent jets. Several characteristics of these streaks can be identified via reduced order models such as resolvent analysis. The present work involves a resolvent-based study of these structures in turbulent jets. We focus on obtaining...

Response modes computed via linear resolvent analysis have shown promising results for qualitatively modeling both the hydrodynamic and acoustic fields in jets when compared to data-deduced modes from high-fidelity, large-eddy simulations (LES). For an improved quantitative prediction of the near- and far-field, the role of Reynolds stresses must a...

Turbulent shear flows are characterized by an interplay of many scales that describe persistent, quasi-invariant motion as well as violent, intermittent events. A data-driven computational framework, based on the decomposition of an embedded phase-space trajectory together with a community-identification step, will be introduced to properly describ...

We present a conditional space-time POD formulation that is tailored to the eduction of the average, rare or intermittent event from an ensemble of realizations of a fluid process. By construction, the resulting spatio-temporal modes are coherent in space and over a pre-defined finite time horizon and optimally capture the variance, or energy of th...

A streaming algorithm to compute the spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) of stationary random processes is presented. As new data becomes available, an incremental update of the truncated eigenbasis of the estimated cross-spectral density (CSD) matrix is performed. The algorithm converges orthogonal sets of SPOD modes at discrete freque...

Motivated by the problem of jet–flap interaction noise, we study the tonal dynamics that occurs when an isothermal turbulent jet grazes a sharp edge. We perform hydrodynamic and acoustic pressure measurements to characterise the tones as a function of Mach number and streamwise edge position. The observed distribution of spectral peaks cannot be ex...

To investigate the effects of the nozzle-exit conditions on jet flow and sound fields, large-eddy simulations of an isothermal Mach 0.9 jet issued from a convergent-straight nozzle are performed at a diameter-based Reynolds number of $1\times 10^{6}$ . The simulations feature near-wall adaptive mesh refinement, synthetic turbulence and wall modelli...

We use resolvent analysis and spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) to deduce the acoustic sources for an isothermal Mach 1.5 round jet. Both physics-based resolvent analysis and data-driven SPOD (using a high-fidelity, experimentally-verified, large-eddy simulation (LES) database) provide a basis for predicting the perturbation field. Si...

Informed by LES data and resolvent analysis of the mean flow, we examine the structure of turbulence in jets in the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes. Spectral (frequency-space) proper orthogonal decomposition is used to extract energy spectra and decompose the flow into energy-ranked coherent structures. We demonstrate that two distinct...

Large eddy simulations are performed for a cold ideally-expanded dual-stream jet issued from cylindrical co-axial nozzles, with supersonic primary stream (Mach number M_1 = 1.55) and subsonic secondary stream (M_2 = 0.9). The geometry includes the internal screw holes used to fasten the two nozzles together and to the plenum chamber. These slanted...