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Citations since 2017
4 Research Items
Social interactions require quick perception, interpretation, and categorization of faces, with facial features offering cues to emotions, intentions, and traits. Importantly, reactions to faces depend not only on their features but also on their processing fluency, with disfluent faces suffering social devaluation. The current research used electr...
Analyzing the contempt as an intergroup emotion, we suggest that contempt and anger are not built upon each other, whereas disgust seems to be the most elementary and specific basic-emotional antecedent of contempt. Concurring with Gervais and Fessler we suggest that many instances of “hate-speech” are in fact instances of “contempt-speech” - being...
Facial features that resemble emotional expressions influence key social evaluations, including trust. Here, we present four experiments testing how the impact of such expressive features is qualified by their processing difficulty. We show that faces with mixed expressive features are relatively devalued, and faces with pure expressive features ar...
Animals perceived as edible are often denied more complex mental capacities or emotions. The process of categorizing and perceiving edible species as distant from humans has been extensively studied on the level of deliberate judgments of animals and humans. In the present study we wanted to determine whether information about the edibility of an a...
Cognitive deficits in depression are mostly apparent in executive functions, especially when integration of information and reasoning is required. In parallel, there are also numerous studies pointing to the frontal alpha band asymmetry as a psychophysiological marker of depression. In this study, we explored the role of frontal alpha asymmetry as...
Batty, M., & Taylor, M. J. (2003). Early processing of the six basic facial emotional expressions. Cognitive Brain Research, 17(3), 613-620. Vuilleumier, P., & Pourtois, G. (2007). Distributed and interactive brain mechanisms during emotion face perception: evidence from functional neuroimaging. Neuropsychologia, 45(1), 174-194. Winkielman, P., Ols...
You walk down a busy street and scan the passing faces. Some you like, some you do not. Why? The general aim of the project is to describe the relationship between cognition, emotions and social judgments. It will be tested within everyday task – evaluation of human face. Introduced researches will test general hypothesis that easiness or difficulty in the categorization of facial emotional expression influences our basic social judgments, e.g. trustworthiness, liking etc. The main factor that impact this kind of judgments will be a “quality” of information processing. By the “quality” we may understand, that during any kind of processing, sometimes even before any specific features are extracted from the stimulus, the mental system has access to a nonspecific source of information -- the dynamics accompanying the processing of the stimulus. These non-specific aspects of processing are commonly described with use of a general term "fluency" (for reviews see Jacoby, Kelley, & Dywan, 1989; Schwarz & Clore, 1996). Unless there is an obvious external cause for feeling good or bad, affect can provide information about the current state of cognitive operations. Thus, high fluency of a perceptual or a conceptual process indicates progress toward, for example, successful recognition of the stimulus or a successful solution of a task. On the other hand, low fluency can be a signal of cognitive error or incompatibility, and play a motivational role in the revision of a processing strategy (Derryberry & Tucker, 1994). Processing dynamics can also have affective consequences because it informs (probabilistically) whether an external stimulus is good or bad. For example, it’s known, at least since Titchener (1910), that familiar stimulus elicit a “warm glow.” Conversely, illusions of familiarity (oldness) can be produced through unobtrusive inductions of positive affect (Garcia-Marques & Mackie, 2000; Phaf & Rotteveel, 2005). One reason for this warmth-familiarity link could be biological predispositions for caution in encounters with a novel, and thus potentially harmful, stimuli Zajonc (1998). Other accounts suggest that familiarity is just a learned, “fast and frugal” heuristic for easily identifying choices that are in truth objectively better (Gigerenzer, 2007). Similarly, as we discuss next, dynamics could offer a probabilistic cue regarding other valued properties of external stimuli, such as symmetry, prototypicality, etc. Most of the available evidence confirms that perceptual fluency impacts our fast and easy evaluations like “I like – I dislike” or “attractive-distractive”, however, none of them focused on so socially important feature as a human facial expression. Our everyday communication with other people largely relies on the face and facial display. Faces convey multiple types of information that are essential for inter-individual interactions. Among the many facial features, emotional expressions seem to play a central role, as they are crucial to infer the observed person’s state of mind, feelings and intentions (Plutchik, 1980; Fridlund, 1994; Ekman, 1997). Cross-cultural and psychological studies have shown that we can distinguish some categories of emotions as basic insofar as the facial displays related to these categories of emotion are similarly interpreted even among different cultures –(Ekman & Friesen, 1971). These emotions would correspond to fixed patterns of physiological activations and psychological states across individuals, and may typically occur as a response to the same kind of situations although there may be cultural variations in the extent to which they may be overtly displayed. Thus facial expressions of emotion such as fear, anger, joy, sadness, surprise, and disgust have universal form and meaning. The universality strongly implies that they may have been shaped and preserved by evolution and because of this they may have high processing fluency. The project is devoted to analyzing affective and cognitive processing of facial expression as well as processes of social categorization and evaluation of the emotional expression in the context of clarity of displayed emotion. The general objective of the project will be to elucidate the relationship between the emotional display and social judgments. More precisely, the questions that we would like to answer are: Is there a direct relation between affective processing of faces and social judgments? How do the perceptual fluency impact emotion processing and the affective evaluation of faces? We can assume that people judge other people according to emotional display, and the clarity of that display is an important source of information. The general hypotheses we will try to test within the introduced project is that: - A Clear emotional expression has high processing fluency (which suggests that its recognition involves mainly a bottom-up process, being influenced mostly by early visual processing) which may cause generally positive affective feedback used as a cue during subsequent cognitive processes (Winkielman, Halberstadt, Fazendeiro & Catty 2006). - By contrast, ambiguous or mixed emotion facial displays have low processing fluency (implying top-down processing, strongly influenced by more elaborate categorization) and as a return induce negative affective feedback, which causes more negative evaluation overall. - Additionally, we can expect that difficulty in the categorization of ambiguous expression will cause deeper analysis of facial stimuli (involvement of attentional resources and improved facial memory) and need of additional information (more interest on displayer properties).