Oldewage-Theron Wilna

Oldewage-Theron Wilna
Texas Tech University | TTU · Department of Nutrition, Hospitality and Retailing

PhD (Dietetics)

About

144
Publications
47,717
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Introduction
Dr. Wilna Oldewage-Theron is a Professor of Nutrition in the College of Human Sciences at Texas Tech University. She has nineteen years Community Nutrition research experience in Africa and is a National Research Foundation (NRF)-rated researcher in South Africa (SA). Her research interests include the factors contributing to household food insecurity and malnutrition in resource-poor communities among women and children as well as the elderly. Her community research and development program at present is mainly focused on the double burden of disease (micronutrient deficiencies and lifestyle diseases) as well as soy applications and the nutritional benefits of soy for human health in SA and Zambia.
Additional affiliations
December 2014 - present
Texas Tech University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 2006 - December 2014
Vaal University of Technology
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (144)
Article
Background Breastfed infants have a reduced risk of infections and allergies. The study of chrononutrition in human milk seeks to understand the circadian variation of various human milk immune factors. Methods Empirical studies on human milk, chrononutrition, and immune factors were searched through PUBMED, Google Scholar, and SCOPUS. Keywords in...
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This study aimed to develop a set of mean ± standard deviation (SD) intake values for South African (SA) children for 36 of the 45 food parameters included in the original Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) tool. The SA food composition database contains 30 of the 45 food parameters included in the original DII®, and a supplementary database was dev...
Article
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This study utilised a structural equation model to examine the relationship between diet quality, socioeconomic status, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in South African learners. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the indirect effects model for diet, socioeconomic status, diet quality and cardiovascular risk using pre-existing cros...
Chapter
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been reported to have a complex pathogenesis by a number of studies. Atherosclerosis and inflammation have been established as the main contributors to CVDs. Furthermore, genetic polymorphisms have been identified and found to have a correlation with an individual’s susceptibility to developing CVD. Some of these...
Article
Food insecurity has been undermining the health and well-being of a growing number of older adults in Sub-Saharan Africa. This review aimed to examine the prevalence of food insecurity and the related contributing factors of food insecurity among older adults in Sub-Saharan Africa. We used PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science Core Coll...
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Studies have shown that the elderly are at a higher risk of developing malnutrition due to physiological and pathological changes. Several studies have confirmed that older South Africans have insufficient dietary diversity, resulting in nutritional deficiencies. Furthermore, poor and uninformed dietary choices are associated with the development o...
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The goal of this paper is to support the ‘Be active!’ food-based dietary guideline (FBDG) for South Africans of seven years and older by means of a technical guideline regarding physical activity (PA) specifically for the elderly. Optimal nutrition and physical activity (PA) are essential to ensure healthy ageing. PA is an integral part of a health...
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The use and misuse of alcohol has become a public health problem among the South African (SA) elderly population, among whom risky drinking is a common practice. Previous publications encouraging alcohol use have referred to two supposedly beneficial effects of alcohol, categorised as: (1) cardioprotective and haemostatic; and (2) promoting a posit...
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Dietary patterns among South African older adults indicate a moderate intake of total fat and salt, as well as a high sugar intake. Total fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt intakes are associated with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and mortality. Processed and ultra-processed foods are common in elderly households and contain high levels of fat,...
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As the population of elderly individuals in South Africa (SA) grows, there is a need to promote the continued health of these persons as they progress through the life cycle. Food Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) for the SA elderly were developed to address this need. These thirteen guidelines for the elderly collectively offer a basis of health pr...
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Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) are not a new concept and are being used in many countries to promote healthy eating and the prevention of diet-related chronic diseases. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommended FBDGs as an approach to prevent malnutrition and promote healthy dietary behaviours in populations, taking into consid...
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Background: Amongst the cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors, hypertension (HT) and obesity appear to be prominent in post-menopausal women. The underlying mechanisms of HT development in menopause are not fully understood. Aim: To determine the association between HT, obesity and dietary intakes in post-menopausal women from rural Zambia. Setting...
Article
Introduction Breast milk contains a wide range of hormones, nutrients, and bioactive compounds. Chrononutrition looks at the interaction between food, both meal timing and meal composition, and circadian rhythms. Method This review is a continuation on series on chrononutrition and breast milk. All human studies published in English were included...
Article
Objectives Previous studies in the same elderly community found poverty, food insecurity and a double burden of malnutrition (iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies and chronic non-communicable diseases), however, a paucity of data exists about vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency for South African elderly. The present study aimed to evaluate the prev...
Article
Objective The objective of this literature review was to identify and summarize the current knowledge on the circadian variation of breast milk nutrients and the implications of these findings. Method A review of literature was conducted, including all relevant studies regardless of location and year of publication. Results The amino acids tyrosi...
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South Africa (SA) is considered as the second largest economies in Africa with well-developed agricultural food production system. But food security is still a challenge at household level. Currently, in Africa, smallholder agriculture is recognized to contribute food security at household level. This study investigates the prevalence of food insec...
Chapter
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Limited studies evaluating the prevalence of cardiovascular risk (CVR) in resource-poor black communities in South Africa (SA), exist. The objective of this chapter is to evaluate the prevalence of CVR in a cross-sectional studies in randomly selected low income children, adults and elderly in Gauteng, Free State and Eastern Cape, SA. The test pane...
Article
Purpose: The objective was to investigate the role of traditional leaders in the implementation of food security projects in South Africa. Design/Methodology: A qualitative, phenomenological approach was used as a research design. A purposive sample of seven individuals was selected representing the community, extension agents, and researchers. In...
Article
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of food and nutrition insecurity and assess the socio-demographic factors associated with food and nutrition insecurity among 146 free-living elderly persons attending a care centre in Sharpeville, South Africa. Measurement instruments included socio-demographic-, 24-hour-recall and dietar...
Article
Context: Foodborne disease is one of the leading causes of early childhood death and childhood diarrhea worldwide. Providing food safety education is believed to be of necessity to prevent foodborne diseases among school-aged students; however, limited studies have addressed food safety education worldwide, particularly for elementary school studen...
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The main aim of this pilot study was to assess smallholder soy farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of soy immediately before and after participating in a one-day soy nutrition training workshop. A pre-post study design was used among a convenience sample of 78 soy smallholder farmers from Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa(SA). A total of 78 men and five...
Article
Objective To increase nutrition knowledge, fruit and vegetable preference, eating and cooking self-efficacy among 3rd- to 5th-grade students after a 6-week school-based nutrition education intervention. Design Quasi-experimental pre–post design. Setting Title I elementary schools, South Plains, West Texas. Method A nutrition education curriculum...
Article
Objective Outcome evaluation of 3 delivery models for a diabetes prevention education program for older adults. Use of Theory or Research Older adults have the highest prevalence of diabetes and have proved to benefit from prevention programs. Few community-based education programs have targeted this age group. Target Audience Community-dwelling...
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Objectives To build an understanding of factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding practices (EBF) of lactating mothers which will contribute to the development a behavior change intervention targeting mothers in households with children 0–6 months in Mwenezi and Chiredzi districts of Zimbabwe. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in...
Article
Objectives The purpose was to compare the effects of three different delivery models for a diabetes prevention and management education (DPME) program on nutrition and diabetes knowledge (NDK), self-efficacy, dietary behaviors, skin carotenoid score (SCS), Body Mass Index (BMI), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) among older adults. Methods We inves...
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Background: Childhood obesity has become a growing global epidemic. In South Africa, overweight and obesity during childhood and adolescence are rising. The objectives of this study were (i) to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among selected students in Cofimvaba, a rural settlement in Eastern Cape province, South Africa, and (ii)...
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Growing evidence exists for the benefits of adequate infant and young children feeding (IYCF) practices at the weaning stage (≥ 6 months), including optimal growth, building the immune system, cognitive development, healthy food preferences, and reduced mortality and morbidity rates. However, these outcomes are not universally experienced. To ensur...
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As a result of consumers’ increasing concerns with ethical, environmental, and health issues, sustainable consumption and production have become a popular topic of recent academic research and industry practices. The current study sought to provide in-depth insights into consumers’ views on sustainability by simultaneously examining their environme...
Article
Background Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption has been linked to positive health outcomes, but most Americans do not meet recommended intake levels. Nutrition education is an effective strategy to promote and increase FV consumption. Farmers markets offer a unique opportunity to provide nutrition education in an environment facilitative to increa...
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Background Smallholder farmers have gained importance globally recently and are considered to be fundamental to ensure populations’ food security. A recent study found 45% food insecurity among soy farmers in South Africa (SA) and it was recommended to focus on improving smallholder farmers’ ability to produce, preserve, store and consume food thro...
Poster
Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a behavior-specific nutrition education intervention (NEI) to promote dietary behavior factors related to fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption. Methods A pre-post design was used. The developed and implemented six-week NEI curriculum was informed by the social cognitive theory and comprised of class-based...
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Objectives: An innovative school nutrition program, Sustainable Life Skills to Reduce Obesity Risk (SuLiSRO), was developed. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the program and to understand main factors and implementation strategies for preventing obesity and risky behaviors among youth aged 11-14. Methods: Using Social Cognitive theory, 20...
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Food insecurity, leading from insufficient dietary intakes to nutritional insecurity and ultimately to malnutrition, is a persistent problem in developing countries and also South Africa. One of the strategies that can be employed to address food insecurity is the provision of affordable, nutrient-dense, culturally acceptable foods that are safe fo...
Article
Due to limited resources and complex food access systems in urban areas, especially older adults are more vulnerable to poor dietary intake and food insecurity in low-income areas in South Africa. This study assessed the prevalence of food insecurity among the older adults and explored the availability of healthy foods in local shops. It was a cros...
Article
Purpose Food insecurity is an evolving nutrition issue affecting both developed and underdeveloped college campuses. The purpose of this paper is to assess food insecurity and related coping strategies among Texas Tech University students. Design/methodology/approach This was a cross-sectional online survey in Lubbock, Texas, among college stude...
Article
Iodine is an essential trace mineral, vital for its functions in many physiological processes in the human body. Both iodine deficiency (ID) and excess are associated with adverse health effects; ID and excess iodine intake have both been identified in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The review aims to (1) review the iodine status among populations in SS...
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Background and objectives: We aimed to determine the association between Hemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin with blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension (HTN) among elderly South African adults in four time points over a period of 10 years. Methods and study design: We used the data source from the Sharpeville Project conducted among the elderly...
Article
A cost effectiveness (CE) analysis was performed on a nutrition intervention program that included soy consumption, soy and vegetable gardening, and skills training designed to improve blood lipid levels in women. This intervention involved ninety women of ages 19-75 years living in Qwa-Qwa, South Africa. The actual nutrition intervention lasted 18...
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In Ghana, iodine deficiency was first reported in 1994 among 33% of the population. A nationwide Universal Salt Iodization (USI) program plus other complementary interventions were subsequently implemented as a response. Our paper reviews the current risks of excess iodine status in Ghana and identifies policy and research gaps. A mixed methods rev...
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Background The growth, learning, and contribution to active life in the communities are better in well-nourished children, and various factors influence infants' feeding. In this study, we assessed whether household socioeconomic status (SES) affects infants' length-for-age, weight-for-age (indicators of health and nutritional status) and breastfee...
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Background This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of household food insecurity and the association between food insecurity and coping strategies among women asylum seekers and refugees in the city of Durban in South Africa. Methods A coping strategy questionnaire was used to determine food security as this gives a good indication of wh...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of food insecurity and examine relationships between food security and a variety of food access factors influencing food access among 186 seniors in Lubbock, Texas. Socio-demographic, economic and food security, such as coping strategies, data were analyzed on IBM SPSS, version 23. The preva...
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Objectives: The objective was to determine the long-term effect (18 months) of 40 g daily consumption of whole soy bean on metabolic syndrome (MetS) in apparently healthy women. Design: Single-system experimental design. Subjects and setting: Ninety women were randomly recruited from three communities in Qwa-Qwa, Free State province. Outcome measur...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to provide evidence on the prevalence of the metabolic factors contributing to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among elderly people in South Africa. Design: An ethically approved, cross-sectional survey study conducted in a cohort of an elderly population in 2004 with follow-up in 2014. Setting: An elderly day-care center. Par...
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Obesity is an epidemic and costly disease affecting 13% of the adult population worldwide. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue hypertrophy and hyperplasia, as well as pathologic endocrine alterations of adipose tissue including local and chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, this inflammation is a risk factor for both metabolic s...
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Objectives: This study investigated the possible associations between micronutrient deficiencies and child growth in the rural community of Qwa-Qwa in the Free State province of South Africa (SA). Design: Cross-sectional observational baseline survey. Setting: Rural Qwa-Qwa, Free State, SA. Subjects: Children 7- 15 years of age (n = 73; randomly se...
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The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of the testing of the Elderly Food Based Dietary Guidelines (EFBDGs). Following a literature review, stakeholder discussions and revision, preliminary English EFBDGs were proposed and circulated to an expert panel for input. The developed EFBDGs are based on the existing FBDGs which were revised...
Article
Purpose – Over the last few decades, consumers’ concerns for healthier lifestyles and the environment have become the driving forces for forming food-buying intentions. The current study investigates the impact of product attributes regarding nutrition and health benefits of products, the environmental impact of production and social responsibility...
Data
Purpose – Over the last few decades, consumers’ concerns for healthier lifestyles and the environment have become the driving forces for forming food-buying intentions. The current study investigates the impact of product attributes regarding nutrition and health benefits of products, the environmental impact of production and social responsibility...
Article
Full-text available
The aim was to determine the effect of a nutrition education programme (NEP) on the nutrition knowledge of Grade R learners. The study was conducted in four phases. Grade R educators (n=20) from randomly selected urban government and private schools in Durban completed a nutrition education questionnaire (NEQ) to identify activities and visuals sui...
Article
Objective: The study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the association between diet quality (food variety and dietary diversity), intakes of anti-inflammatory nutrients and food groups, and subclinical inflammation as assessed by categories of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Resourc...
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Objective: Obesity, a global epidemic and risk factor for many noncommunicable diseases, has become a public health concern in South Africa, especially in the elderly. This study investigated the trend of development of obesity in a group of urban elderly individuals from 2007-2011. Design: This was a cross-sectional or cohort design. Setting and s...
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Objective: The objective of the study was to determine if an integrated food and nutrition intervention, including home gardening, nutrition education and recipe development and training, would improve dietary diversity in women. Design: This was a single-system case study. Setting: The study setting was peri-urban Qwa-Qwa, Free State province, Sou...
Article
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The aim of the study was to assess the nutrition knowledge, nutrient intakes, and association between nutrition knowledge and dietary intakes of 98 adolescents attending five schools in rural Cofimvaba, South Africa. Measures included a socioeconomic questionnaire, two 24-hour-recall questionnaires, and food-frequency and nutrition knowledge questi...
Article
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The aim of this cross-sectional, observational baseline survey was to examine the association between nutrient intakes and selected socio-economic variables in 722 women, aged 19 to 90 years living in peri-urban settlements. Measurements included socio-demographic data and 24-hour recall dietary intake data. The results showed poor nutrient intakes...
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Morogo (vegetables in Tswana) is a green leafy vegetable from the Amaranthaceae family that can be harvested from wild growing or cultivated. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional value, the total antioxidant capacity and selected bioactive compounds present in morogo leaves, and evaluate the effect of drying and cooking. Res...
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To investigate the relationship between poor Fe status and overweight or obesity in elderly respondents in South Africa. Cross-sectional, observational baseline survey. Sharpeville, South Africa. A sample size calculation determined a representative sample of 104 randomly selected elderly (≥60 years) respondents. Measurements included weight, heigh...
Article
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The main objective of this paper was to explore the prevalence of Stunted Child and Overweight Mother (SCOM) pairs in a South African setting. After a literature review of existing South African studies, the authors plan to inspire South African researchers to investigate the region-specific prevalence of SCOM in their respective areas, and to crea...
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Objective: Dyslipidaemia, an abnormality in circulating serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoproteins, is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The role of nutrients is well known in the development of cardiovascular disease, but little emphasis is placed on total diet quality. Food group diversity and foo...
Article
The objective of this study was to compare the long-term effect of 40-g daily whole bean soy consumption for a period of 18 mo on blood lipid levels of women. A single-system design was used and 90 women randomly selected in peri-urban Qwa-Qwa, South Africa. Measurements included dietary intake (24-h recall), anthropometric (weight and height) and...