Olaf Jöris

Olaf Jöris
Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum - Archaeological research institute | RGZ · MONREPOS Archaeological Research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution

Dr.

About

113
Publications
36,235
Reads
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4,293
Citations
Citations since 2017
21 Research Items
1360 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Introduction
I am senior researcher at Monrepos and lecturer at the University Mainz.
Additional affiliations
April 2003 - present
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Position
  • Universität Mainz
Description
  • lecturer
January 1996 - present
Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum - Archaeological research institute
Position
  • Senior Researcher
January 1994 - December 1996
University of Cologne
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (113)
Article
Full-text available
Ice core and marine archives provide detailed quantitative records of last glacial climate changes, whereas comparable terrestrial records from the mid-latitudes remain scarce. Here we quantify warm season land-surface temperatures and precipitation over millennial timescales for central Europe for the period spanning 45,000–22,000 years before pre...
Article
Full-text available
For decades, the relationship of pre-modern hominins to anatomically modern humans (AMH) and the transition from mode 3 to mode 4 industries remain topics of ongoing scientific debate. Over the last 20 years, different disciplines have added new data and much detail to these questions, highlighting the demographic and social and cultural complexity...
Article
Loess deposits are the most extent continental archives of climatic- and environmental change and represent important components of local and global dust systems. Consequently, their geochemistry provides an excellent basis for studying climate oscillations on land and how these affect processes in the terrestrial system. It is, however, challengin...
Preprint
Full-text available
The climate of the last 50,000 years has been punctuated by oscillations on millennial-to-centennial timescales. Our understanding of this variability derives predominantly from proxy information in ice and marine cores; high-resolution records from land are scarce. Here we quantify land-surface temperature and soil moisture at millennial timescale...
Article
Full-text available
The Laacher See eruption (LSE) in Germany ranks among Europe’s largest volcanic events of the Upper Pleistocene1,2. Although tephra deposits of the LSE represent an important isochron for the synchronization of proxy archives at the Late Glacial to Early Holocene transition³, uncertainty in the age of the eruption has prevailed⁴. Here we present de...
Article
Loess-Palaeosol-Sequences (LPS) in the Central European region provide outstanding terrestrial polygenetic and multiphase archives responding to past climate and environments over various spatial and temporal scales. As yet, however, the geomorphological and pedogenic processes involved in LPS formation, and their interplay with changes in ecologic...
Article
The precise date of the Laacher See eruption (LSE), central Europe’s largest Late Pleistocene volcanic event that occurred around 13,000 years ago, is still unknown. Here, we outline the potential of combined high-resolution dendrochronological, wood anatomical and radiocarbon (¹⁴C) measurements, to refine the age of this major Plinian eruption. Ba...
Chapter
Full-text available
Bifacially backed knives (“Keilmesser”) are known from different European Middle Palaeolithic contexts. However, this specific tool type is both so characteristic of and so frequent within Central and Eastern European late Middle Palaeolithic bifacial assemblages which are generally classed together as “Micoquian” that they should more appropriatel...
Chapter
The learning hypothesis put forth by the Replacement of Neanderthals by Modern Humans (RNMH) Project surmises the primary importance of the innate cognitive difference in learning abilities underlying RNMH processes. An overview of recent studies, supplemented by the contributions in this volume, shows that some of the available evidence is in supp...
Data
The primary focus of this technical study is to simultaneously evaluate ("test") the influence of the shape of the selected 14C-age calibration curve in CalPal-software on the calibrated output ages, as well as the proper functioning of numeric algorithms, for different 14C-age calibration curves, over an extended time-scale, under extreme conditio...
Book
This book is based on the research performed for the Replacement of Neanderthals by Modern Humans Project. The central issue of the project is the investigation of possible differences between the two populations in cognitive ability for learning. The project aims to evaluate a unique working hypothesis, coined as the learning hypothesis, which pos...
Poster
Full-text available
Behavioural concepts such as social transmission, cultural variation and the formation of traditions are essential for understanding the evolutionary process of becoming human. Although these concepts are most often difficult to recognise in Pleistocene archaeology, they gain visibility in the Late Middle Palaeolithic. In the archaeological record...
Article
Among the earliest Homo sapiens societies in Eurasia, the Aurignacian phase of the Early Upper Palaeolithic, approximately 40,000-30,000 uncal. BP, mammoth ivory assumed great social and economic significance, and was used to create hundreds of personal ornaments as well as the earliest known works of three-dimensional figurative art in the world....
Article
Full-text available
Among the earliest Homo sapiens societies in Eurasia, the Aurignacian phase of the Early Upper Palaeolithic, approximately 40,000-30,000 uncal. BP, mammoth ivory assumed great social and economic significance, and was used to create hundreds of personal ornaments as well as the earliest known works of three-dimensional figurative art in the world....
Chapter
Mit dem Begriff Menschwerdung ist der lange evolutionäre Prozess gemeint, der den Menschen zu dem machte, was er heute ist: ein sozio-biologisches wie auch sozio-kulturelles Wesen – das Produkt einer langen Entwicklung, im Zuge derer sich der Mensch immer mehr von der Natur emanzipierte und trotzdem Teil dieser blieb. Dabei gibt es im Tierreich ein...
Poster
Full-text available
The Schwalbenberg site in the Middle Rhine Valley, Germany, is well known for a Loess-Paleosol-Sequence particularly covering Isotope Stage 3 in high resolution. So far, studies concentrate on the so called Schwalbenberg II section (e.g. Frechen and Schirmer, 2011; Schirmer, 2012; Schirmer et al., 2012) with a sequence of approx. 13 m on top of the...
Conference Paper
Mit dem Ziel, Strategien zur Bewältigung aktueller und zukünftiger Streß- und Krisensituationen zu entwickeln werden Untersuchungen der Strategien, Widerstandskraft, Anpassungsfähigkeit und Innovationsbereitschaft vergangener Gesellschaften zunehmend Bedeutung beigemessen. Solche Analysen stehen als Diskussionsgrundlage im Blickfeld der Politik und...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The geographic distribution of humans largely depends on both the demographic history of populations and the climatic and ecological settings of the regions populated. In global perspective, it seems that humans had not overcome some climatic constrains before the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ~25–20 ka and the beginning of the Late Glacial...
Article
Introduction Past hominin symbolic behaviour is manifest in various media and that which survives in the archaeological material record we today identify as Palaeolithic art. Art can build a bridge between material and non-material culture and often serves as a medium for communicating specific worldviews or cosmologies, thus mirroring the self-per...
Article
Full-text available
The Lower to Middle Paleolithic transition (~400,000 to 200,000 years ago) is marked by technical, behavioral, and anatomical changes among hominin populations throughout Africa and Eurasia. The replacement of bifacial stone tools, such as handaxes, by tools made on flakes detached from Levallois cores documents the most important conceptual shift...
Article
Full-text available
The German Rhineland covers a relatively large area, traversing a region extending from the foreland of the Alps to the western part of the Northern European Plain. Within this narrow but diverse region, relatively few diagnostic sites can be assigned to the Magdalenian. This study reviews evidence for Magdalenian presence in the German Rhineland,...
Data
Full-text available
In this paper we explore the meaning of the word probability, not in general terms, but restricted to the field of radiocarbon dating, where it has the meaning of ‘dating probability assigned to calibrated 14C-ages’. The intention of our study is to improve our understanding of certain properties of radiocarbon dates, which – although mathematicall...
Chapter
Full-text available
Only a precise chronological/stratigraphical framework can enable an understanding of the dynamics of change underlying the replacement of Neanderthals by Anatomically Modern Humans and the emergence of what are recognized as Upper Palaeolithic technologies and behaviour. This paper therefore examines the European radiocarbon-based chronometric rec...
Book
http://shop.rgzm.de/de/wissenschaftliche-reihen/rgzm-tagungen/site-internal-spatial-organization-of-hunter-gatherer-societies-case-studies-from-the-european-palaeolithic-and-mesolithic This volume is a compilation of many of the papers presented at a session with the inviting title »Come in ... and find out: Opening a new door into the analysis of...
Chapter
Full-text available
Debates on the inter- and intra-site spatial behaviour of past hunter-gatherer societies have a long- standing tradition in archaeological research. Inter-site spatial patterning records movement of objects over larger distances, shedding light on human mobility strategies and thus integrating sites into a land-use system within the broader landsca...
Data
Full-text available
ABSTRACT – In this paper we explore the meaning of the word probability, not in general terms, but restricted to the field of radiocarbon dating, where it has the meaning of ‘dating probability assigned to calibrated 14C-ages’. The intention of our study is to improve our understanding of certain properties of radiocarbon dates, which – although ma...
Article
The present article shows that the cultural change from the Aurignacian to the Gravettian took place much earlier in southern Central Europe than in other parts of the continent. In southern Central Europe this change appears to be a relatively quick process occurring roughly 34 000 years cal. BP ago (29.5 ka 14C BP). Comparably early appearances o...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we explore the impact of Rapid Climate Change (RCC) on prehistoric communities in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Early and Middle Holocene. Our focus is on the social implications of the four major climate cold anomalies that have recently been identified as key time-windows for global RCC (Mayewski et al. 2004). These cooling a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper combines the data sets available today for 14C-age calibration of the last 60 ka. By stepwise synchronization of paleoclimate signatures, each of these sets of 14C-ages is compared with the U/Th-dated Chinese Hulu Cave speleothem records, which shows global paleoclimate change in high temporal resolution. By this synchronization we have...
Article
The dynamics of change underlying the demographic processes that led to the replacement of Neandertals by Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) and the emergence of what are recognized as Upper Paleolithic technologies and behavior can only be understood with reference to the underlying chronological framework. This paper examines the European chronomet...
Article
Here we present spatial–temporal patterns for European late Quaternary red deer (Cervus elaphus), based on radiocarbon-supported evidence derived mainly from archaeological sites. This is followed by an overview of the recent phylogeography of this species using haplogroup studies of recent molecular data. The implications of the synthesis of palae...
Article
Full-text available
Around 8200 calBP, large parts of the now submerged North Sea continental shelf ('Dog-gerland') were catastrophically flooded by the Storegga Slide tsunami, one of the largest tsunamis known for the Holocene, which was generated on the Norwegian coastal margin by a submarine landslide. In the present paper, we derive a precise calendric date for th...
Book
Full-text available
Ab stract The ear li est oc cur rences of per sonal or na ments in West ern Eur asia are known from as sem blages that are placed at the Mid dle to Up per Paleolithic Tran si tion (Chatelperronian, Uluzzian, Blattspitzengruppen, Bachokirian). How ever, the pau-city of sites dat ing to this pe riod which have pro duced such or na ments, the of ten d...
Data
We have collated an extensive regional radiocarbon database for the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic in Northwest Europe in the age range 10,000 to 4000 yrs 14 C-BP (i.e. 11.7 ka calBP to 5000 calBP). The database contains more than 4100 individual 14 C-ages (each defined by its specific laboratory code), and which are derived from c. 1000 different...
Book
Full-text available
Auf der Balkanhalbinsel hat der Fluss Strymon immer die Rolle eines wichtigen Verbindungsgliedes zwischen der Ägäis und Mitteleuropa gespielt. Über seinen Bereich und den Fluss Iskar war in der Urgeschichte die Donau erreichbar und über diese auch Mitteleuropa. Im 7.–6. Jahrtausend v. Chr. war das der wichtigste Weg über welchen, mit Zwischenstatio...
Article
Full-text available
We explore the hypothesis that the abrupt drainage of Laurentide lakes and associated rapid switch of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation 8200 yr ago had a catastrophic influence on Neolithic civilisation in large parts of southeastern Europe, Anatolia, Cyprus, and the Near East. The event at 8200 cal yr BP is observed in a large number of...
Article
Full-text available
Since the pioneering work of Hermann Schaaffhausen in 1883 on the Martinsberg at Andernach and due to the protection of the area by the eruptive masses of the late Allerød Laacher See volcano, the German Central Rhineland has been known to be a promising region for the preservation and discovery of Late Glacial sites. Today, more than 120 years aft...
Article
Full-text available
In den letzten Jahren hat sich unsere Kenntnis der Klimaentwicklung in den eiszeitlichen Perioden wie auch im Holozän durch das Aufschließen neuer und hochauflösender Klimaarchive beträchtlich erweitert. In zahl� reichen nationalen und internationalen Schwerpunktprogrammen richtet sich das Augenmerk der Paläokli� maforscher auf die Erforschung und...
Article
Full-text available
In the present paper we systematically evaluate the radiometric database underlying the Middle to Upper Palaeolithc transition in southwestern Europe.The different models which attempt to explain the demographical processes underlying this transition rely to a large degree on radiocarbon chronology. We observe that: 1) with increasing age, dates on...