Ofelia Araujo

Ofelia Araujo
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | UFRJ · Chemical Engineering Department

PhD
Deloitt Brasil - Senior Advisor in Decarbonization | UFRJ - Environmental Engineering Program (Visiting Professor)

About

198
Publications
25,982
Reads
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2,069
Citations
Citations since 2016
112 Research Items
1685 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
Introduction
My research lines communicate through a process modeling and engineering approach, including oil production, transportation and refining, CO2 capture and utilization, and use of waste as raw material for industrial processes. My recent research interest is the development of sustainability metrics and indicators for comparative evaluation of processes, systems and supply chains, and life cycle analyses, in line with the UN 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development Goals.
Additional affiliations
August 1993 - present
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Research interest: Process systems engineering applied to natural gas processing, CO2 capture and utilization, and microalga based biorefineries. Development and application of sustainability metrics in process design, eco-industrial poles.
August 1993 - present
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Undergraduate classes: Process Simulation and Control Graduate classes: Green Process Engineering , Natural Gas Process Engineering
February 1989 - August 1993
Oxiteno
Position
  • Simulation and Control Engineer
Description
  • Simulation, control and optimization of petrochemical processes related to production of ethylene oxide and derivatives.
Education
May 1984 - July 1987
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering
May 1982 - May 1984
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering
March 1977 - December 1981
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering

Publications

Publications (198)
Article
Full-text available
This work presents a preliminary screening of eco-technologies for dimethyl carbonate (DMC) production. Through sustainability metrics, the assessment of six different chemical routes allows comparisons according to economical and environmental criteria, to determine the most sustainable route. CO2 sequestration potential is also considered. The al...
Article
Full-text available
The KLa values for optimum xylitol productivity using Candida guilliermondii with initial cell concentrations of 1.0 and 4.0 g/l and an initial d-xylose concentration of 50 g/l were predicted as 20 and 100 h−1, respectively, by means of growth, substrate and oxygen uptake simulations. The highest xylitol production rate (1.52 g/l h) was experimenta...
Article
The nitrification step of a biological nitrogen removal process conducted in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was studied. The process is time oriented and history-dependent: changes in the length of fill and react phases alter process productivity. Due to process complexity, heuristic optimization is rarely efficient, and a model-based approach is...
Article
Current anthropogenic activities have been causing a significant increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 over the past 60 years. To mitigate the consequent global warming problem, efficient technological solutions, based on economical and technical grounds, are required. In this work, microalgae are studied as important biological systems...
Article
An optimal operating mode for a sequencing batch reactor was determined via a model-based optimization. Synthetic wastewater containing mainly organic matter (as glucose) and nitrogen (as ammonium chloride) was treated without any addition of an external carbon source to accomplish denitrification step. A simplified model was used to describe proce...
Article
Full-text available
Gas–liquid membrane contactor is a promising process intensification technology for offshore natural gas conditioning in which weight and footprint constraints impose severe limitations. Thanks to its potential for substituting conventional packed/trayed columns for acid-gas absorption and acid-gas solvent regeneration, gas-liquid membrane contacto...
Article
A novel carbon-capture-and-utilization route from extra-carbonated natural gas using low-cost/low-carbon chloralkali hydrogen is disclosed. Methanol and methane-rich gas are produced without direct carbon emissions and also with low indirect emissions assuming the local electricity-matrix as 87% non-emitting. Carbon dioxide removed from raw natural...
Article
Manned-spaceship and orbiting stations require light and reliable life-support systems as the crew is subjected to long space periods. Spaceship conditions are regulated by the Environment Control and Life-Support System. Maintaining a breathable and comfortable atmosphere in the spaceship is a critical function of life-support systems. Breathabili...
Article
Full-text available
Sewage-water treatment comprehends primary, secondary, and tertiary steps to produce reusable water after removing sewage contaminants. However, a sewage-water treatment plant is typically a power and energy consumer and produces high volumes of sewage sludge mainly generated in the primary and secondary steps. The use of more efficient anaerobic d...
Article
Dew-point adjustments and reclamation of thermodynamic gas-hydrate inhibitors injected in subsea flowlines are common operations in offshore natural gas rigs characterized by high costs, power consumption and carbon emissions. Typically, offshore plants employ triethylene-glycol absorption for water dew-point adjustment and Joule-Thomson expansion...
Article
Remotely located oil fields with high gas-oil ratio and high carbon dioxide content impose challenges for efficient and sustainable gas processing and monetization. This work investigates gas-to-wire coupled to carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery as a solution to handle the high flow of carbonated natural gas simultaneously accomplishing three mis...
Article
The use of biomass in cogeneration is a sustainable alternative of energy production, allowing replacing fossil fuels and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This work discloses an integrated process analyzer framework comprising surrogate models for estimation of fixed capital investment, revenues, costs of manufacturing as well as several perf...
Article
Plant design implies the best choice among a set of feedstock-to-product process pathways. Multiple sustainability performance indicators can blur the decision, and existing sustainability assessment methods usually focus only on environmental life-cycle performance and corporate metrics or solely on the gate-to-gate process. It is relevant to inco...
Article
Expansion-based liquefaction technologies are prime candidates for small scale offshore natural gas liquefaction, aiding in reducing NG chain logistical costs, due to their compactness. This study assesses the sustainability and profitability of three expansion-based small-capacity natural gas liquefaction technologies: the rigid-geometry supersoni...
Article
Full-text available
Typical large-scale sewage-water treatments consume energy, occupy space and are unprofitable. This work evaluates a conceivable two-staged sewage-water treatment at 40,000 m³/d of sewage-water with sewage-sludge (totaling 10kgCOD/m³) that becomes a profitable bioenergy producer exporting reusable water and electricity, while promoting carbon captu...
Article
Semi-dry flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) processes abate 99% of atmospheric emissions of sulfur dioxide from coal-fired power plants at the expense of producing daily tones of solid FGD residues containing sulfites, sulfates, carbonates and hydroxides of calcium and magnesium, besides fly-ashes. In this work, a fluidized-bed reactor pilot plant was...
Article
Offshore processing of natural gas with 44%mol carbon dioxide at remote deep-water oil-and-gas fields is invariably characterized by low-efficiency power generation via gas-fired turbines releasing hot flue-gas and entailing high degradation of resources, high carbon emissions and low sustainability. This work demonstrates how to upgrade exergy uti...
Article
Distillation is one of the most used separation techniques, despite its high heat demand and low thermodynamic efficiency. Although new distillation schemes have been developed for ethanol-water separation, most of them prescribe expensive sub-atmospheric columns. On the other hand, heat-integrated distillation columns allow significant steam savin...
Chapter
This chapter contemplates two topics committed to steady-state modeling of membrane-permeation units for decarbonation of CO2-rich natural gas at high-pressure. The first topic presents a steady-state, phenomenological, and one-dimensional distributed membrane-permeation simulation model—SPM2010—which was developed in MATLAB 2010 for rigorous simul...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of large-scale sugarcane-based biorefineries that produce bioethanol and process its main waste—bagasse—for bioenergy generation. Assessments are presented in terms of power production, economic aspects, carbon dioxide emissions, sustainability, and prospects for the transformation of biorefineries integrated to su...
Article
Autothermal reforming is an important pathway to hydrogen via fossil fuel decarbonization. Traditionally, the finishing step of hydrogen production via autothermal reforming consists of decarbonation via conventional aqueous-amine absorption which incurs a huge energy penalty due to high heat-ratio and low-pressure carbon dioxide stripping entailin...
Article
Anaerobic-digestion degrades organic wastes, producing biogas to drive bioenergy turbines reducing fossil-fuel dependence. This work evaluates the biogas chain fromwaste-to-bioenergy, using models for dynamic simulation of biogas processing, bioenergy generation, and carbon capture. To do this, a dynamic anaerobic digestion model from the literatur...
Article
Under certain conditions supersonic separators promote superior natural gas conditioning over traditional routes. An instigating possibility consists in using supersonic separators to obtain liquefied natural gas that exhibits global growth. This work analyses natural gas liquefaction through a low-scale process using realistic non-isentropic super...
Article
Sustainability must be always assured in process design. Not rarely, multiple sustainability criteria point oppositely, entailing a need for more systematic and coherent assessments. The Sustainable Process Systems Engineering method is introduced as a two-level hierarchical evaluation of process designs. The first level selects the best design via...
Article
The chemical industry has been struggling to conduct sustainable operations within safe planetary limits, while being socially sound and profitable. Industrial systems are composed of complex arrangements that can vary from system’s boundary, production phase, management level and sustainability dimensions. The integration of such concepts is essen...
Article
Deepwater oil and associated gas productions resort to floating rigs operating at continuously decreasing gas-loads during the last three quarters of the field campaign. As centrifugal compressors are sized at maximum loads, anti-surge recycles are used making operation inefficient in terms of power consumption and emissions per oil barrel produced...
Article
Full-text available
Although the world energy mix is still strongly dependent on fossil fuels, biofuels have been gaining market share, especially in the transport sector. The main biofuel raw materials are those produced by agropastoral systems that use large expanses of land. The present work presents an innovative method of sustainability assessment of biodiesel, c...
Article
Air fractionation in cryogenic plants demands a Pre-Purification Unit for air compression and removal of water, carbon dioxide and trace-species. The conventional Pre-Purification Unit – FULL-TSA – adopts temperature-swing adsorption (TSA) with an activated-alumina bed for dehumidification followed by a molecular-sieve bed removing carbon dioxide a...
Article
In offshore oil-and-gas fields with high CO2 content, oil-and-gas processing entails recycling CO2 to the field for enhanced oil recovery. Despite blocking fossil CO2 ingress into the biosphere and improving oil production, this entails increasing %CO2 in oil-and-gas with time, challenging the processing plant. Supersonic separator is a compact gas...
Article
Sugarcane plantations promote impressive drainage of atmospheric carbon dioxide reaching 781 t/h for a 1000 t/h sugarcane-biorefinery. For first-generation bioethanol sugarcane-biorefineries, only 10% of sugarcane carbon dioxide equivalent leaves as hydrous-ethanol, while 90% return to atmosphere through bagasse-fired power cogeneration in steam-Ra...
Article
Global warming concerns have driven developments in carbon neutral energy, pulling initiatives on biofuels production. However, the low bulk density and low specific energy of biomass refrain its widespread use due to logistic costs comprising harvesting and collection, storage, pretreatments and transportation. This work approaches increasing land...
Article
A large-scale sugarcane-based ethanol biorefinery is assessed and analyzed as a conceivable integration of plantation-biorefinery for large-scale carbon dioxide drainage by coupling production of bioenergy to carbon capture and storage (BECCS) vis-à-vis the conventional biorefinery. The plantation-biorefinery integration is simulated to assess etha...
Article
Gas-To-Wire is a solution for remote offshore oil-gas fields with high gas-oil ratio and high carbon dioxide content, as it requires minimum natural gas upgrade and is feasible for long-distance transportation. Additionally, combining offshore Gas-To-Wire with carbon capture enables abatement of emissions while providing revenues from enhanced oil...
Article
The study evaluates alternative and innovative arrangements for processing a microalgae biomass by anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. Cell wall limits bio-accessibility of microalgal intracellular compounds, demanding pretreatment to improve methane yield. Two pretreatments are evaluated at 75 °C using residual heat: thermal (1 bar) and thermom...
Article
Carbon Capture and Storage and Carbon Capture and Utilization refer to carbon dioxide management technologies for its removal from flue-gases, followed by carbon recycling or storage, aiming at limiting global warming. For large-scale deployment, geological storage is the most promising alternative but imposes an economic penalty to the emitting pr...
Article
Ionic-liquids are considered alternatives to conventional aqueous-amines absorption solvents due to their carbon dioxide affinity, low vapor-pressure, high thermal stability and low heat-ratio. In this context, this work firstly approaches a new natural gas decarbonation process based on ionic-liquid [Bmim][NTf2] absorption and selective solute str...
Article
Offshore oil/gas production with high %CO2 and gas-to-oil ratio impose processing large volumes of CO2-rich gas. This requires first-of-a-kind designs and creates design uncertainties besides offshore operation uncertainties. Therefore, the design of offshore units under influence of stochastic factors is recommended to avoid oversized worst-case d...
Article
Chemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to methanol has the potential to address two relevant sustainability issues: economically feasible replacement of fossil raw materials and avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions. However, chemical stability of CO 2 is a challenging impediment to conversion, requiring harsh reaction conditions at the expe...
Article
Supersonic separator is investigated via process simulation for treating CO 2 rich (>40%) natural gas in terms of dew-points adjustment and CO 2 removal for enhanced oil recovery. These applications are compared in terms of technical and energetic performances with conventional technologies, also comparing CO 2 emissions by power generation. The co...
Article
The use of CO 2 -rich natural gas ( %CO2≈ 20%mol ) for power generation in offshore hubs results in simpler upgrade process, while imposes an extra challenge to mitigate emissions. Power generation via combined cycle configurations and post-combustion capture with CO 2 reinjection are investigated for carbon-footprint reduction, while increasing ga...
Article
The present work assesses water and power consumption, ethanol production and CO 2 emissions in order to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a high-scale sugarcane-based biorefinery and propose a scenario of full carbon and capture system, so the complex could become a sustainable carbon withdrawer from the atmosphere. This work is p...
Article
The oil and gas industry represents an important contributor to CO 2 emissions as offshore platforms are power intensive for producing, processing and transporting hydrocarbons. In offshore rigs CO 2 emissions mainly come from on-site gas-fired power generation for heat and electricity production. The accumulation of atmospheric CO 2 is one of the...
Article
This work aimed to fulfill a technical evaluation of the applicability of gas-liquid membrane contactors (GLMC) to remove CO 2 from CO 2 rich natural gas in offshore rigs. For this purpose, a simulation case in HYSYS 8.8 (AspenTech) was performed to remove CO 2 from a natural gas stream with concentration of 40% mol CO 2 using an aqueous solution o...
Article
Offshore oil production in deep waters challenges CO 2 removal technologies since, for extracting the oil, a huge flow rate of CO 2 -rich gas must be processed. Currently, amine absorption and membrane permeation are widely used for CO 2 abatement in offshore rigs although they present some drawbacks such as high heat demand for CO 2 stripping and...
Article
The possibility of using renewable feedstocks for biodiesel production and reducing gas emissions makes it an attractive large-scale substitute to traditional fossil diesel. Although renewability is one of the main driving forces in biodiesel use, traditional production routes employ methanol as the transesterification agent, a chemical generated f...
Article
Thermal power plants with oxy-combustion CO 2 capture are featured by large scale oxygen demand, where cryogenic air separation is most suitable. In such context, a Pre-Purification Unit (PPU) is required, prior to air fractionation, to remove hazardous air contaminants – H 2 O, CO 2 and several trace-species – preventing ingress into the Cold Box....
Article
Every day huge amounts of CO 2 are released into the atmosphere by enterprises such as biorefineries. In this context, the present work proposes a plausible scenario where a large-scale sugarcane-based biorefinery capture over 92% of its CO 2 emissions to be used as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agent. The study is based on the integration of sugarca...
Article
Supersonic separators offer a cleaner offshore processing of natural gas with carbon dioxide content from deep-water oil-gas fields. Conventional offshore gas processing comprises water dew-point adjustment via glycol-absorption, hydrocarbon dew-point adjustment via Joule-Thomson expansion, and carbon dioxide removal via membrane-permeation. Altern...
Article
Offshore gas processing presents challenges, especially when high flow rates, high-pressure and high carbon dioxide contents are involved. The present scenario comprehends offshore processing of high flow rate of high-pressure natural gas with 68%mol carbon dioxide, which results from oil production and behaves as a dense supercritical fluid. The p...
Article
Offshore oil production from huge reservoirs at deep waters with high gas-oil ratio and high carbon dioxide (CO2) content is a challenging puzzle because oil extraction imposes to process a huge flow rate of raw CO2-rich natural gas from which CO2 must be separated and sent to appropriate destination. Offshore gas processing comprises three steps:...
Article
In commercial cryogenic manufacturing of oxygen, air to the Cold-Box must pass through a Pre-Purification Unit (PPU) to remove water, CO2 and other impurities. The conventional PPU – FULL-TSA – comprises compression, cooling pre-dehydration and temperature-swing adsorption (TSA) for dehydration and CO2 removal, supplying treated air at 3.1 bar. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this work is to simulate pretreatment steps on a laboratory scale with the purpose of producing a higher quality permeate for feed reverse osmosis process. Pretreatment steps involved in this work are a combination of physical and chemical processes, such as coagulation-flocculation, sand filtration, and microfiltration. Samples of...
Article
Full-text available
Offshore production of oil and natural gas with high carbon dioxide content and high gas-to-oil ratio entail stringent processing conditions that require innovations and first-of-a-kind designs, which bear uncertainties derived from the scarcity of commercial-scale projects, hindering to move along technology learning curves. Consequently, unpredic...
Article
Full-text available
Mixing of semi-dry flue gas desulfurization solids and fly-ash from coal-fired power plants results in a solid waste contaminated by calcium sulfite. Therefore, it becomes useless for industry and is often landfilled. To support decision-making on process configurations to monetize this solid residue a gate-to-gate life cycle assessment was perform...
Article
Offshore oil/gas productions are power intensive and CO 2 emitters from gas-fired power generation. This work investigates supersonic separator as a strategy for affording post-combustion capture backed up by cost reductions. Conventional offshore gas processing usually loses thermodynamic hydrate inhibitor methanol in processing and exported gas....
Article
Oxyfuel carbon capture is both power and capital intensive due to oxygen demand. Consequently, oxyfuel requires the development of more efficient air separation units. This work proposes an alternative cryogenic distillation process for large-scale gaseous oxygen supply. Instead of using different pressure columns, the new air separation unit coupl...
Article
Some deep-water offshore fields produce oil with high gas/oil ratios and ultra-high %CO 2 (>60%mol) with the onus of processing low-grade gas simultaneously handling huge CO 2 dispatch goals. Thus, processing solutions are needed to make feasible such high-capacity gas rigs hundreds of kilometers offshore. Feasibility relies on the choices for CO 2...
Article
Full-text available
Night biomass loss due to respiratory activity can significantly impact the phytoplankton biomass productivity and the yield of specific biomolecules. A decrease in biomass loss can be achieved by cyclic two-stage cultivation (CTSC) employing an organic carbon source during the dark phase of the photoperiod. Thus, sugarcane vinasse was used as carb...
Article
Full-text available
Studies have reported enhancements in methane yield from pretreatment methods that benefit the anaerobic digestion (AD) of microalgae. However, energy return on investment (EROI), i.e., methane production enhancement achieved over energy input, may be unfavorable. Aiming to quantify EROI of AD microalgae pretreatment, about 180 experiments applied...
Chapter
Equations of state (EOS) have been developed for the petroleum and natural gas (NG) industries to predict phase behavior and properties of gas and liquid hydrocarbons on wide pressure–temperature domains. However, the processing of CO2-rich NG may create semi-cryogenic conditions leading to precipitation of solid CO2 (dry- ice), which is problemati...
Chapter
This chapter presents an overview on the functional principles of supersonic separators, describing which conventional operations can be substituted by supersonic separators in offshore/onshore processing of natural gas. Economic and energy assessments are also presented comparing performances of alternatives for general processing of natural gas a...
Chapter
Rigorous formulas for the thermodynamic sound speed are developed via a steady-state, unidimensional, isentropic, multiphase, and multi-reactive equilibrium plug-flow. A correspondence between a multiphase multi-reactive plug-flow element and an equilibrium closed system (ECS), with two equilibrium state coordinates, is the main theoretical resourc...
Chapter
This chapter is dedicated to describing the numerical model of membrane permeation and the rigorous thermodynamic model of supersonic separators and their installation in HYSYS process simulator. It also recapitulates the determination of multiphase speed of sound from Chap. 5 for accurate calculation of Mach number within the supersonic separator....
Chapter
This chapter presents a survey on equation of state (EOS) for high-pressure natural gas (NG), pure CO2, and CO2-rich NG systems. The cubic EOS’s—PR-EOS, RK-EOS, SRK-EOS—are discussed in detail, with formulas for residual properties used in NG engineering. The text also discusses EOS’s of higher complexity for pure CO2 and CO2-rich NG: Span–Wagner E...
Chapter
The high versatility of supersonic separators for natural gas (NG) processing is explored in this chapter to include the recovery of thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors (THIs), such as methanol, ethanol, and monoethylene glycol (MEG). THIs are normally injected upstream in the raw natural gas feed to prevent solid gas hydrate issues during transportat...
Chapter
Having in mind that supersonic separator technologies for treating raw CO2-rich natural gas in offshore rigs, despite being promising, are totally unconventional and still under practical development, this chapter has the objective to put the conventional CO2-rich natural gas processing operations in perspective, so that an adequate appraisal of th...
Chapter
This chapter gives an overview on basic subjects that justify the existence of this book, the most important being the contextualization of offshore processing of CO2-rich natural gas (NG), besides CO2 separation and destination. A discussion and bibliographic review on alternatives for CO2 removal from CO2-rich NG are included. Some basins worldwi...
Chapter
After injection, MEG flows together with production fluids until they reach the processing facility on an offshore platform or on an onshore plant. The denser aqueous phase—also known as Rich MEG—is sent to the MEG recovery unit (MRU) for removal of water, salts, and other impurities in order to regenerate the stream of reconcentrated MEG—also know...
Chapter
In order to quantitatively evaluate MRU processes in terms of heat and power consumptions, CO2 atmospheric emissions and exergy performance, traditional, full-stream, and slip-stream processes are first implemented in a professional process simulator, with the same inlet and outlet conditions for a comparative study. Process conditions and relevant...
Chapter
Thermodynamic calculations using the Twu-Sim-Tassone EOS provide accurate glycol–water modeling (including MEG, TEG, and DEG), as well as reliable methods for phase equilibrium, surface tension prediction, and liquid density prediction. Twu, Sim, and Tassone have developed an excess Gibbs free energy function GE that allows both zero-pressure and i...
Chapter
The interrelationship between energy performance and exergy performance of a chemical process is somewhat subtle and commonly not well interpreted in general. For instance, it is possible to keep the same level of energy performance of a given operating process, but adopting some modifications—characteristically based on investing some capital into...
Chapter
Exergy analysis (ExA) has been gaining relevance in the field of energy efficiency as a powerful tool to assess degradation of energy quality. ExA quantifies the percentage of destroyed exergy via process irreversibilities, as well as the percentage of lost exergy via process deficiencies when handling waste (material and energy) streams. ExA also...
Chapter
Certain equipment design parameters have direct influence on the degree of irreversibility associated with the operation of the equipment in question, concomitantly with inverse influence on the respective size and capital cost. Typical examples are the temperature approach (TAPP) of heat exchangers and the reflux ratio (RR) of distillation columns...
Chapter
The theory of exergy analysis (ExA) of the previous chapter is now specifically applied to the three main types of MRU commercially available to offshore oil and gas platforms. The first point to address is the definition of the reference environment reservoir (RER). The RER definition has a great influence on the ExA results, therefore two kinds o...
Chapter
Natural gas hydrates are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, with a crystalline structure comprised of water and light hydrocarbon molecules (mainly CH4). Such solids can be formed above the freezing temperature of water, and, for this reason, represent a major flow assurance concern, especially at high pressures. Gas hydrate...
Chapter
Distillation columns and evaporation equipment are the main energy-consuming components utilized by offshore MRUs, besides several heating and cooling operations. One may ask about what would be the range of expected values of thermodynamic efficiencies for the main MRU operations. A first point to be realized beforehand is that thermodynamic effic...
Chapter
As a thermodynamic hydrate inhibitor (THI), MEG must be injected at certain points of the natural gas production systems to be thermodynamically effective against hydrate formation. The most appropriate points for injection of THIs are the warm wet points in the system like “heads” of production wells (well-heads) upstream the production choke, sub...
Article
Production of natural gas in deepwaters with high gas-to-oil ratio and high carbon dioxide (CO2) content challenges the design of offshore processing due to area and weight limitations. Furthermore, cleaner production and process sustainability impose sending the separated CO2 to early enhanced oil recovery, which has economic benefit but gradually...