Odipo Osano

Odipo Osano
University of Eldoret · School of Environmental Studies

PhD

About

60
Publications
26,684
Reads
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880
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2002 - August 2011
Moi University
Position
  • Senior Lecture
Description
  • Lecturing, research and also Dean of the School of Environmental Studies
June 1996 - April 2002
University of Amsterdam
Position
  • PhD Student
Description
  • Research
January 1990 - December 1992
University of Nairobi
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
Full-text available
Fluoride is present naturally in the environment. However, human activities in the environment have increased the levels significantly. The effect of Fluoride exposure to Xenopus laevis embryo development was determined under Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The endpoint of the study was mortality, whole body length and malformation...
Article
Full-text available
The use of Carissa edulis in the management of Diabetes Mellitus in Baringo County and other parts of Kenya is steadily increasing. This is so, despite the fact that there is a knowledge gap on the Hemato-biochemical responses, on those exposed to it. To investigate the hematological and biochemical changes/responses of Carissa edulis extracts (eth...
Chapter
Watersheds in Kenya constitute a unique pedigree landscape that supports socio-economic, geopolitical and ecological processes. They drain the arable and agriculturally productive areas as well as the marginal arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs). We reviewed the watershed landscapes/ecosystems with regards to human activities, drivers of ecosystem cha...
Article
Full-text available
When the SEGH international board released a short editorial paper back in 2019, we described an aim to increase the membership offering, whilst improving the diversity of input regionally, by scientific discipline and to ensure greater and more regular contact across the regions from 2020 onwards. Wider aspirations described in 2019 (Watts et al....
Article
Soil erosion accelerated by poor agricultural practices, land degradation, deprived infrastructure development and other anthropogenic activities has important implications for nutrient cycling, land and lake productivity, loss of livelihoods and ecosystem services, as well as socioeconomic disruption. Enhanced knowledge of dynamic factors influenc...
Article
Spot urinary elemental concentrations are presented for 357 adults from Western Kenya collected between 2016 and 2019 as part of a wider environmental geochemical survey. The aim of this study was to establish population level urinary elemental concentrations in Western Kenya for micronutrients and potentially harmful elements for inference of heal...
Article
Full-text available
Fish is a protein source and constitutes other significant nutrients that have been crucial to human health. Aquaculture in Kenya has grown faster than any other food production sector, with fish feeds being prepared from different cereal products commonly contaminated by Mycotoxins. But controlling the growth of fungi that cause mycotoxin has been...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Planetary Health Education Framework aims to guide the education of global citizens, practitioners, and professionals able and willing to address the complex Planetary Health challenges of our world today. The framework also seeks to inspire all peoples across the globe to create, restore, steward, and conserve healthy ecosystems for a thriving...
Article
Full-text available
The Planetary Health Education Framework aims to guide the education of global citizens, practitioners, and professionals able and willing to address the complex Planetary Health challenges of our world today. The framework also seeks to inspire all peoples across the globe to create, restore, steward, and conserve healthy ecosystems for a thriving...
Article
Full-text available
Spot urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) are presented for 248 individuals from western Kenya with paired drinking water collected between 2016 and 2018. The median UIC was 271 µg L-1, ranging from 9 to 3146 µg L-1, unadjusted for hydration status/dilution. From these data, 12% were potentially iodine deficient (< 100 µg L-1), whilst 44% were consi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Data visualisation and discoverability is key to communicate science to policymakers and the public. Spatial information is getting more and more easy to gather and interpret but has to be visible to enable a better public understanding of the diversity, sensitivity, vulnerability and value of our environment. The British Geological Survey (BGS) ha...
Article
Full-text available
Soil, water and food supply composition data have been combined to primarily estimate micronutrient intakes and subsequent risk of deficiencies in each of the regions studied by generating new data to supplement and update existing food balance sheets. These data capture environmental influences, such as soil chemistry and the drinking water source...
Article
Full-text available
The challenges of sustainable development are ever more pressing, and the skills, interests and capabilities of the SEGH member are well-placed to continue to make more meaningful contributions to the environment, society and well-being. SEGH has been a welcoming society for early career researchers (ECRs) over the years, providing a supportive a...
Article
Full-text available
Element deficiencies and excesses play important roles in non-communicable disease etiology. When investigating their roles in epidemiologic studies without prospective designs, reverse-causality limits the utility of transient biomarkers in cases. This study aimed to investigate whether surrogate participants may provide viable proxies by assessin...
Article
Full-text available
Squamous cell esophageal cancer is common throughout East Africa, but its etiology is poorly understood. We investigated the contribution of alcohol consumption to esophageal cancer in Kenya, based on a hospital-based case-control study conducted from 08/2013 to 03/2018 in Eldoret, Western Kenya. Cases had an endoscopy-confirmed esophageal tumor wh...
Article
Full-text available
There are no studies of oral health and esophageal cancer in Africa, or of this area's endemic dental fluorosis, an irreversible enamel hypo‐mineralization due to early‐life excessive fluoride. During 2014‐18, we conducted a case‐control study of squamous cell esophageal cancer in Eldoret, western Kenya. Odds ratios (AORs (95% confidence intervals)...
Article
Full-text available
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has markedly high incidence rates in Kenya and much of East Africa, with a dire prognosis and poorly understood aetiology. Consumption of hot beverages – a probable carcinogen to humans – is associated with increased ESCC risk in other settings and is habitually practiced in Kenya. We conducted a case‐cont...
Article
Full-text available
p> Excess or deficiency of minerals may seriously disturb biochemical processes and upset internal homeostasis, leading to various diseases and disorders in fish species due to deficiency or excess of micro and macro elements caused by improper nutrition, avitaminosis or poisoning. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the iron lev...
Article
Full-text available
Squamous cell esophageal cancer is common throughout East Africa, but its etiology is poorly understood. We investigated the contribution of alcohol consumption to esophageal cancer in Kenya, based on a hospital‐based case‐control study conducted from 08/2013 to 03/2018 in Eldoret, Western Kenya. Cases had an endoscopy‐confirmed esophageal tumor wh...
Article
Full-text available
Western Kenya and Southeast Uganda have reported different Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) incidences in the past more than 3 decades with the latter recording more cases. Here, we describe interactions between socio-economics, tsetse dynamics, livestock husbandry and environmental issues at the transboundary of Kenya and Uganda and how they de...
Article
Full-text available
Reproductive inefficiency is one of major challenges affecting dairy farming in Kenya. This is partly caused by poor estrus detection, delayed determination of unsuccessful artificial insemination (AI) and sub-optimal calving to conception interval. Blood levels of progesterone hormone (P4) are a valid indicator of the reproductive status of an ani...
Article
Full-text available
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers in most Eastern and Southern African countries, but its aetiology has been understudied to date. To inform its research agenda, we undertook a review to identify, of the ESCC risk factors that have been established or strongly suggested worldwide, those with a high prevale...
Article
Full-text available
Pesticides have many different properties that affect their behaviour in the environment. Pesticide's solubility in water has a great impact on leaching potential and environmental fate. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between organic carbon based partition coefficient (k oc) and pesticides solubility (S) of pesticides...
Article
Full-text available
Groundwater contamination by pesticides is an environmental health concern throughout the world. Many pesticides do not leach because they are adsorbed on the soil particles or organic matter even though they may have a relatively high solubility. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between soil permeability and organic ca...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing use of pesticides threatens the quality of groundwater with contamination. The objective of the study was to assess the use of integrated pest management (IPM) in reducing the risks of groundwater contamination in Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect data on types and quantities of pest...
Article
Full-text available
Sequential extraction and radiotracer analyses were used to evaluate the geochemical partitioning of metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Cu) in the sediments of Lake Victoria to partition the contribution of catchment areas. Highest total concentration and enrichments of Pb, Cd and Cr occurred near river inlets from polluted urban areas discharging municipal e...
Article
Full-text available
The commonly accepted gold standard diagnostic method for detecting malaria is a microscopic reading of Giemsa-stained blood films. However, symptomatic diagnosis remains the basis of therapeutic care for the majority of febrile patients in malaria endemic areas. This study aims to compare the discrepancy in malaria and anaemia burdens between symp...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Confirmatory diagnosis of malaria by detection of Plasmodium parasites is one of the cornerstones of the malaria control strategy. Symptomatic diagnosis which relies on patient-reported symptoms may not yield proper malaria (and associated anaemia) diagnosis due to Type II errors (false negatives). The aim of this study was to compare m...
Article
Full-text available
Improper pesticide application has resulted in high toxicity levels causing environmental risk. The objective of the study was to determine pesticide preferences and pattern of use in farms along the shore of Lake Naivasha. Interviewer administered questionnaires and researcher observation were used to collect data on pesticides being used and patt...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Kenya and Uganda have reported different Human African Trypanosomiasis incidences in the past more than three decades, with the latter recording more cases. This cross-sectional study assessed the demographic characteristics, tsetse and trypanosomiasis control practices, socio-economic and cultural risk factors influencing Trypanosoma...
Article
Infestation of fish by endoparasites may potentially influence metal uptake and elimination by the host. We quantified the metal uptake rate constant (k(u)) and efflux rate constants (k(e)) of radiolabeled Cd and Co in the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea experimentally infected with the parasite Ligula intestinalis. During 24h, the accumulatio...
Article
The present study evaluated if the element profiles in hair and nails of children from the Lake Victoria region in Kenya reflect uptake from food and the environment. To this purpose, the element concentrations in hair and nails were related to element concentrations measured in food items, water, and soil. The highest intake of most elements occur...
Article
Geologically enriched environments may contain high concentrations of some metals. In areas where industrial exposures remain superficial, children may be exposed to these geological metals through soil, drinking water and consumption of food locally grown. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of soil, water and food consumption to...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although total bioethanol production in Africa in 2006 was less than 500 million litres, the potential is considered high. South Africa and East Africa alone are estimated to have an annual potential of 7.3 and 1.3 billion litres, respectively. In addition, there is intense interest in biodiesel with large-scale projects being developed across the...
Article
Infestation of fish by parasites may influence metal accumulation patterns in the host. However, the subcellular mechanisms of these processes have rarely been studied. Therefore, this study determined how a cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) partitioned four metals (Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu) in the subcellular fractions of the gut in presence of an e...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to soils, drinking water and consumption of foods grown in the vicinity of geologically enriched environments may constitute an exposure pathway to metals among children in many parts of the world where industrial exposures remain superficial. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of soil, water and food consumption to cadmi...
Article
Full-text available
Use of some fish parasites as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution has been demonstrated as a promising approach because of their capacity to bioconcentrate such elements. This study evaluated the effects of a cestode parasite, Ligula intestinalis, on the accumulation of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) in the cyprinid fish,...
Article
This study used hair and nails to biomonitor heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu) from geological source and exposure through regular fish consumption among children in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Concentration of Pb and Cu in water reflected anthropogenic pathways, while Cd and Cr reflected accumulation from the catchment basin. Higher concentration of heav...
Article
Full-text available
When evaluating metal accumulation patterns in parasite-host assemblages species specific metal requirements should be taken into account. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the metal specific partitioning in a parasite-host assemblage of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea and to determ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ability of endoparasites to detect even lowest metal concentration due to their enormous accumulation capacity has made them suitable water pollution biomonitors than their fish hosts. This study evaluated the metal accumulation ability of Ligula intestinalis in its intermediate cyprinid host silver sardine (Rastreneobola argentea) from Lake Vi...
Chapter
Full-text available
The last two to three decades have witnessed a rapid growth in the mining industry in Kenya. The suite of minerals includes metals such as gold, silver, copper, zinc and titanium, and industrial minerals ranging from talc and gypsum to dolomite and gemstones. Methods of exploitation, processing and beneficiation of these mineral resources can have...
Article
Full-text available
Alachlor, metolachlor and their respective environmentally stable aniline degradation products, 2,6-diethylaniline and 2-ethyl-6-methylaniline were analyzed in water and sediment samples from 9 sites along River Nzoia, Kenya using gas chromatography. The degradation products were detected in > 90% of the sediment and water samples, while the parent...
Article
Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured for various fish species from Lakes Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo in the rift valley of Kenya. The highest THg concentration (636 ng g(-1) wet weight) was measured for a piscivorous tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii from Lake Turkana. THg concentrations for the Perciformes species, the Nile perch Lates...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured for top trophic predator fish of the Orderr Perciformes (Nile perch; Lates spp. and black bass; Micropterus spp.) and lowest trophic consumers, the tilapiines (Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus and others) for Lake Victoria and various lakes across Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. A brief review of othe...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental effects of amitraz (acaricide), its metabolite (2,4-dimethylaniline), and paraquat (herbicide) on embryos of a nontarget organism, Xenopus laevis, were investigated. Following the standard protocol of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the experiments were carried out using native Xenopus frogs. There was a drastic...
Article
Pesticides are known to transform in the environment, but so far the study of their effects in the environment has concentrated on the parent compounds, thereby neglecting the effects of the degradation products. The embryotoxic, developmental, and teratogenic effects of chloroacetanilide herbicides and their environmentally stable aniline degradat...
Article
Toxic and genotoxic effects of alachlor, metolachlor, amitraz, chlordimeform, their respective environmentally stable degradation products 2,6-diethylaniline, 2-ethyl-4-methylaniline, 2,4-dimethylaniline, and two other related compounds, 3,4-dichloroaniline and aniline were compared. Acute toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius (96 h) and Vibrio f...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the level of contamination with C. jejuni of raw chicken and beef meats sold in Nairobi and to assess their potential as sources of campylobacter infections to man. Dressed chicken and beef meat samples were randomly sourced from butcheries, markets and supermarkets in various parts of Nairobi over a period of two months. One hundred...

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Projects (9)
Project
SEGH was established in 1971 to provide a forum for scientists from various disciplines to work together in understanding the interaction between the geochemical environment and the health of plants, animals, and humans. We recognise the importance of interdisciplinary research. SEGH members represent expertise in a diverse range of scientific fields, such as biology, engineering, geology, hydrology, epidemiology, chemistry, medicine, nutrition, and toxicology.