Oded Cats

Oded Cats
Delft University of Technology | TU · Department of Transport & Planning

PhD
Co-director of the Smart Public Transport Lab, Co-director of the CiTy AI lab

About

255
Publications
150,516
Reads
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4,682
Citations
Introduction
My research passion is to develop theories and models of multi-modal passenger transport networks by combining advancements from behavioral sciences, operations research and complex network theory. I am co-directing the Smart Public Transport Lab where I lead a research group and support transport agencies and operators’ decision making. I am the PI of the European Research Council Starting Grant CriticalMaaS. http://smartptlab.tudelft.nl/
Additional affiliations
April 2014 - present
Delft University of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2012 - present
KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Position
  • Researcher
September 2009 - January 2012
KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (255)
Article
Full-text available
After several decades of decline, night train services have gained momentum in recent years. However, the willingness to use night trains as an alternative to airplane travel has so far received only limited research attention. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by presenting the results of a two-stage stated preferences survey comprising of a...
Article
Full-text available
The performance of ride-sourcing services such as Uber and Lyft is determined by the collective choices of individual drivers who are not only chauffeurs but private fleet providers. In such a context, ride-sourcing drivers are free to decide whether to accept or decline ride requests assigned by the ride-hailing platform. Drivers’ ride acceptance...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human mobility is subject to collective dynamics that are the outcome of numerous individual choices. Smart card data which originated as a means of facilitating automated fare collections has emerged as an invaluable source for analyzing human mobility patterns. A variety of clustering and segmentation techniques has been adopted and adapted for a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ride-sourcing drivers as individual service suppliers can freely adopt their own relocation strategies including waiting, cruising freely, or following the platform recommendations. These decisions substantially impact the balance between supply and demand, and consequently affect system performance. We conducted a stated choice experiment to study...
Article
Full-text available
Urban and regional areas worldwide exhibit a complex and uneven distribution of activities with certain areas attracting more people during different time periods. In this study we systemically classify different parts of the urban area which are most attractive as measured by their ability to attract visitors. A weekly visiting profile is construc...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a user-equilibrium congested transit assignment model for a full-scan network vulnerability analysis by relying on the computations of network science indicators for infrastructure and service graphs. Model output include line-specific passenger loads. Furthermore, we propose a link criticality indicator for measuring the spatial extent...
Article
Full-text available
Characteristics of urban space (co-)determine human behaviour, including their social interaction patterns. However, despite numerous studies that have examined how the urban space impacts social interactions, their relationships are still poorly understood. Recent developments in computer vision and machine learning fields offer promising new ways...
Preprint
Full-text available
We propose Hyper-pool, an analytical, offline, utility-driven ride-pooling algorithm to aggregate individual trip requests into attractive shared rides of high-occupancy. We depart from our ride-pooling ExMAS algorithm where single rides are pooled into attractive door-to-door rides and propose two novel demand-side algorithms for further aggregati...
Article
Full-text available
Regionalization is the process of aggregating contiguous spatial units to form areas that are homogeneous with respect to one or a set of variables. It is useful when studying spatial phenomena or when designing region-based policies, as it allows to unravel the latent spatial structure of a dataset. However, this task is challenging when small-sca...
Article
Full-text available
Two-sided mobility platforms, such as Uber and Lyft, widely emerged in the urban mobility landscape. Distributed supply of individual drivers, matched with travellers via intermediate platform yields a new class of phenomena not present in urban mobility before. Such disruptive changes to transportation systems call for a simulation framework where...
Presentation
Full-text available
Passenger transport systems encompass a range of mobility services that have the potential to facilitate a car-independent lifestyle. Shared fleets and mobility-on-demand pose new challenges for service planning, operations and control as well as for policy makers. In particular, mobility services are not exclusively centrally planned anymore and t...
Article
Full-text available
The maturing of autonomous driving technology in recent years has led to several pilot projects and the initial integration of autonomous pods and buses into the public transport (PT) system. An emerging field of interest is the design of public transport networks operating autonomous buses and the potential to attract higher levels of travel deman...
Article
Full-text available
Several non-linear functions and machine learning methods have been developed for flexible specification of the systematic utility in discrete choice models. However, they lack interpret-ability, do not ensure monotonicity conditions, and restrict substitution patterns. We address the first two challenges by modeling the systematic utility using th...
Article
Full-text available
On-demand mobility services are promising to revolutionise urban travel, but preliminary studies are showing they may actually increase total vehicle miles travelled, worsening road congestion in cities. In this study, we assess the demand for on-demand mobility services in urban areas, using a stated preference survey, to understand the potential...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing availability of longitudinal individual human mobility traces enables the disaggregate analysis of temporal properties of mobility patterns. The objective of this study is to identify distinctive market segments in terms of habitual temporal travel patterns of public transport users. First, travel patterns are clustered using a K-mea...
Article
Full-text available
A common problem in public transport systems is bus bunching, characterized by a negative feedback loop between service headways, number of boarding passengers and dwell times. In this study, we examine whether providing real-time crowding information (RTCI) at the stop regarding the two next vehicle departures can stimulate passengers to wait for...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Unlike previous pandemics, COVID-19 has sustained over a relatively longer period with cyclical infection waves and numerous variants. Public transport ridership has been hit particularly hard. To restore travellers’ confidence it is critical to assess their risk determinants and trade-offs. Methods To this end, we survey train travel...
Article
Full-text available
Many cities have introduced metro rail systems over the past two decades, particularly in developing countries. However, there is lack of knowledge on the impacts of new lines on the service and ridership for the related urban bus lines, and in particular those directly affected by the opening of the new service(s). We undertake a comprehensive ana...
Article
Full-text available
With a few exceptions, public transport ridership around the world has been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. Travellers are now likely to adapt their behaviour with a focus on factors that contribute to the risk of COVID-19 transmission. Given the unprecedented spatial and temporal scale of this crisis, these changes in behaviour may even be sust...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Understanding passengers' distribution on-board trains and along public transport platforms is crucial for improving service's performance and ensure passengers' comfort. We propose a revealed preference measure of passengers alighting behaviours using automatic passenger counting (APC) data. Our findings revealed that the share of strategic alight...
Article
Full-text available
Unreliable waiting times may cause frustration and anxiety amongst public transport travellers. Although the effect of travel time reliability has been studied extensively, most studies have used stated preferences which have disadvantages, such as an inherent hypothetical bias, or have analysed revealed preferences for road traffic. Here, we deriv...
Article
Full-text available
We perform a systematic review of real-time control strategies for transfer synchronisations in public transport. In particular, we review inter-station and intra-station control measures that can be applied in near real-time, including vehicle holding, stop-skipping, speed control, short-turning, rescheduling, interlining, rerouting, and boarding...
Article
Full-text available
Contrary to traditional transit services, supply in ridesourcing systems emerges from individual labour decisions of gig workers. The effect of decentralisation in supply on the evolution of on-demand transit services is largely unknown. To this end, we propose a dynamic model comprising of the subsequent supply-side processes: (i) initial exposure...
Article
Full-text available
Since ride-hailing has become an important travel alternative in many cities worldwide, a fervent debate is underway on whether it competes with or complements public transport services. We use Uber trip data in six cities in the United States and Europe to identify the most attractive public transport alternative for each ride. We then address the...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of on-demand transport services is set to change the mobility landscape in urban areas. This study investigates the potential scalability of an on-demand mobility system to substitute motorised trips performed by private cars and public transport in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We adopt an agent-based simulation framework and investiga...
Article
Full-text available
Capturing unobserved correlation between overlapping routes is a non-trivial problem in route choice modelling. For urban transit networks, research so far has been inconclusive on how this overlap is perceived by travellers. We estimate a series of path size correction logit (PSCL) models to account for alternative specifications of route overlap,...
Article
Full-text available
While transferring between public transport services has a negative impact on the level-of-service, it is an inevitable feature of public transport networks. Transfer coordination can help reduce passenger transfer waiting times and improve service connectivity. In this paper, we systematically review the literature on transfer coordination design...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging on-demand sharing alternatives, in which one resource is utilised simultaneously by a circumstantial group of users, entail several challenges regarding how to coordinate such users. A very relevant case refers to how to form groups in a mobility system that offers shared rides, and how to split the costs within the travellers of a group....
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to jointly optimise regular and demand responsive transit (DRT) services, which can offer opportunities for leveraging on their respective advantages. An optimisation model with the objective of minimising the total travel time of passengers and the total fleet size is proposed. The terminal bus stops of regular bus lines, the servi...
Article
Full-text available
The paper develops a simulation model and evaluates fixed versus on-demand operational designs of a station-based automated feeder service. The evaluation considers the operational cost and average passenger level-of-service trade-offs as well as distributional differences in waiting times. Two case studies are used to evaluate such trade-offs unde...
Article
Full-text available
Although waiting times are inherently uncertain in public transport networks, previous research has primarily studied route choice behaviour under risk. Since understanding such behaviour is important to correctly model network flows and gain better understanding of traveller satisfaction, we propose a method to assess travellers’ route choice beha...
Article
Full-text available
The development of public transport networks in polycentric regions involves making complex trade-offs between extending network coverage, densifying local connections, offering improved connections between urban centers and increasing capacity on existing links. Moreover, different modalities might be suitable for each of these development decisio...
Article
Full-text available
The most relevant issues related to headway variability in public transport planning, operations and quality of service are reviewed in this paper. We discuss the causes and consequences of headway variability, the alternative metrics that have been proposed to measure it, the preventive and reactive strategies to control headway variability in bot...
Preprint
Full-text available
Due to the unavailability of prototypes, the early adopters of novel products actively seek information from multiple sources (e.g., media and social networks) to minimize the potential risk. The existing behavior models not only fail to capture the information propagation within the individual's social network, but also they do not incorporate the...
Article
Full-text available
Disruptions in public transport can have major implications for passengers and service providers. Our study objective is to develop a generic approach to predict how often different disruption types occur at different stations of a public transport network, and to predict the impact related to these disruptions as measured in terms of passenger del...
Article
Full-text available
Simulation studies suggest that pooled on-demand services (also referred to as Demand Responsive Transport, ridesharing, shared ride-hailing or shared ridesourcing services) have the potential to bring large benefits to urban areas while inducing limited time losses for their users. However, in reality, the large majority of users request individua...
Article
Full-text available
With shared mobility services becoming increasingly popular and vehicle automation technology advancing fast, there is an increasing interest in analysing the impacts of large-scale deployment of shared automated vehicles. In this study, a large fleet of shared automated vehicles providing private rides to passengers is introduced to an agent-based...
Article
Full-text available
Since the introduction of Discrete Choice Analysis, countless efforts have been made to enhance the efficiency of data collection through choice experiments and to improve the behavioural realism of choice models. One example development in data collection are best-worst discrete choice experiments (BWDCE), which have the benefit of obtaining a lar...
Preprint
Full-text available
The performance of ride-sourcing services such as Uber and Lyft is determined by the collective choices of individual drivers who are not only chauffeurs but private fleet providers. In such a context, ride-sourcing drivers are free to decide whether to accept or decline ride requests assigned by the ride-hailing platform. Drivers' ride acceptance...
Preprint
Full-text available
By utilising vehicle capacity more efficiently, ride-pooling platforms can potentially lead to reduced congestion levels without adversely prolonging travel times. While previous studies concluded that shared rides can offer substantial benefits, initial evidence suggests low adoption levels. We postulate that previous studies that investigated the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Contrary to traditional transit services, supply in ridesourcing systems emerges from individual labour decisions of gig workers. The effect of decentralization in supply on the evolution of on-demand transit services is largely unknown. To this end, we propose a dynamic model comprising of the subsequent supply-side processes: (i) initial exposure...
Preprint
Full-text available
In an effort to improve user satisfaction and transit image, transit service providers worldwide offer delay compensations. Smart card data enables the estimation of passenger delays throughout the network and aid in monitoring service performance. Notwithstanding, in order to prioritize measures for improving service reliability and hence reducing...
Preprint
Full-text available
On-demand mobility services are promising to revolutionise urban travel, but preliminary studies are showing that they may actually increase the total vehicle miles travelled, thereby worsening road congestion in cities. In this study, we assess the demand for on-demand mobility services in urban areas, using a stated preference survey, to understa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ride-hailing and other on-demand mobility services are often proposed as a solution for improving the accessibility of public transport by offering first/last mile connectivity. We study the potential of using on-demand services to improve train station access by means of a three-step sequential stated preference survey. We compare the preferences...
Preprint
Full-text available
The analysis of longitudinal travel data enables investigating how mobility patterns vary across the population and identify the spatial properties thereof. The objective of this study is to identify the extent to which users explore different parts of the network as well as identify distinctive user groups in terms of the spatial extent of their m...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a random utility maximisation (RUM) based discrete choice model to simultaneously consider three behavioural aspects of the decision-maker - i) evaluation of each attribute (e.g., constant marginal utility beyond attribute thresholds), ii) aggregation of attributes in the systematic part of the indirect utility, and iii) flexible substit...
Preprint
Full-text available
How to form groups in a mobility system that offers shared rides, and how to split the costs within the travellers of a group, are non-trivial tasks, as two objectives conflict: 1) minimising the total costs of the system, and 2) making each user content with her assignment. Aligning both objectives is challenging, as users are not aware of the ext...
Article
Full-text available
Many public transport networks worldwide experience high crowding levels. Overcrowding can result in passengers not able to board the first arriving vehicle. We infer how waiting time induced by being denied boarding in crowded public transport systems is valued by passengers, based on observed passenger route choice behaviour. For this purpose, we...
Article
Full-text available
Holding has been extensively used as control strategy to regulate public transport operations, especially to maintain even headways and prevent buses of the same line to bunch up. Applying holding to multiple lines requires however to deal with the transition between corridor and branching segments. In this study, we introduce a holding criterion f...
Preprint
Full-text available
Public transport ridership around the world has been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. Travellers are likely to adapt their behaviour to avoid the risk of transmission and these changes may even be sustained after the pandemic. To evaluate travellers' behaviour in public transport networks during these times and assess how they will respond to fut...
Preprint
Full-text available
Since ride-hailing has become an important travel alternative in many cities worldwide, a fervent debate is underway on whether it competes with or complements public transport services. We use Uber trip data in six cities in the United States and Europe to identify the most attractive public transport alternative for each ride. We then address the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Shared rides are often considered to be a promising travel alternative that could efficiently pool people together while offering a door-to-door service. Notwithstanding, even though demand distribution patterns are expected to greatly affect the potential for ride-pooling, their impact remains unknown. In this study we explore the shareability of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Public transport ridership around the world has been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. Travellers are likely to adapt their behaviour to avoid the risk of transmission and these changes may even be sustained after the pandemic. To evaluate travellers' behaviour in public transport networks during these times and assess how they will respond to fut...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the multi-level nature of public transport networks, disruption impacts may spill-over beyond the primary effects occurring at the disrupted network level. During a public transport disruption, it is therefore important to quantify and control the disruption impacts for the total public transport network, instead of delimiting the analysis o...
Article
Full-text available
Urban mobility needs alternative sustainable travel modes to keep our pandemic cities in motion. Ride-pooling, where a single vehicle is shared by more than one traveller, is not only appealing for mobility platforms and their travellers, but also for promoting the sustainability of urban mobility systems. Yet, the potential of ride-pooling rides t...