Ock Kyoung Chun

Ock Kyoung Chun
University of Connecticut | UConn · Department of Nutritional Sciences

Doctor of Philosophy

About

181
Publications
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August 2020 - present
University of Connecticut
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (181)
Article
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a heterogenous group of compounds dispersed throughout the environment that possess the ability to alter endocrine system function. While there are numerous routes of exposure to EDCs, the predominant source of many of these compounds is diet, largely due to their widespread use in food contact materials. I...
Article
An epidemiological analysis assessing beverage consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease was conducted. Participants were 9-16 years old at enrolment, completed food frequency questionnaires in 1996-2001 and self-reported outcomes in 2010-2014. Exclusion criteria included missing data on relevant variables and covariates, prevalent di...
Article
There is a clear correlation between gut microbiota, diet, and metabolic outcomes. A diet high in fiber has been shown to decrease inflammation, increase insulin sensitivity, and reduce dyslipidemias whereas a diet high in fat and sugar leads to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation. There is recent evidence suggesting that t...
Article
Full-text available
Food insecurity is a broad and serious public health issue in the United States, where many people are reporting lack of access to healthy foods. The reduced availability of healthy, affordable foods has led to increased consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods, resulting in increasing the risk for many chronic diseases such as obesity,...
Article
Although coffee has been reported as a major contributor to antioxidants in the diet, there are limited studies assessing how brewing methods and types of coffee affect antioxidant capacity of coffee consumers. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of coffee preparation on total phenolic content in brewed coffee extracts and their contribu...
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Low-income Americans tend to have poor diet quality and disease prevalence overall. Mobile food pantries aim to improve these outcomes, and have rarely been studied. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between diet quality and health status in mobile food pantry users. Data were collected from two mobile food pantry sites i...
Article
Background Coffee brewed from capsules contain estrogenic chemicals (ECs) that may harm the reproductive system. However, there are no studies investigating whether consuming capsule coffee causes these ECs to present in urine. Objective Compare the effects of consuming capsule coffee vs. a plastic-free (French press) method on the appearance of E...
Article
Childhood obesity is a national epidemic, and many efforts have been made to understand its risk factors. The purpose of this review was to provide an updated account of the observational studies evaluating the relationship between 100% fruit juice intake and obesity in children and adolescents, and to highlight the major risk factors that may impa...
Article
Objective: This pilot study assessed the effectiveness and acceptability of personalized nutrition intervention for mobile food pantry users. Methods: The 8-week intervention recruited 25 participants in the control (n = 13) and in the treatment (n = 12) groups (60% obese). Personalized nutrition and health reports were generated based on baseli...
Article
Background Americans are underconsuming essential nutrients while overconsuming several nutrients, including sodium, saturated fat, and added sugars. Suboptimal nutrition may be linked with mortality risk; however, few studies have evaluated the associations of underconsumed and overconsumed nutrients in a comprehensive manner among the US populati...
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Nutritional status affects linear growth and development. However, studies on the associations between nutritional status, diet quality, and age-standardized height in children are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between macro- and micronutrient intake and food consumption and height-for-age Z score (HAZ) among US chil...
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Coffee brewed from capsule machines may contain estrogenic chemicals migrated from plastic, but the estrogenic activity of capsule coffee has not been evaluated. This study evaluated the estrogenic activity of capsule coffee using the VM7Luc4E2 estrogen receptor transcriptional activation assay. Estrogenic potentials of six capsule coffee samples w...
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Evidence from animal studies suggests that furocoumarins, compounds present in citrus products, can increase the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) when combined with ultraviolet radiation. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between citrus intake and NMSC risk among postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initia...
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Poor diet quality among low-income populations is a major contributing factor to their poor health and wellbeing, and thus is a focus of many government aid programs. Mobile food pantries are an increasingly popular method of emergency food assistance, targeting the communities most affected by food insecurity; however, little is known about the di...
Article
Background: There are concerns that fruit juice and milk contribute to childhood obesity. Objective: Determine the relationship between fruit juice and milk intakes and body mass index (BMI) change among preadolescents/adolescents. Methods: Participants aged 9 to 16 years old from the Growing Up Today Study II completed surveys including valid...
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The percentage of individuals over the age of 60 is projected to reach 22% by 2050; chronic diseases associated with aging can present challenges for these individuals. Anthocyanins and the gut microbiome have each been studied as independent influencers of health. Both these factors have shown to have a positive effect on cardiovascular and bone h...
Article
Objective: Evaluate associations between orange juice (OJ) consumption and anthropometric parameters. Design: Prospective cohort study assessing the association between OJ intake and changes in BMI and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) using mixed linear regression. Setting: 2004-2008, USA. Participants: Children from the Growing Up Today Study I...
Article
It has been hypothesized that consumption of citrus, a group of foods particularly rich in a class of photoactive compounds known as furocoumarins, may increase the risk of malignant melanoma. However, this hypothesis has not been rigorously studied in a general sample of US men and women. This study examined the relationship between citrus intake...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to examine exposure to estrogenic chemicals (ECs) via capsule coffee. Twenty-two brands of capsule coffee and 15 brands of French press coffee for comparison were brewed, and their contents of ECs were identified and quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Exposure to E...
Article
Objectives Estrogenic chemicals (ECs) are harmful compounds that can leach from plastic, particularly when under high temperature or pressure. Capsule coffee, coffee brewed from a single-serve coffee machine using a pre-packed plastic capsule, is becoming popular but there are concerns that it may increase exposure to ECs. Therefore, the objective...
Article
Objectives Estrogenic chemicals (ECs) possess estrogenic activity (EA) which can have harmful effects on the reproductive system. Coffee is known to have estrogenic potency due to its natural phytoestrogens, but coffee prepared from plastic capsules (capsule coffee) may increase exposure to ECs and consequently increase EA, potentially increasing r...
Article
Objectives Given the conflicting evidence regarding fruit juice consumption and childhood obesity, we sought to evaluate associations between 100% orange juice (OJ) consumption and changes in anthropometric parameters in a large prospective cohort of US children and adolescents. Methods Participants from the Growing Up Today Study II (n = 7301) co...
Article
Objectives Diets rich in flavonoids can reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. While differences in flavonoid intake by race/ethnicity have been previously described, differences between race/ethnicity within categories sociodemographic characteristics have not been fully assessed....
Article
Objectives Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a useful tool for assessing total antioxidant power in the diet, and high dietary TAC has been reported to be associated with lower oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases. While traditionally diet quality index scores (DQIS) have been used to predict health outcomes, dietary TAC may also...
Article
Full-text available
While traditionally diet quality index scores (DQIS) as noted later in this abstract have been used to predict health outcomes, dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), a useful tool for assessing total antioxidant power in the diet, may also be a novel predictor. This study evaluated the associations between dietary TAC and DQIS and all-cause mor...
Article
Background: In prior studies, higher citrus consumption was associated with higher risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Furocoumarins, compounds with phototoxicity and photocarcinogenicity in citrus, may be responsible for the association. Objectives: The objective of the study was...
Article
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Recent studies have suggested that blackcurrant (BC) anthocyanins have promising health benefits, possibly through regulating gut microbiome. Three- and eighteen-month old female mice were fed standard mouse diets for 4 months, each with or without BC (1% w/w) supplementation (n = 3 in each treatment group, 12 in total). We then assessed gut microb...
Chapter
As the population ages, bone health is becoming a rising concern. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in the pathology of bone disease. Anthocyanins are bioactive plant compounds found in blue, red, and purple produce that have known antioxidant properties and have been investigated for their role in promoting bone health. In thi...
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Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal associated with increased mortality, but the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on the association between Cd and mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the association of urinary Cd to Zn intake ratio (Cd/Zn ratio) and mortality risk. In total, 15642 US adults in NHANES 1988–1994 and 1999–2004...
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Concerns about orange juice’s sugar content have spurred discussions regarding its potential contributions to childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between 100% orange juice (OJ) consumption and dietary, lifestyle and anthropometric characteristics in children and adolescents. Baseline anthropometric, dietar...
Article
Citrus products are rich sources of furocoumarins, a class of photoactive compounds. Certain furocoumarins combined with ultraviolet radiation can induce skin cancer. We examined the relationship between citrus consumption and cutaneous melanoma risk among 56,205 Caucasian postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative. Cox proportional haza...
Article
Objectives: Concerns about orange juice's (OJ) high sugar content have contributed to reduced consumption in the U.S. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between 100% OJ consumption and anthropometric indicators and health-related behaviors in adolescents. Methods: Data from the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), an ongoing pr...
Article
Objectives: Blackcurrant, an anthocyanin-rich berry, has multiple health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of blackcurrant supplementation and aging on gut bacterial communities in female mice. Methods: Three-month and 18-month old female mice were provided standard chow diets with or without anthocyanin-rich blackcu...
Article
Objectives: Exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, increases risk of numerous chronic diseases and overall mortality. However, little work has been conducted to examine the effect of Zn intake on the association between Cd burden and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between urinary Cd concentration an...
Article
Furocoumarins are a group of phototoxic compounds found in numerous edible plants. Data from cohort studies have suggested that consumption of certain furocoumarin-rich foods may increase skin cancer risk. However, no study has specifically tested this hypothesis by estimating furocoumarin intake and assessing its relationship with skin cancer. Thi...
Article
Objective Whole eggs are rich sources of several micronutrients. However, it is not well known how egg consumption contributes to overall nutrient adequacy and how it may relate to CVD risk factors. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine how whole egg consumption contributes to nutrient intakes and to assess its association with CVD risk f...
Article
A preliminary study by our group suggested that the absorption and accumulation of cadmium may be affected by zinc intake. Tobacco smoke is one major source of cadmium exposure that highly influences cadmium burden among smokers, but it is unclear whether this zinc-cadmium relationship differs by smoking status. The objective of this study was to e...
Article
This study evaluated the daily per drinker intakes of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidants from coffee in the Korean diet. Four types of coffee (instant coffee, decaffeinated instant coffee, roasted coffee, and coffee mix) were selected and analyzed. Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2012, the dai...
Article
Objective With increasing prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), effective strategies to prevent NASH are needed. This study investigated whether the consumption of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) can prevent the development of obesity‐induced NASH in vivo. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low‐fat control diet, a low‐fat diet with 6%...
Article
Full-text available
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that can contribute to numerous diseases as well as increased mortality. Diet is the primary source of Cd exposure for most individuals, yet little is known about the foods and food groups that contribute most substantially to dietary Cd intake in the US. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate die...
Article
Full-text available
Due to deleterious side effects of currently available medications, the search for novel, safe, and effective preventive agents for improving bone health in aging continues and is urgently needed. This study aimed to determine whether dietary blackcurrants (BC), an anthocyanin-rich berry, can improve bone mass in a mouse model of age-related bone l...
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Purpose: Although evidence strongly supports that antioxidant-rich diets reduce risk of chronic disease and mortality, findings from the previous studies on the effect of individual antioxidants on mortality have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and all-cause a...
Article
Furocoumarins are a class of compounds produced by several plant species, including some popularly consumed by humans. Furocoumarins are known to be well absorbed from food sources, and can be rapidly distributed into several tissues including the skin. In human skin, when exposed to UV radiation, furocoumarins may become photoactivated and form in...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been reported to be inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases. However, little is known about dietary TAC among the Korean population. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the dietary TAC of Korean adults and to document the major food sources. Methods: We studied 33,581 Korean adults...
Article
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Background/objectives: The risk factors for metabolic syndrome may differ between Western and Asian countries due to their distinct dietary cultures. However, few studies have directly compared macronutrient intake and its association with the risk of metabolic syndrome in the US and Korean adults using national survey data. Subject/methods: Bas...
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Background: Telomerase Activator 65 (TA-65), a compound extracted from Astragalus membranaceus has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for extending life span. Scarce information exists on the effects of TA-65 on parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: We recruited 40 patients with MetS to determine the effects of TA-65 on dyslip...
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Age-related bone loss is a major factor in osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures among the elderly. Because bone homeostasis involves a balance between bone formation and resorption, multiple mechanisms may induce age-dependent changes in bone. Oxidative stress is one such factor that contributes to the pathology of aging-associated osteoporosis...
Article
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Furocoumarins are a class of photoactive compounds found in several plant species, and may be responsible for the observed association between consumption of citrus products and the risk of skin cancer. Furocoumarin contents of several foods have been reported previously, but no comprehensive database of furocoumarin content of foods is currently a...
Article
Furocoumarins are a class of organic compounds found in a variety of vegetables and fruits. Relatively little is known about the absorption and excretion of these compounds following ingestion. The objective of this study was to identify furocoumarins in grapefruit and grapefruit juice, and observe their kinetics in blood and urine. The furocoumari...
Article
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Background/objectives: Cancer is the primary cause of disease-related death in Korea. The purposes of this study were to confirm the major dietary patterns and to evaluate whether there were associations between these identified dietary patterns and the risk of cancer based on data from the Cancer Screening Examination Cohort (CSEC) 2004-2008 of t...
Article
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Although several analytical methods for measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC) have been applied to biological samples, there were often dissimilar results due to the different principles of methods applied. Thus, this study aimed to validate four conventional analytical methods for measuring plasma TAC including ABTS assay, DPPH assay, FRAP as...
Article
Former smokers are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that dietary aronia polyphenols would reduce biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk, inflammation, and oxidative stress in former smokers. We also determined the extent these effects were associated with polyphenol bioavailability. A 12-week, randomized, placebo-con...
Poster
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Introduction: The oxidative property of antioxidants has been hypothesized to have a protective effect against the incidence of diabetes by inhibiting peroxidation chain reactions. It is plausible that sufficient intake of antioxidants plays an important role in protection against diabetes, however little epidemiological evidence is available on th...
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The present study evaluated the accuracy of pH differential (PD) method and HPLC method expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent (CGE) for measuring total anthocyanin (TA) contents of five berries. Major anthocyanins of blueberry, blackberry, black currant, raspberry, and cranberry were analyzed with quantitative HPLC (q-HPLC) method using indi...
Article
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Vitamin C is a powerful dietary antioxidant that has received considerable attention in the literature related to its possible role in heart health. Although classical vitamin C deficiency, marked by scurvy, is rare in most parts of the world, some research has shown variable heart disease risks depending on plasma vitamin C concentration, even wit...
Article
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueber...
Article
To develop a comprehensive analytical method for photoactive furanocoumarins, grapefruit (whole, flesh, peel and juice) was extracted using QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method. Seven furanocoumarins: bergaptol, psoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, bergapten, 60,70-dihydroxybergamottin (60,70-DHB), epoxybergamottin and bergamott...
Article
Although several animal and cell studies have indicated that blackcurrant anthocyanins exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, which could potentially improve bone mass, the effect of blackcurrant on bone health has not been reported yet. Thus, this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of blackcurrant anthocyanins on bone mass in an...
Article
A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 6 adults to evaluate the bioavailability of anthocyanins and colonic polyphenol metabolites after consumption of 500 mg aronia berry extract. UHPLC-MS methods were developed to quantitate aronia berry polyphenols and their metabolites in plasma and urine. While anthocyanins were bioavailable, mic...
Poster
Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), a cumulative measure of antioxidants present in the diet, has been reported to be inversely associated with risk of chronic diseases. However, little is known about dietary TAC among the Korean population. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to estimate dietary TAC of 33,581 Korean adults aged...
Article
Full-text available
To estimate daily intake of total phenolics and flavonoids from green tea and the contribution of green tea to the antioxidant intake from the Korean diet, 24 commercial brands of green tea were selected and analyzed. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 and 2011 indicate that the green tea consum...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiological studies have reported that diets high in flavonoids are associated with a reduced risk of CVD. However, evidence on the association of dietary flavonoid intake with CVD risk factors is still scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the association of dietary flavonoid intake with CVD risk factors among US adults in the Nationa...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from diet and supplements and prostate cancer aggressiveness among 855 African Americans (AA) and 945 European Americans (EA) in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). Cases were classified as either high aggressive, low aggres...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross...
Article
Osteoporosis is an age-related disorder that affects both women and men, although estrogen deficiency induced by menopause accelerates bone loss in older women. As the demographic shifts to a more aged population, a growing number of men and women will be afflicted with osteoporosis. Since the current drug therapies available have multiple side eff...
Article
BACKGROUND: Cadmium is a toxic transition metal whose absorption and accumulation might depend on zinc intake. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether zinc intake and serum zinc would be inversely associated with cadmium exposure. METHODS: This study used data from NHANES 2003-2012, from which there were 6678 and 6488 participants with urinary an...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthocyanin composition to the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of berries having different anthocyanin composition; blackberry, black currant, and blueberry. Blackberry demonstrated the highest TAC, while it had the lowest total anthocyanin content among the three berries in both of the pheno...
Article
Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men in the USA. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer. In this study, the association between antioxidants from diet and supplements and biomarkers of oxid...
Article
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Background. Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the US. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in prostate cancer. Methods. In this study, thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1), an enzyme and subcellular indicator of redox status, was measured in prostate biopsy...