Obaid Afzal

Obaid Afzal
Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University · Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

M. Pharm., PhD (Pharmaceutical Chemistry)

About

167
Publications
16,698
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,913
Citations

Publications

Publications (167)
Article
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Molecular profiling has contributed to a new classification of lung cancer, driving advancements in research and therapy. The ataxia telangiectasia and rad3/checkpoint kinase 1 (ATR/CHK1) pathway plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability, and its activation has been li...
Article
This article emphasizes the importance of prodrugs and their diverse spectrum of effects in the field of developing novel drugs for a variety of biological applications. For the purpose of illustrating the usefulness of the prodrug approach, this review covers examples of prodrugs that have been made available or are now undergoing human trials. Ad...
Article
Full-text available
Berberine (BER) is an alkaloid obtained from berberis plant having broad biological activities including anticancer. BER-encapsulated alginate (ALG)/chitosan (CHS) nanoparticles (BER–ALG/CHS-NPs) were developed for long-acting improved treatment in breast cancer. The surface of the NPs was activated by a conjugation reaction, and thereafter, the BE...
Article
Full-text available
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) mortality and new case rates are both on the rise. Most patients have fewer treatment options accessible due to side effects from drugs and the emergence of drug resistance. Bedaquiline (BQ), a drug licensed by the FDA to treat tuberculosis (TB), has demonstrated highly effective anti-cancer properties in the past...
Article
Lung cancer (LC) continues to pose a significant global medical burden, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of its molecular foundations to establish effective treatment strategies. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling system has been scientifically associated with LC growth; however, the intricate regulatory mechanisms gov...
Article
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves the accumulation of lipids and immune cells in the arterial wall. NF-kB signaling is a key regulator of inflammation and is known to play a critical role in atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that lncRNAs can regulate NF-kB and contribute to the development and progression of a...
Article
Full-text available
Ischemic stroke is the second-leading cause of death. Hyperglycemia, which is characteristic of diabetes mellitus, contributes to the development of endothelial dysfunction and increases the risk of stroke. Isoxsuprine is an efficient beta-adrenergic agonist that improves blood flow to the ischemic aria and stops the infarct core from growing. Howe...
Article
Full-text available
The ameliorative effect of ethanolic extract of M. oleifera (MOEE) leaves in combination with curcumin against seizures, cognitive impairment, and oxidative stress in the molecular docking of PTZ-induced kindled rats was performed to predict the potential phytochemical effects of MOEE and curcumin against epilepsy. The effect of pretreatment with l...
Article
Full-text available
Acyclovir (ACV) controls cutaneous herpes, genital herpes, herpes keratitis, varicella zoster, and chickenpox. From previously reported ACV formulations, we continued to explore the permeation behavior of the optimized ACV loaded optimized ethosome (ETHO2R) and elastic liposome (ELP3R) and their respective carbopol gels across artificial membrane,...
Article
Full-text available
The most prevalent infection in the world is dermatophytosis, which is a major issue with high recurrence and can affect the entire body including the skin, hair, and nails. The major goal of this Review is to acquire knowledge about cutting-edge approaches for treating dermatophytosis efficiently by adding antifungals to formulations based on nano...
Article
Full-text available
Flavonoids are hydroxylated phenolic substances in vegetables, fruits, flowers, seeds, wine, tea, nuts, propolis, and honey. They belong to a versatile category of natural polyphenolic compounds. Their biological function depends on various factors such as their chemical structure, degree of hydroxylation, degree of polymerization conjugation, and...
Article
Full-text available
We report herein the synthesis, docking studies and biological evaluation of a series of new 4-chloro-2-((5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)amino)phenol analogues (6a-h). The new compounds were designed based on the oxadiazole-linked aryl core of tubulin inhibitors of IMC-038525 and IMC-094332, prepared in five steps and further characterized via spectra...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Cancer is a progressive disease of multi-factorial origin that has risen worldwide, probably due to changes in lifestyle, food intake, and environmental changes as some of the reasons. Skin cancer can be classified into melanomas from melanocytes and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) from the epidermally-derived cell. Together it constitutes...
Article
Full-text available
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and is typically managed through surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy drugs often lack specificity, leading to various adverse effects. To address this challenge, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) have emerged as a potential solution to enhance drug delivery in...
Article
Breast cancer is a complex and diverse condition that disrupts multiple signaling pathways essential for cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Recently, the significant involvement of long-chain non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in controlling key signaling pathways associated with breast cancer development has been discovered. This review aim...
Article
Full-text available
Nanoemulgel (NEG) pharmaceutical formulations are gaining popularity because of their ability to serve both as a nanoemulsion and as a gel. These products are well-known for their ease of use, spreadability, controlled release, and ability to hydrate dry skin. Natural essential oils have been shown to promote the cutaneous permeability of topical f...
Article
Full-text available
In continuance of our investigation into the anticancer activity of oxadiazoles, we report here the preparation of ten new 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogues using the scaffold hoping technique. We have prepared the oxadiazoles having common pharmacophoric structure (oxadiazole linked aryl nucleus) as seen in the reported anticancer agents IMC-038525 (tubu...
Article
Full-text available
The limitations associated with the conventional treatment of cancer have necessitated the design and development of novel drug delivery systems based mainly on nanotechnology. These novel drug delivery systems include various kinds of nanoparticles, such as polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, hydrogel...
Article
Current investigations focus on small non-coding RNA molecules (miRNAs), which have emerged as potential biomarkers with variable diagnostic values and false-positives in different conditions that limit their clinical preference. We thoroughly scrutinize the leading pathology of myocardial infarction and contemporary alterations in miRNAs for their...
Article
Full-text available
Nanotechnology is a continually growing field with a wide range of applications from food science to biotechnology and nanobiotechnology. As the current world is grappling with non-biodegradable waste, considered more challenging and expensive to dispose of than biodegradable waste, new technologies are needed today more than ever. Modern technolog...
Article
Full-text available
Osteosarcoma could be a sort of threatening tumor that starts in a bone and spreads to adjoining bone cells. Among the different sorts of bone malignancies, osteosarcoma is the foremost common essential Bone cancer (BC). The common medical analysis procedure for fundamental deleterious bone tumors consists of radiotherapy, cryotherapy, and surgery....
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a deadly, progressive, and irreversible brain condition that impairs cognitive abilities. Globally, it affects 32.6 million individuals, and if no viable therapies are available by 2050, that figure might rise to 139 million. The current course of treatment enhances cognitive abilities and temporarily relieves symptoms,...
Article
Full-text available
Citation: Mir Najib Ullah, S.N.; Afzal, O.; Altamimi, A.S.A.; Ather, H.; Sultana, S.; Almalki, W.H.; Bharti, P.; Sahoo, A.; Dwivedi, K.; Khan, G.; et al. Nanomedicine in the Management of Alzheimer's Disease: State-of-the-Art. Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a deadly, progressive, and irreversible brain condition that impairs cognitive abilit...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ameliorative effect ethanolic extract of M. oleifera (MO) leaves in combination of curcumin against seizures, cognitive impairment & oxidative stress PTZ-induced kindled rats. Molecular docking was performed to predict the potential phytochemical of MO and curcumin against Epilepsy. The effect of pretreatment with leaves of M. oleifera ethanoli...
Article
Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition caused by an autoimmune response that accelerates the life cycle of skin cells, resulting in the characteristic symptoms of scaling, inflammation, and itching. Method: Palliative treatment options for psoriasis often prioritize the use of volatile oils. These oils contain monoterpenes, sesquite...
Article
Nanocapsules are polymeric nanoparticles encased in a polymeric coating composed of a predominantly non-ionic surfactant, macromolecules, phospholipids, and an oil core. Lipophilic drugs have been entrapped using various nanocarriers, including lipid cores, likely lipid nanocapsules, solid lipid nanoparticles, and others. A phase inversion temperat...
Article
General anaesthetics (GA) have been in continuous clinical use for more than 170 years, with millions of young and elderly populations exposed to GA to relieve perioperative discomfort and carry out invasive examinations. Preclinical studies have shown that neonatal rodents with acute and chronic exposure to GA suffer from memory and learning defic...
Article
Cytotoxic drugs have long been recognised to kill cancer cells through apoptosis. According to a current study, pyroptosis inhibits cell proliferation and shrinks tumors. Pyroptosis and apoptosis are caspase-dependent programmed cell death (PCD) processes. Inflammasomes activate caspase-1 and latent cytokines, including IL-1β and IL-18, to cleave g...
Article
Full-text available
The current study was designed for the evaluation of barbigerone on memory loss. In this experimental study, 24 Wistar rats (n = 6) were used. Control rats and scopolamine (SCOP)-treated control group rats were orally administered with 3 ml of 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (vehicle), whereas barbigerone was (10 and 20 mg kg⁻¹) administered or...
Article
Numerous chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and gastrointestinal disorders, all have an inflammation-based etiology. In cellular and animal models of inflammation, flavonols were used to show potent anti-inflammatory activity. The flavonols enhanced the synthesis of the anti-inflammatory cytoki...
Article
Full-text available
Rosuvastatin (RST) is a poorly water-soluble drug responsible for limited in vivo dissolution and subsequently low oral systemic absorption (poor bioavailability). The mole fraction solubility values of RST in various ratios of binary mixtures "{PEG400 (1) + water (2)}" at 298.15 K were employed to investigate the preferential solvation (PS) of RST...
Article
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the biggest global health problems of the 21st century, which is characterised by insufficient insulin secretion and results in the augmentation of blood sugar levels. The current foundation of hyperglycemia therapy is oral antihyperglycemic medications like biguanides, sulphonylureas, α-glucosidase inhibitors, perox...
Article
Tailoring drug products to personalized medicines poses challenges for conventional dosage forms. The prominent reason is the restricted availability of flexible dosage strengths in the market. Inappropriate dosage strengths lead to adverse drug reactions or compromised therapeutic effects. The situation worsens when the drug has a narrow therapeut...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: Streptozotocin (STZ) impairs memory in rats through altering the central nervous systems (CNS) as a result of impaired cholinergic dysfunction, oxidative stress, persistent hyperglycemia, and alterations in the glucagon-like peptide (GLP). In this model cholinergic agonist, antioxidant and antihyperglycemic treatment has been shown to hav...
Article
Full-text available
Natural anti-inflammatory nutraceuticals may be useful in preventing rheumatoid arthritis from worsening. Resveratrol (RV) and chia seed oil, having antioxidant potential, can assist in avoiding oxidative stress-related disorders. This investigation developed and evaluated resveratrol-loaded chia seed oil-based nanoemulsion (NE) gel formulations th...
Article
Full-text available
This research work is focused on pharmacokinetic and biochemical experiments to assess baicalin-loaded lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNPs) with colon-targeting specificity. The nanoprecipitation method was used to develop the LPHNPs, and the characterized formulation revealed the 184.3 nm particle size, PDI of 0.177, spherical shape, and ze...
Article
Various neurodegenerative diseases (parkinson, huntington, alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) are becoming serious global health challenges. Despite various treatment options, successful delivery and effective outcomes have been challenged with several physiological-anatomical barriers, formulation related issues, post-administration hur...
Article
Full-text available
In the presented manuscript, a new series of 2-[4-methoxy-3-(5-substituted phenyl-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-ylmethoxy)-phenyl]-benzothiazoles (6a-n) have been synthesized and studied in vivo and in silico for their anticonvulsant potential. Maximum electroshocks (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol (scPTZ) models have been used for in vivo anticonvuls...
Article
A key signaling channel for the signal transduction of several crucial cytokines implicated in sepsis is the JAK/STAT system. Once cytokines attach to the proper receptors, JAK kinases linked to them are activated and can selectively phosphorylate STATs. Activated STATs subsequently go to the nucleus, where they play a key role in the transcription...
Article
Full-text available
Current research into the role of engineered nanoparticles in drug delivery systems (DDSs) for medical purposes has developed numerous fascinating nanocarriers. This paper reviews the various conventionally used and current used carriage system to deliver drugs. Due to numerous drawbacks of conventional DDSs, nanocarriers have gained immense intere...
Article
Full-text available
Hyperglycemia is seen in approximately 68 percent of patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit (ICU). In many acute circumstances, such as myocardial infarction, brain, injury and stroke, it is an independent predictor of mortality. Hyperglycemia is induced by a mix of genetic, environmental, and immunologic variables in people with type 1...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, and vast research is being conducted throughout the world for the treatment of this malignancy by natural products using various computational approaches. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid, is known for its anticancer activity; however, the mechanism behind its action is still...
Article
Full-text available
A primary illness that accounts for a significant portion of fatalities worldwide is cancer. Among the main malignancies, lung cancer is recognised as the most chronic kind of cancer around the globe. Radiation treatment, surgery, and chemotherapy are some medical procedures used in the traditional care of lung cancer. However, these methods lack s...
Article
As the second-oldest atypical antipsychotic, risperidone has a long history of off-label usage for treating behavioural and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as agitation, aggressiveness, and psychosis. Risperidone has been shown in several trials to have a statistically significant benefit when used in a therapeutic context...
Article
The main aim of this study was to optimize the transethosomes of apigenin formulated by the thin film hydration method using surfactant Span 80. Response surface Box-Behnken design with three levels of three factors was used to design and optimize the formulations. The prepared transethosomal formulations were characterized for entrapment efficienc...
Article
Full-text available
This study describes the development and characterization of curcumin with graphene oxide complex (CUR + GO) loaded into liposomes for treating skin disease. The developed complex was characterized by X-ray diffraction and showed a broad halo pattern, confirming the amorphous nature of the resulting complex. Furthermore, scanning electron microscop...
Article
Full-text available
Emotional stress is believed to be associated with increased tumor progression. Stress-induced epigenetic modifications can contribute to the severity of disease and poor prognosis in cancer patients. The current study aimed to investigate the expression profiles along with the prognostic significance of psychological stress-related genes in metast...
Article
Full-text available
Ketoconazole (KETO) is the drug of choice to control local, systemic, and resistant types of fungal infections. Subcutaneous (sub-Q) delivery offers several benefits. The present study investigated the sub-Q delivery of KETO using HSPiP software based on optimized concentrations of dimethylacetamide (DMA) in binary solvents (DMA + water), in vitro...
Article
Full-text available
Neurodegenerative diseases exert an overwhelming socioeconomic burden all around the globe. They are mainly characterized by modified protein accumulation that might trigger various biological responses, including oxidative stress, inflammation, regulation of signaling pathways, and excitotoxicity. These disorders have been widely studied during th...
Article
Full-text available
It has been reported from the previous literature that butin restores mitochondrial dysfunction by modulation of oxidative stress and glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampus HT22 cells. Butin also possesses an anti-Huntington’s effect in rats. Considering the current background, this study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective e...
Article
Full-text available
Aging is a significant risk factor for the majority of prevalent human illnesses. The chance of having severe chronic conditions grows dramatically with advancing age. Indeed, more than 90% of people over 65 get at least one chronic disease, including diabetes, heart disease, malignancy, memory loss, and kidney disease, whereas more than 70% have t...
Article
Full-text available
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is the major controller of a number of important cellular activities, including protein synthesis, cell expansion, multiplication, autophagy, lysosomal function, and cellular metabolism. When mTOR interacts with specific adaptor proteins, it forms two complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mT...
Article
Full-text available
Natural products (NPs) continue to provide a structural template for the design of novel therapeutic agents and expedites the drug discovery process. The majority of FDA-approved pharmaceuticals used in medical practice can be traced back to natural sources and NPs play a significant role in drug development. Curcumin, one of the most well studied...
Article
Inotropic agents are generally recommended to use in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) concurrent to end-organ dysfunction. However, due to certain pharmacological limitations like developing life threatening arrhythmia and tolerance, cannot be employed as much as needed. Meanwhile, Calcium...
Article
Full-text available
Arrhythmia is an important cause of death after myocardial infarction (MI). Different substances have been evaluated for their anti-arrhythmic effect in MI. This study was performed to evaluate the anti-arrhythmic impacts of crocin in an MI animal model (rat) by estimation of the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43). Fifty male Sprague–Dawley rats were...
Article
The goal of this study was to determine the effect of hirsutidin on ethanol-induced stomach ulcers in rats. Rats (n = 24 rats/group) were separated at random into the following groups: normal saline-treated (normal control), ethanol-treated (ethanol control), 10 mg/kg hirsutidin + ethanol-treated (hirsutidin 10), and 20 mg/kg hirsutidin + ethanol-t...
Article
Chemists found Imidazole as a multipurpose nucleus, primarily notable for its biological role in drug discovery. This compilation of the reports gives information regarding the development and the previous background of the synthesis of the nucleus. However, the synthesis through multicomponent is taken to narrow the report. The importance of the m...