Nythamar Fernandes De Oliveira

Nythamar Fernandes De Oliveira
Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul | PUCRS · Departamento de Filosofia

Ph.D.
Professor of Philosophy, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil

About

107
Publications
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Introduction
Teaches Ethics and Political Philosophy at the Pontifical Catholic University (PUCRS), Brazil. Ph.D. in Philosophy (State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1994), under Kenneth Baynes, Master's in Philosophy (Villanova University, 1990), under Jack Caputo, postdoctoral Visiting Scholar at the New School for Social Research, in New York (1997-98), under Dick Bernstein, awarded the Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship (2004-05, Uni Kassel, LSE).
Additional affiliations
August 2007 - July 2008
University of Toledo
Position
  • Visiting Assistant Professor
March 2005 - August 2005
Universität Kassel
Position
  • Researcher
August 2004 - February 2005
The London School of Economics and Political Science
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (107)
Article
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A 4ª Revolução Industrial é o culminar da era digital. Atualmente, tecnologias como robótica, nanotecnologia, genética e inteligência artificial prometem transformar nosso mundo e a maneira como vivemos. O campo da Segurança e da Ética da Inteligência Artificial (IA) são áreas de pesquisa emergentes que vêm ganhando popularidade nos últimos anos. D...
Preprint
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Are there any indications that a Technological Singularity may be on the horizon? In trying to answer these questions, the authors made a small introduction to the area of safety research in artificial intelligence. The authors review some of the current paradigms in the development of autonomous intelligent systems, searching for evidence that may...
Article
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Experts in Artificial Intelligence (AI) development predict that advances in the dvelopment of intelligent systems and agents will reshape vital areas in our society. Nevertheless, if such an advance isn't done with prudence, it can result in negative outcomes for humanity. For this reason, several researchers in the area are trying to develop a ro...
Article
Experts in Artificial Intelligence (AI) development predict that advances in the development of intelligent systems and agents will reshape vital areas in our society. Nevertheless, if such an advance isn't done with prudence, it can result in negative outcomes for humanity. For this reason, several researchers in the area are trying to develop a r...
Chapter
Full-text available
Philosophy of religion declares the phenomenon of religious plurality to be a subject of reason. This is an expression of the view that religion must not shy away from rational discourse, but rather recognize it as its ally. Conversely, to draw an absolute boundary between reason and the essence and content and religion would also mean surrendering...
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What do Cyberpunk and AI Ethics have to do with each other? Cyberpunk is a sub-genre of science fiction that explores the post-human relationships between human experience and technology. One similarity between AI Ethics and Cyberpunk literature is that both seek to explore future social and ethical problems that our technological advances may brin...
Preprint
Counterfactuals have become an important area of interdisciplinary interest, especially in logic, philosophy of language, epistemology, metaphysics, psychology, decision theory, and even artificial intelligence. In this study, we propose a new form of analysis for counterfactuals: analysis by algorithmic complexity, inspired by Lewis-Stalnaker's Po...
Article
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How can someone reconcile the desire to eat meat, and a tendency toward vegetarian ideals? How should we reconcile contradictory moral values? How can we aggregate different moral theories? How individual preferences can be fairly aggregated to represent a will, norm, or social decision? Conflict resolution and preference aggregation are tasks that...
Article
Este artigo reformula a discussão do cosmopolitismo na teoria crítica de Habermas e Honneth, a partir da noção de “patriotismo constitucional” elaborada pelo primeiro e de uma problemática teoria do reconhecimento entre Estados no segundo, recorrendo a algumas premissas da Escola Inglesa das Relações Internacionais, com ênfase na interlocução entre...
Preprint
How can someone reconcile the desire to eat meat, and a tendency toward vegetarian ideals? How should we reconcile contradictory moral values? How can we aggregate different moral theories? How individual preferences can be fairly aggregated to represent a will, norm, or social decision? Conflict resolution and preference aggregation are tasks that...
Preprint
Full-text available
Experts in Artificial Intelligence (AI) development predict that advances in the development of intelligent systems and agents will reshape vital areas in our society. Nevertheless, if such an advance isn't done with prudence, it can result in negative outcomes for humanity. For this reason, several researchers in the area are trying to develop a r...
Article
Full-text available
Resumo: especialistas em desenvolvimento de Inteligência Artificial (IA) preveem que o avanço no desenvolvimento de sistemas e agentes inteligentes irá remo-delar áreas vitais em nossa sociedade. Contudo, se tal avanço não for realizado de maneira prudente e crítico-reflexiva, pode resultar em desfechos negativos para a humanidade. Por esse motivo,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Experts in Artificial Intelligence (AI) development predict that advances in the development of intelligent systems and agents will reshape vital areas in our society. Nevertheless, if such an advance is not made prudently and critically, reflexively, it can result in negative outcomes for humanity. For this reason, several researchers in the area...
Article
Full-text available
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1984-6746.2020.1.37812
Chapter
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A presente publicação é resultado das pesquisas e debates dos participantes do IV Colóquio Internacional de Bioética e do II Colóquio Emoções que, reuniu pesquisadores, docentes e discentes de cursos de pós-graduação em filosofia, bioética, medicina, ciências jurídicas, neurociência, ciências sociais e humanas de todo o País, nos dias 25 a 27 de se...
Article
O erro de Calvino consiste em ter a pretensão de reivindicar de forma normativa uma antropologia essencialista do pecado original, de forma a justificar a sua exclusiva leitura da Bíblia e dos loci teológicos da soteriologia, cristologia, pneumatologia, harmatologia, eclesiologia, escatologia, etc. A antropologia teológico-filosófica de Calvino se...
Article
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O presente artigo busca resgatar os fundamentos normativos da bioética de modo a tornar seu universalismo defensável e compatível com seu pluralismo, sem recorrer, de um lado, ao fundacionismo de modelos procedimentalistas, como o principialismo, e ao particularismo de doutrinas morais dadas, como as abordagens cristã, judaica e de outras religiões...
Article
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Trata-se de mostrar, à luz da teoria das emoções de António Damásio, em que sentido “o erro de Descartes” traduz um equívoco do racionalismo ético na medida em que despreza o papel do corpo, da matéria e das paixões para a aquisição e o florescer de uma vida virtuosa no campo da filosofia moral ou mesmo para um conhecimento indubitável no campo epi...
Book
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A practical-theoretical treatise is fundamentally a treatise on social philosophy and metaphysics, insofar as it deals with practical philosophy in its specific relation, on the one hand, to a theory of knowledge and language, and, on the other hand, to social normativity itself, the theorizing of social being (social ontology and social epistemolo...
Book
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In this Political-Theological Treatise, I am committed to doing justice to the impossibility of justice, in the light of Spinoza, Levinas, Derrida, and forerunners of a hermeneutics and deconstruction of the political and theological idea of justice in its effects and reconfigurations vis à vis the very possibility of justice. The social specificit...
Article
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In this essay, we argue for a Brazilian reception of critical theory which seeks political emancipation by means of its social movements promoting several normative claims and forms of liberation, allowing thus for a public justification and reconstruction of social justice in an emerging democracy. A Brazilian critical theory of justice is shown t...
Article
Trata-se de reexaminar a relação entre estética e ética na terceira Crítica, partindo de uma análise crítica do livro de Donald Crawford sobre a teoria estética de Kant, com O intuito de evitar o que seria uma “leitura reducionista” da filosofia kantiana. Assim como fora reduzida a uma Erkenntristheorie pelos adeptos da escola neokantiana de Marbur...
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O artigo tenta mostrar como a dialética sartreana do ser e do nada se afasta da concepção fundamental heideggeriana do Dasein enquanto ser-no-mundo, na medida em que seu modo de ser e autocompreensão existenciais conduzem-no em última análise à sua práxis histórica de libertação.
Article
Trata-se de mostrar em que sentido a metaforicidade é inerente à desconstrução de Jacques Derrida e logra articular conceito e metáfora no discurso filosófico, sem reduzir um ao outro, viabilizando uma discursividade sobre a alteridade, como altemativa à dialética hegeliana e sua semiologia de Aufhebung. assim como à própria desconstrução heidegger...
Article
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Crônica sobre o legado de John Rawls ao pensamento filosófico.
Article
O que foi que Marx e os marxistas não entenderam e por quê
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O artigo reexamina a teoria ideal e anão-ideal em Platão na perspectiva da filosofiapolitica, com referências ao pensamento de Kante de Rawis. Aborda questões como teoria eprática, conceito de justiça, o problema da igual-dade e outros aspectos.
Article
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A filosofia social se propõe a explicitar o social (Das Soziale) inserido nas múltiplas formas de vida e compreendido como condição constitutiva para se entender a liberdade e a individualidade. Nesse sentido, a filosofia social questiona não apenas a legitimidade das instituições sociopolíticas mas também a justificação de nossas ações e, sobretud...
Article
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Neste artigo, argumento que a concepção de Deus como substância (substantia) tem sido invocada de forma equivocada pela desconstrução heideggeriana de variantes onto-teológicas e substancialistas da metafísica, na medida em que confundiram entidades (Seienden, entia, entes) com seu próprio Ser (Sein, Ens, esse), que não pode ser conceitualizado ou...
Article
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Este artigo procura argumentar contra o eliminacionismo e o dualismo de substância ou de propriedade, visando mais especificamente os argumentos reducionistas oferecidos pelo casal Churchland e por versões de dualismo propostas por Swinburne, na medida em que põem em causa as crenças morais enquanto relatos de primeira pessoa, desconsiderados como...
Article
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Para John Rawls é primordialmente importante para o Direito dos Povos que a justiça seja assegurada pela estabilidade de sociedades liberais e decentes. Uma intervenção militar com fins humanitários ou autodefesa seria uma resposta legítima aos abusos perpetrados pelos grupos ou Estados “fora da lei”, na medida em que fomentam a guerra e o terroris...
Article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2016v15n3p343 In this article, I argue that the neuroethics of cognitive enhancement can help us bridge the explanatory gap between metaethics and bioethics (qua normative, applied ethics) and throw light on the classic gap between moral beliefs and neural correlates of brain processes. Insofar as it unveils the...
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O artigo propõe uma reconstrução normativa da crítica comunitarista ao liberalismo, revisitando a crítica iniciada por Michael Sandel com relação à teoria da justiça em John Rawls e reformulada por “simpatizantes” comunitaristas (Michael Walzer, Charles Taylor, Alaisdair MacIntyre) e pensadores políticos da Teoria Crítica (Jürgen Habermas, Seyla Be...
Book
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Offering a engaging and accessible portrait of the current state of the field, A Companion to Naturaslim shows students how to think about the relation between Philosophy and Science, and why is both essencial and fascinating to do so. All the authors in this collection reconsider the core questions in Philosophical Naturalism in light of the chall...
Article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n1p91In this paper, which reflects an ongoing interdisciplinary research in Cognitive and Social Sciences, I recast the normative claims of a political constructivism in reflective equilibrium (Rawls) and of a formal, pragmatic reconstruction (Habermas) as instances of a weak social constructionism. I proc...
Article
Beta therapy is employed in post surgery to treat lesions such as pterygia, keloid and glioblastoma. The beta source most used for these purposes is 90/90Y, whose quality assurance is a challenge, because the detectors currently used for this evaluation do not satisfy the spatial resolution, the effective atomic number and the tissue equivalent con...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are applied for many technological purposes, including areas as astronomy, medical diagnosis and the ones related to light detecting sensors. One of the main advantages of a digital detector is its ability to store and rapidly transfer information to digital equipments, where data can be computed (post-proces...
Article
When small field sizes are recommended in radiotherapy, the dosimeter must have an adequate spatial resolution in order to determine the absorbed dose at the region of interest. The study of electron small field size is important since its dosimetry is not commonly performed in the clinical routine. It was verified that the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG)...
Article
No ensaio que abre o dossiê, de autoria de Nythamar de Oliveira, são discutidos alguns paradigmas teóricos na filosofia política contemporânea, notadamente as teorias de John Rawls, Jürgen Habermas e Amartya Sen. São mobilizados, nesse contexto, conceitos centrais na filosofia política como os de igualdade, liberdade, equidade, democracia, justiça...
Article
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The paper seeks to show how Heidegger recasts the problem of reification in Being and Time, so as to address the methodological procedure of formal indication, outlined in his early writings, in order to carry out a deconstruction of ancient ontology. By revisiting Marx's and Lukacs' critique of objectification in social relations, especially the f...
Article
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Kant's dualism in anthropology and morality is said to be bridged only by means of a teleology which seems to betray the historical constitution of its subjectivity. And yet the Kantian articulation of problems of theoretical and practical reason can be explored only insofar as they help us understand the correlated problems of the unity of reason,...
Article
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This paper argues for an interdisciplinary interlocution between social theory and social philosophy in order to recast the problem of normativity in social practices, especially within Brazil's democratic ethos. By resorting to insights from critical theory and social epistemology, the essay proposes to reexamine Bourdieu's conception of habitus s...
Article
Full-text available
Kant’s dualism in anthropology and morality is said to be bridged only by means of a teleologywhich seems to betray the historical constitution of its subjectivity. And yet the Kantianarticulation of problems of theoretical and practical reason can be explored only insofar asthey help us understand the correlated problems of the unity of reason, th...
Article
This book focuses on the genealogy of modernity as it has been articulated by the original contributions of Kant, Nietzsche, and Foucault, in their respective conceptions of truth, power, and ethics. The author seeks to show that in order to articulate a philosophical discourse on modernity one must not only refer to cultural, historical events ass...
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The article argues that the fate of democracy and the future of liberationist thought in Latin America are bound to a self-understanding of the correlative concepts of race, ethnicity, and cultural identity. In order to recast a Latin American philosophy of liberation, we must revisit thus autochthonous accounts of Marxist analysis and critical the...
Article
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Wedged beam are often used in clinical radiotherapy to compensate missing tissues and dose gradients. In this work, the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) dosimeter was used for 6 MV photons radiation wedge field profiles measurements, allowing to infer the wedge filter physical attenuation coefficient. This dosimeter is a chemical system of a Fe3+-Xylenol c...
Chapter
Introduction: From Continental Europe to Latin AmericaThe First GenerationThe Second Half of the Twentieth CenturyConclusion ReferencesFurther Reading
Article
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The article revisits Habermas's recasting of moral universalism, so as to avoid the aporias of naturalism and cultural relativism, according to a pragmatic-formal perspective that does justice to the complex phenomenon of religion in a postsecular, pluralist world, where believers, atheists, and agnostics can coexist together and actively participa...
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The article seeks to show to what extent the conception of deliberative democracy proposed by Jurgen Habermas’s discourse theory accounts for the problems of juridification and economic reductions inherent in globalization, regarded as a technical, systemic colonization of the lifeworld. By resorting to his conception of a transnational, democratic...
Article
The Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) dosimeter is a ferrous sulfate aqueous solution that, when irradiated or subject to heat, oxygen and light, oxidizes the Fe2+ ions to Fe3+ and this new type of ion, together with xylenol orange corant form the Fe3+-Xylenol complex. This new concentration, generally determined through spectrophotometry, is directly propo...
Article
Full-text available
Trata-se de revisitar a formulação habermasiana do universalismo moral de forma a evitar as aporias do naturalismo e do relativismo cultural, segundo uma perspectiva pragmáticoformal capaz de fazer jus ao complexo fenômeno da religião em um mundo pós-secular pluralista, onde crentes, ateus e agnósticos podem coexistir e participar ativamente da con...
Article
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O artigo investiga a relação Husserl-Heidegger, para além de suas contribuições à fenomenologia e hermenêutica como novos métodos em filosofia, articulando ontologia e subjetividade, através de um paradigma semântico-lingüístico, de forma a delinear qual seria a tarefa hodierna de uma fenomenologia da justiça.
Article
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Dosimetric measurements in small therapeutic x-ray beam field sizes, such as those used in radiosurgery, that have dimensions comparable to or smaller than the build-up depth, require special care to avoid incorrect interpretation of measurements in regions of high gradients and electronic disequilibrium. These regions occur at the edges of any col...
Article
Full-text available
Trata-se de mostrar em que sentido a concepção normativa de pessoa em John Rawls pressupõe uma transformação semântica da concepção kantiana de subjetividade transcendental, em particular do seu ideal de personalidade (persönlichkeit). Uma reinterpretação kantiana da concepção normativa de pessoa logra explicar o dispositivo procedimental do equilí...
Article
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This paper reflects the findings of an ongoing research on the normative thrust of globalization within the Brazilian transition to democracy in light of a Rawlsian-inspired theory of global justice. By resorting to what I term “the Brazilian reception of Rawls’s political liberalism,” –in particular, to his contribution to a theory of global justi...
Article
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A impossibilidade de se fundamentar os direitos humanos hoje de maneira satisfatória, sem recorrer a modelos essencialistas ou metafísicos, parece correlata à universalidade de sua defesa e promoção. Uma abordagem fenomenológica favorece uma leitura perspectivista da alteridade, tornando altamente defensável e razoável que se aplique uma semântica...
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The goal of this paper is to show that the Kantian correlation beween universalizability and humanity addresses the communitarian critique by resorting to the positive identification between human rights and fundamental rights and to the normative conception of moral persons, irreducible in theirhuman dignity. I argue for what may be termed a trans...
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O artigo esboça o desenvolvimento da hermenêutica filosófica de Paul Ricoeur a partir de sua fenomenologia da vontade em direção a uma hermenêutica da revelação, mostrando como o projeto radical de destranscendentalizar a subjetividade, subjacente à recepção francesa copntemporânea de uma hermenêutica da suspeita, terma por favorecer um retorno pós...
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Este artigo procura examinar em que medida a filosofia moral de Kierkegaard se apóia na crítica kantiana da razão dialética. Mostra-se que a rejeição kantiana da prova ontológica da existência de Deus significa um afastamento da incerteza objetiva em direção à certeza prática, enquanto a dialética kierkegaardiana da existência permite que a verdade...
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Este artigo procura mostrar que,apesar de emergir de uma visão tradicional emetafísica da linguagem, a teoria husserliana dosignificado enquanto espécie ideal nas mvestigaçõesLógicas não é redutível a urna expressãolingüística de uma adequação essencialista erepresentacional, mas antes enfatiza o papel daintencionalidade, a idealidade da linguagem...

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Projects (5)
Project
- Pursue the normative challenges posed for genealogical approaches. - Build genealogical analyses that enable practices of social emancipation.
Project
Development of techniques and models to create safe, reliable, beneficial, and robust AI systems.
Project
This project sets out to revisit the normative problem in recent contributions of Critical Theory, maintaining the perspective of immanent critique and normative reconstruction, but now focusing on its most recent formulations by the so-called fourth generation of Frankfurt School (esp. Forst, Jaeggi, Voirol, Allen, Saar, Rosa, Celikates), above all in their respective theoretical and conceptual innovations to propose new approaches to sociality (e.g. Lebensformen and resonance to account for alienation and reification, respectively, in Jaeggi and Rosa) and reflexivity (through the critical-genealogical reappropriation of Spinozan imaginary and imagination and the genealogical-decolonizing critique of the teleological models of moral progress and historicity, respectively, in Saar and Allen), examining in what sense they can still be integrated with the contributions of communicative action, recognition, and justification that were paradigmatic of the research programs of the second (Habermas), third (Honneth, Fraser, Benhabib) and fourth (Forst, Voirol) generations. Following the Hegelian-phenomenological intuition suggested by Marcos Nobre (2018) regarding the systematic updates of this program in critical theory, in order to avoid reconstructivism and experimentalism, as much as historicism, on the one hand, and methodological normativism (esp. dogmatism, foundationalism, philosophical anthropology, and philosophy of history), on the other, I draw on the starting point of the first-generation interdisciplinary materialist program, when Horkheimer insisted on the integration between empirical research (Sozialforschung) and theoretical-critical reflection (Horkheimer, 1993, p. 12). Indeed, Martin Jay's classic (1996, originally published in 1973) covering the creation of the Institut für Sozialforschung and the first generation of the so-called Frankfurt School had already anticipated the normative-reconstructive recasting of the political, dialectical imagination that would be thematized by the third and fourth generations later on, notably from essays on the correlation between immanent critique and normative reconstruction (Benhabib, 1986) and on the use of imagination and imagery from Baruch de Spinoza (Saar, 2013; 2014). The concept of reflexivity, taken from an immanent and reconstructive critical stance, can now be recast in our contemporary discussion of social epistemology, especially as to what makes belief justified, since all knowledge implies justification, and what makes a moral belief epistemically justified rather than claiming a status of moral knowledge, beyond metaethical opposing of cognitivist vs noncognitivist. The moral skeptic (including noncognitivism, contextualism, and relativism) can thus reshape the justification for moral beliefs, since we cannot simply assume a (foundational) moral intuition that we have reason to believe, for example, that slavery, racism or torture is morally wrong without resorting to a justifying narrative. In this sense, as Denilson Werle observed with respect to reflective equilibrium in Rawls, Habermas was able to resort to the device of normative reconstruction precisely to justify a recursive procedure that had only evaded foundationalism (Nobre and Repa, 2012, p. 187, 194). Thus, a discursive theory, beyond the reflexivity aporias inherent to the Rawlsian coherentist model, allow us to revisit the problems of sociality of life forms (Jaeggi) and resonance (Rosa) as alternatives to the cul de sac of theoretical-critical models of communicative action, recognition, and justification in their original criticisms of the phenomena of alienation and reification in the cultural modernity of our democracies. When it comes to a post-metaphysical actualization of the normative-reconstructive model, I believe we can further refine the Habermasian attempt to 'translate' into concrete terms the challenge of political pluralism in our multifaceted as well as polarized democracies. As Charles Ramond (2016) suspects of a Hegelian-Honnethian moral grammar, we simply do not find prima facie a sense of justice or a sense of indignation or disrespect in our popular culture today, as the basic emotions of anger, fear sadness, joy, repudiation, amazement, shame, or pride can be taken on more or less reflective and judgmental levels, such as second-order emotional feelings. The whole business of differentiating between desires, beliefs, values, emotions, and propositional attitudes must be revised. In this sense, Forst's theory of justification may provide us with some theoretical and conceptual support that contributes to a rehabilitation of the constructivist model, in particular by its recasting of ​​reflexivity, articulating the principles of universalizability and reciprocity with the ideas of recursion and reflexive procedure in a coherentist model of reconstruction, together with a thick-descriptive conception of social emotions and political imagination that allows for a heuristic approach between cognitivist and noncognitivist accounts (Saar, Prinz, and Damasio, following the hybrid accounts already found in Spinoza, Hume and Nietzsche).