Nuray Sakallı

Nuray Sakallı
Middle East Technical University | METU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D. University of Kansas; MA Ball State University

About

73
Publications
104,155
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,459
Citations
Introduction
I work on attitudes, attitude change, stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, sexism- ambivalent sexism, manhood, honor and women issues. I am also interested in theories relevant to intergroup relations such as terror menagement, social dominance, system justification, minority influence and collective action.
Additional affiliations
August 2009 - August 2010
February 1997 - present
Middle East Technical University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 1997 - present
Middle East Technical University
Education
August 1992 - December 1996
University of Kansas
Field of study
  • Social Psychology
January 1991 - July 1992
Ball State University
Field of study
  • Social Psychology
September 1985 - June 1989
Ankara University, DTCF
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Full-text available
Many researchers, in general, have approached the responses to sexism issues from women's perspectives and experiences. However, it is important to understand how men percieve sexism and their responses to sexism in the traditional gender system in order to achieve gender equality. Accordingly, the aim of the current paper is to review literature o...
Article
Full-text available
Bireyin kendini tanımlarken kullandığı soyadı, kimliğinin ayrılmaz bir parçasıdır. Ancak dünya genelinde, psikolojik ve sosyal açıdan birçok anlam ifade eden soyadı, sadece kadınlarda evlilik ile birlikte değişime uğramaktadır. Bu doğrultuda makalenin amacı, kadınların evlilik ve boşanma durumunda soyadı değişimine ilişkin kararlarını etkileyen uns...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of this study was to explore the associations among self-silencing, the perceived devaluation of women in the family and the country, and hostile/ benevolent sexism in both women and men samples. To reach the aim, we developed three scales. The self-silencing scale included silencing to (1) sexist personal experiences, (2) observed...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the role of justification for violence (honor-based vs. non-honor-based conflict), honor concerns (feminine, masculine, family, moral integrity), and fundamentalist religious orientation in predicting tolerance to violence against women (VAW) in an honor culture, Turkey. Six hundred and one Turkish university students (43...
Article
Full-text available
Israrlı takip (stalking) psikolojik ve fiziksel şiddet içeren, hedef alınan kişide korku ve endişe uyandıran, istenmeyen ve ısrarcı davranışlar bütünüdür. Bu makalenin amacı son yıllarda kadına yönelik şiddet alanında ayrı bir başlık altında ele alınmaya başlanmış olan ısrarlı takip konusuna ilişkin bir yayın taraması gerçekleştirerek alana katkı s...
Article
Full-text available
Kadınlar günlük yaşamlarında cinsiyetçiliğin birçok farklı türüne maruz kalır. Kadınların cinsiyetçiliği fark etme düzeyleri ve verdikleri tepkiler farklılık gösterebilir. Kadınların verdikleri bu farklı tepkiler ise kendilerinin veya cinsiyetçiliğin değişmesini farklı şekillerde etkiler. Bu tarama makalesinin amacı kadınların cinsiyetçiliğe karşı...
Article
Full-text available
The purposes of this study were to develop a Likert type of scale on attitudes toward divorced women (ADW), and to test its associations with hostile sexism (HS), benevolent sexism (BS), and demographic variables which, in return, provide evidence for construct-convergent validity. An item pool of ADW scale was administered to participants along wi...
Article
Full-text available
While it is natural for stereotypes of social groups to change over time and across various social contexts, there has been a lack of research investigating how marriage impacts specifically gender-based stereotypes. In Turkish culture, social status, roles, and stereotypes are highly dependent on marital status, and more so for women, who are labe...
Article
Öz Bu çalışmanın amacı, sistemi meşrulaştırma kuramı (Jost ve Banaji, 1994) temelinde, bireylerin toplumdaki namus düzenini meşrulaştırma eğilimlerini değerlendiren namus sistemini meşrulaştırma (NSM) ölçeğini geliştirmektir. Bu amaçla; namusla ilgili alanyazın, raporlar ve haberlerdeki söylemlerden yola çıkılarak 28 maddelik bir havuz oluşturulmuş...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to adapt the Honor Scale (HS), which is composed of four different honor codes including feminine honor, masculine honor, family honor, and moral integrity (Rodriguez Mosquera, Manstead, & Fischer, 2002b) by adding culture-congruent items, and examine the reliability and validity of the emerging scale. In line with this...
Article
Full-text available
The study explored the association among attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, system justification, social contact, political orientation, and gender in a Muslim heterosexual sample in Turkey. Participants (N = 377; Women = 276 & Men = 101; MAge = 21.83, SDAge = 2.00) completed scales of Attitudes toward Gay Men (ATG) and Lesbians (ATL), system j...
Article
We aimed to develop a scale about attitudes toward voluntary childlessness and explore the predictive powers of hostile/benevolent sexism, and demographic factors (age, gender, education, income, and already having a child) on the scale. Three factors (N = 322; Mage = 32.47, SDage = 9.33) emerged: negative biases against childfree people (α = .92);...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tablo. 1 Kişilik Yaklaşımı ve Normatif Yaklaşıma Göre Erkeksilik ve Erkeklik İdeolojisi ile Erkeklere Yönelik Tutumları Ölçmek için Yurt Dışında Geliştirilen Ölçekler
Article
Full-text available
Bu makalenin amacı yazında erkeksilik, erkeklik ve erkeklik stresi adı altında yapılan araştırmaları kalıpyargılar, tutumlar ve ayrımcılık ana başlıkları altında sosyal psikolojik açıdan sunmaktır. Bu bağlamda, ilk olarak, toplumsal cinsiyet kalıpyargıları çerçevesinde erkeksilik ve erkeksi kalıpyargılar hakkındaki çalışmalara yer verilmiştir. İkin...
Article
Full-text available
Although gender stereotypes is a popular topic in social psychology, research on gender stereotypes in Turkish culture is limited. Therefore the purpose of the study was twofold: (1) to present how people describe women and men, and (2) to generate the underlying themes of the descriptions for each gender in order to present the structure of gender...
Article
Full-text available
It is worthwhile to search the associations among militaristic attitudes, national identity, and uninational ideology empirically because they may be highly relevant to various issues such as support for military actions, using military to solve intergroup conflicts, and the willingness to join the army. The main purpose of the article was to empir...
Poster
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between two types of group identification and collective guilt related to the Events of September, 6-7, in Turkey. A survey study was conducted among 264 university students who were to react to the 3 different texts which explained the events either from victim’s perspective, from a neut...
Article
Full-text available
Relationship between Mother and Father Education and Vocational Statuses with College Students’ Sexism and Conservatism ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the relationship between mother and father education levels and vocational statuses with sexism and conservatism. 418 undergraduate students (229 females, 189 males; Mage = 22.31, SS = 3.3)...
Article
Full-text available
Social Contact Theories to Regulate Intergroup Relations: Intergroup, Extended, Imagined Contact ABSTRACT Social contact theories present strategies to regulate intergroup relations. These theories started with social contact hypothesis proposed by Allport (1954) and continued with extended contact and imagined contact theories to provide appropria...
Poster
Full-text available
Gender inequality is an ongoing problem in social life and remains a crucial issue for many societies (e.g., the United Nations’ HeForShe Programme, 2016, www.heforshe.org/en). One mechanism that may contribute to the persistence of gender inequality is gender stereotyping, that is, the specific beliefs people hold about the characteristics that wo...
Article
The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effects of sexual orientation (heterosexuals and gay men-lesbians) and gender difference on responses to romantic relationship problems (Exit, Voice, Loyalty and Neglect-EVLN responses), and of perceived partner's EVLN responses in Turkey, and (2) to examine whether internalized h...
Article
Full-text available
Why do people support the masculine structure of the Turkish military? Why do women hold inferior positions in the military? How are sexism and Turkish identification relevant to attitudes toward the masculine structure of the military? Focusing on these questions, the current study explored the associations among Turkish identification, ambivalent...
Article
The special issue aimed to focus on quantitative research articles covering gender and women’s issues in Islamic cultures which have not received sufficient attention. The present issue of gender and women’s issues in these cultures adds important information about topics such as the roles of honor, religiosity, and sexism as they interact with gen...
Article
Full-text available
Cultures of honor, such as Turkey, prioritize defending individual and family reputations, but in gender-specific ways (Nisbett and Cohen 1996). Men maintain honor via reputations for toughness, aggression, control over women, and avenging insults. Women maintain honor through obedience to men, sexual modesty, and religious piety. Honor beliefs sup...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cinsiyet kalıpyargıları cinsiyetlerin özellikleriyle ilgili yüklemelerdir. Bazı özellikler kadın ile daha çok ilintili görülürken diğer özellikler erkek ile daha fazla ilişkili algılanmaktadır. Sosyal Psikoloji'nin en önemli konularından biri olmasına rağmen cinsiyet kalıpyargıları konusunda Türkiye'de çalışma sayısı sınırlı olmakla birlikte evli-b...
Poster
Full-text available
Basmakalıp Yargı Tehdidi ve Basmakalıp Yargı Kaldıracı bireylerin performansını olumlu ya da olumsuz etkileyebilen psikolojik faktörlerdir. Kendi grubuyla ilgili olumsuz yargıyı hatırlayanların performansı düşerken, diğer grupla ilgili olumsuz yargıyı hatırlayanların performansı yükselebilir. Bu çalışmada Türkiye’deki üniversite öğrencileri örnekle...
Article
Full-text available
Bu makalenin amacı gruplar arası ilişkiler bağlamında diğer gruba zarar verme sonucunda bireylerin grup üyeliklerine bağlı olarak hissedebilecekleri kolektif suçluluk duyma ve bu duygudan kaçınmak için kullanılan stratejileri kapsayan çalışmaları derleyerek alana tanıtmaktır. Bu kapsamda öncelikle kolektif suçluluk duyma kavramı tanımlanmaktadır. B...
Article
Full-text available
Bu çalışmanın amacı çiftlerin çatışma çözüm stillerini ölçmek amacıyla geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçek geliştirmektir. Bu amaçla 2 ayrı çalışma yürütülmüştür. İlk çalışmada, romantik ilişki yaşayan ya da evli kişilerle yarı yapılandırılmış mülakatlar gerçekleştirilmiştir. Hem bu mülakatlardan oluşturulan maddeler, hem de alanda uzman kişiler tarafın...
Article
Full-text available
Prejudicial attitudes and discrimination toward gay men is a common social problem in Turkey as it is in many other countries. It is important to understand the reasons behind the prejudice against gay men in a sexist and Muslim country, Turkey. The purpose of the study was to predict attitudes toward gay men with ambivalent attitudes toward men (h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ÖZET Ülkemizde uzun yıllardır hava kalitesi standartlarının varlığından da anlaşılabileceği üzere insanlarımızın dış hava kirliliği ve sağlık etkileri konusunda belirli bir algı ve bilgilerinin var olduğunu düşünebiliriz. Ancak, zamanımızın sadece küçük bir kısmını dışarıda geçirdiğimiz için dış havadaki kirliliğe doğrudan maruziyetimiz de görecel...
Article
Full-text available
Bu makalenin amacı, psikoloji yazınında önemli bir yer edinmiş olan Dehşet Yönetimi Kuramı (DYK; Greenberg, Pyszczynski ve Solomon, 1986; Solomon, Greenberg ve Pyszczynski, 2004) üzerine yapılan çalışmaları derleyerek yazına kuramla ilgili Türkçe bir kaynak kazandırmaktır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda ele alınan bu derleme makalesi, dört bölümden oluşmakt...
Poster
Full-text available
Fans of three big teams (Besiktas: BJK, Fenerbahce: FB, and Galatasaray: GS) in Turkey are evaluated according to how stereotypical they are by 186 participants (122 female, 64 male) from various departments of Middle East Technical University, Ankara. Participants wrote about their own death or dental pain and filled out 7-point Likert-type questi...
Article
Full-text available
The present review aims to explore the strengths and weaknesses of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM; Fiske et al., 1999; 2002) by identifying the theory’s contribution to the literature of intergroup perceptions. It also aims to provide a context sensitive perspective to overcome the limits of SCM. The study consists of three main sections. In the...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to review studies focusing on honor, especially honor defined over women’s behavior, and violence against women in the name of honor in the cultures of honor. In this regard, first of all the meaning of honor in different cultures is mentioned and then the meaning of honor in the cultures of honor is discussed. Throug...
Article
This study examined the relationships among ambivalent sexism (hostile/benevolent), ambivalence toward men (hostility/benevolence) and Turkish women/men’s attitudes toward sexual harassment, including attitudes toward viewing sexual harassment as a result of provocative behaviors of women (ASHPBW) and attitudes toward viewing sexual harassment as a...
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate how ambivalent gender attitudes (hostile/benevolent sexism; hostility/benevolence toward men), plus gender and major predict attitudes toward men studying social sciences and women studying natural sciences in Turkey, where gender attitudes are relatively traditional. Undergraduates (N = 215, mean age = 21.16...
Article
This study explored the relationships among hostile sexism (HS), benevolent sexism (BS), and religiosity for men and women in Turkey, where Islam is the predominant religion. 73 male and 93 female university students completed measures of ambivalent sexism and religiosity. Replicating previous work with Christians, religiosity was a significant cor...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to develop two separate assessment devices to measure attitudes toward women honor and attitudes toward violence that women are exposed to in the name of protecting honor in Turkey: Attitudes toward Honor Scale (AHS) and Attitudes toward Violence against Women for Protecting Honor Scale (AVWPHS). 180 female and...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to investigate reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Ambivalence toward Men Scale (AMI; Glick & Fiske, 1999) that includes both hostility toward men and benevolence toward men. A total number of 854 students (412 men and 442 women) enrolled in the Middle East Technical University participated in...
Article
The present study investigated whether hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, belief in a just world and empathy predict attitudes toward rape victims in a Turkish sample. Turkish college students (N = 425, mean age = 22) completed scales assessing Ambivalent Sexism, Belief in a Just World and Rape Victim Empathy as predictors of a general measure of a...
Article
Full-text available
Social role theory (Eagly, Wood, & Diekman, 2000) predicts that traditional gender ideology is associated with preferences for qualities in a mate that reflect a conventional homemaker-provider division of labor. This study assessed traditional gender ideology using Glick and Fiske's (1996, 1999) indexes of ambivalent attitudes toward women and men...
Article
Full-text available
Perceptions of America as a powerful but malevolent nation decrease its security. On the basis of measures derived from the stereotype content model (SCM) and image theory (IT), 5,000 college students in I I nations indicated their perceptions of the personality traits of, intentions of, and emotional reactions to the United States as well as their...
Article
Full-text available
A 16-nation study involving 8,360 participants revealed that hostile and benevolent attitudes toward men, assessed by the Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (P. Click & S.T. Fiske, 1999), were (a) reliably measured across cultures, (b) positively correlated (for men and women, within samples and across nations) with each other and with hostile and be...
Article
This study examined the relationship of ambivalent sexism, political conservatism, demographic variables (age, education, and gender), and prior sexual experience to Turkish men s and women s attitudes toward women who engage in premarital sex. Participants included 124 Turkish undergraduate students and 60 nonstudent Turkish adults. Benevolent but...
Article
The present study is an investigation into how romantic relationship satisfaction and attitudes toward gender stereotypes about romantic relationship and gender are related to future time orientation in romantic relationships (FTORR). Four hundred and thirteen (208 men and 205 women) university students taking elective psychology courses at Middle...
Article
Full-text available
The purposes of the article are to examine Modern Sexism, Neosexism and Ambivalent Sexism which were developed because of changes in attitudes toward women and men, and to guide future studies in Turkey by reviewing relevant studies about sexism. With these purposes, following some explanations about the concept of sexism and the first scale for me...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between ambivalent sexist attitudes (hostile and benevolent sexism), age, education, and income levels with attitudes toward verbal, physical wife abuse and leaving a relationship as a result of such abuse. Student and nonstudent participants completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick a...
Article
The authors examined how patriarchy, sexism, and gender influence Turkish college students' attitudes toward women managers. Turkish undergraduate students (N = 183) from Middle East Technical University completed questionnaires measuring attitudes toward women managers as well as attitudes toward the concepts of hostile and benevolent sexism and s...
Article
Men and women in Turkey and Brazil completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996) and measures of attitudes about wife abuse. In both nations hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS) positively correlated with attitudes that legitimize abuse. Regression analyses revealed that HS accounted for unique variance, but BS (once HS...
Article
According to the attribution-value model, prejudice toward a group stems from 2 interrelated variables: attributions of controllability and cultural value. Thus, prejudice toward gay men and lesbians may stem from others' holding them responsible for their behaviors and perceiving negative cultural value regarding homosexuality. The author tested t...
Article
The study examined whether we could observe an attitude change in heterosexual participants introduced to a lesbian person. Eighty-nine undergraduate students from Middle East Technical University (METU) received a Turkish version of Hudson and Ricketts' scale about "Attitudes toward Homosexuals" during a pre-testing session. Fifty-four students wh...
Article
The purpose of this study was to focus on the context of stereotypes of gay men, and how sex differences and social contact influence the stereotypic and counter-stereotypic attributes of them. To do that, 77 female and 106 male heterosexual undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants filled out a rating scale. The findings o...
Article
This study examined the relationship of sexism, having traditional and conservative values, and contact with homosexual individuals to attitudes toward homosexuality. Two hundred seven male and female students from Middle East Technical University completed Hudson and Rickett's Homophobia scale, Glick and Fiske's Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and que...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to investigate reliability and validity of Turkish version of Ambivalent Sexism Scale that includes both hostile and benevolent sexism. 1023 Middle East Technical University students participated in the study. The Cronbach’s Alfa for the ASI was .85. Computed test-retest reliability coefficient was .87. The ASI...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between ambivalent sexist attitudes (hostile and benevolent sexism), age, education, and income levels with attitudes toward verbal, physical wife abuse and leaving a relationship as a result of such abuse. Student and nonstudent participants completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick a...
Article
This paper describes how patriarchy, hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and sex of participants influence Turkish College students' attitudes toward wife beating. Two hundred twenty-one Turkish undergraduate students from Middle East Technical University filled out questionnaires measuring attitudes toward wife beating, hostile and benevolent sexis...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of social interaction with homosexuals on attitudes toward homosexuality in a sample of heterosexual Turkish university students. Hudson and Ricketts' 25-item scale was translated from English into Turkish and used to measure students' attitudes toward homosexuality. Findings, in general, sugg...
Article
Full-text available
The authors propose an Attribution-Value model of prejudice, which hypothesizes that people are prejudiced against groups that they feel have some negative attribute for which they are held responsible. The structure of prejudice against fat people was compared in six nations: Australia, India, Poland, Turkey, the United States of America, and Vene...
Article
ZET Bu araştırmanın amacı romantik ilişkilerle ilgili kalıpyargılara karşı tutumları ölçmek ve ayrıca, belirtilen bu tutumları cinsiyet farklılığının ve cinsiyetçiliğin (sexism) nasıl etkileyeceğini araştır­ maktır. Bu amaçla 291 Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi öğrencisinden romantik ilişki ile ilgili bazı kalıpyargılara karşı düşüncelerini ve duygul...
Article
Full-text available
The authors argue that complementary hostile and benevolent components of sexism exist across cultures. Male dominance creates hostile sexism (HS), but men's dependence on women fosters benevolent sexism (BS)--subjectively positive attitudes that put women on a pedestal but reinforce their subordination. Research with 15,000 men and women in 19 nat...

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
To examine gender stereotypes of men and women in Turkish culture.