Nuno Rodrigues Faria

Nuno Rodrigues Faria
Imperial College London | Imperial · Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology

PhD, MSc

About

282
Publications
66,512
Reads
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14,934
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Introduction
Nuno Rodrigues Faria is Reader in Virus Evolution at the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, and an Associate Professor at the Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Nuno does research in the fields of genomic epidemiology, spatial genetics, bioinformatics, and evolutionary biology of human and animal viruses.
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - December 2021
University of Oxford
Position
  • Fellow
January 2017 - present
University of Oxford
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Lecturer at the MSc in International Health and Tropical Medicine
October 2013 - December 2017
University of Oxford
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Infectious Disease Control for Biology (undergraduate)

Publications

Publications (282)
Article
Full-text available
Thirty years after the discovery of HIV-1, the early transmission, dissemination, and establishment of the virus in human populations remain unclear. Using statistical approaches applied to HIV-1 sequence data from central Africa, we show that from the 1920s Kinshasa (in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo) was the focus of early transmiss...
Article
Full-text available
Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four...
Article
Full-text available
Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas was first confirmed in May 2015 in northeast Brazil. Brazil has had the highest number of reported ZIKV cases worldwide (more than 200,000 by 24 December 2016) and the most cases associated with microcephaly and other birth defects (2,366 confirmed by 31 December 2016). Since the initial detection o...
Article
Full-text available
Cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Manaus, Brazil, resurged in late 2020, despite previously high levels of infection. Genome sequencing of viruses sampled in Manaus between November 2020 and January 2021 revealed the emergence and circulation of a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern. Lineage P.1, acquired 17 mutations, including a trio in the spike...
Article
The SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant of concern spread globally, causing resurgences of COVID-19 worldwide1,2. Delta’s emergence in the UK occurred on the background of a heterogeneous landscape of immunity and relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions. Here we analyse 52,992 virus genomes from England together with 93,649 global genomes to reconstruc...
Preprint
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne virus that has caused explosive epidemics linked to acute, chronic, and severe clinical outcomes. Since 2014, Brazil has had the highest number of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) cases in the Americas. Here, we report and contextualize the spatiotemporal dynamic of CHIKF in Brazil and combine genomic,...
Article
The emergence and global dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) have been described as the main factor driving the COVID-19 pandemic. In Brazil, the Gamma variant dominated the epidemiological scenario during the first period of 2021. Many Brazilian regions detected the Delta variant after its first description and documented its spr...
Article
Full-text available
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Gamma variant of concern has spread rapidly across Brazil since late 2020, causing substantial infection and death waves. Here we used individual-level patient records after hospitalization with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between 20 January 2020 and 26...
Article
Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a zoonotic virus endemic to the African continent, has been reported in 33 non-endemic countries since May 2022. We report an almost complete genome of the first confirmed case of MPXV in Brazil. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was completed in 18 hours, from DNA extraction to consensus sequence generation.
Preprint
Background SARS-CoV-2 serologic surveys estimate the proportion of the population with antibodies against historical variants which nears 100% in many settings. New analytic approaches are required to exploit the full information in serosurvey data. Method Using a SARS-CoV-2 anti-Spike (S) protein chemiluminescent microparticle assay, we attained...
Poster
Full-text available
Proposed research on viral epidemiology and genomics of undiagnosed febrile syndromes in Angola
Article
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While recombination is a feature of coronavirus evolution, previously detected recombinant lineages of SARS-CoV-2 have shown limited circulation thus far. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of four SARS-CoV-2 lineages to investigate the possibility of virus recombination among them. Our analyses reveal well-supported phylogenetic dif...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, there are no evidence-based treatment options for long COVID-19, and it is known that SARS-CoV-2 can persist in part of the infected patients, especially those with immunosuppression. Since there is a robust secretion of SARS-CoV-2-specific highly-neutralizing IgA antibodies in breast milk, and because this immunoglobulin plays an essent...
Article
Background Only two naturally occurring human Sabiá virus (SABV) infections have been reported, and those occurred over 20 years ago. Methods We diagnosed two new cases of SABV infection using metagenomics in patients thought to have severe yellow fever and described new features of histopathological findings. Results We characterized clinical ma...
Preprint
Background Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex, eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and Maradiaga virus (MADV), are associated with severe neurological disease in human and equine hosts. We aimed to overcome the lack of available molecular diagnostics for these pathogens by designing and clinically evaluating real-time reverse transc...
Preprint
Full-text available
There are large differences in the shape and size of regional SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in Brazil. Here we tested monthly blood donation samples for IgG antibodies from March 2020 to March 2021 in eight of Brazil’s most populous cities. There was large variation in the inferred attack rate adjusted for seroreversion across cities, and seroprevalence was...
Preprint
SARS-CoV-2 virus genomes are currently being sequenced at an unprecedented pace. The choice of sequences used in genetic and epidemiological analysis is important as it can induce biases that detract from the value of these rich datasets. This raises questions about how a set of sequences should be chosen for analysis, and which epidemiological par...
Article
Full-text available
Background The city of Manaus, north Brazil, was stricken by a second epidemic wave of SARS-CoV-2 despite high seroprevalence estimates, coinciding with the emergence of the Gamma (P.1) variant. Reinfections were postulated as a partial explanation for the second surge. However, accurate calculation of reinfection rates is difficult when stringent...
Article
Full-text available
Background Yellow fever (YF) is an arboviral disease which is endemic to Brazil due to a sylvatic transmission cycle maintained by infected mosquito vectors, non-human primate (NHP) hosts, and humans. Despite the existence of an effective vaccine, recent sporadic YF epidemics have underscored concerns about sylvatic vector surveillance, as very lit...
Article
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Gamma variant has been hypothesized to cause more severe illness than previous variants, especially in children. Successive SARS-CoV-2 IgG serosurveys in the Brazilian Amazon showed that age-specific attack rates and proportions of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections were similar before...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Delta variant of concern of SARS-CoV-2 has spread globally causing large outbreaks and resurgences of COVID-19 cases. The emergence of Delta in the UK occurred on the background of a heterogeneous landscape of immunity and relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions. Here we analyse 52,992 Delta genomes from England in combination with 93,64...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Delta variant of concern of SARS-CoV-2 has spread globally causing large outbreaks and resurgences of COVID-19 cases. The emergence of Delta in the UK occurred on the background of a heterogeneous landscape of immunity and relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions. Here we analyse 52,992 Delta genomes from England in combination with 93,64...
Article
Full-text available
Background Brazil is one of the countries worst affected by the COVID-19 pandemic with over 20 million cases and 557,000 deaths reported by August 2021. Comparison of real-time local COVID-19 data between areas is essential for understanding transmission, measuring the effects of interventions, and predicting the course of the epidemic, but are oft...
Technical Report
One sentence summary COVID-19 in-hospital fatality rates fluctuate dramatically in Brazil, and these fluctuations are primarily associated with geographic inequities and shortages in healthcare capacity. Abstract The SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant spread rapidly across Brazil, causing substantial infection and death waves. We use individual-level patient...
Preprint
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant spread rapidly across Brazil, causing substantial infection and death waves. We use individual-level patient records following hospitalisation with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 to document the extensive shocks in hospital fatality rates that followed Gamma’s spread across 14 state capitals, and in which more than hal...
Article
Background The public health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has motivated a rapid search for potential therapeutics, with some key successes. However, the potential impact of different treatments, and consequently research and procurement priorities, have not been clear. Methods Using a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, COVID-19 dise...
Article
Full-text available
Late in 2020, two genetically-distinct clusters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with mutations of biological concern were reported, one in the United Kingdom and one in South Africa. Using a combination of data from routine surveillance, genomic sequencing and international travel we track the international dispersal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mathematical models can provide insights into the control of pandemic COVID-19, which remains a global priority. The dynamics of directly-transmitted infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, are usually described by compartmental models where individuals are classified as susceptible, infected and removed. These SIR models typically assume homogenous...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the importance of virus genome sequencing to guide public health interventions to control virus transmission and understand SARS-CoV-2 evolution. As of July 20th, 2021, >2 million SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been submitted to GISAID, 94% from high income and 6% from low and middle income countries. Here, we analyse th...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the causes and consequences of the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern is crucial to pandemic control yet difficult to achieve because they arise in the context of variable human behavior and immunity. We investigated the spatial invasion dynamics of lineage B.1.1.7 by jointly...
Article
Paramyxoviruses have a broad host range and geographic distribution, including human pathogens transmitted by bats, such as Nipah and Hendra viruses. In this study, we combined high-throughput sequencing and molecular approaches to investigate the presence of paramyxoviruses in neotropical bats (Microchiroptera suborder) in Brazil. We discovered an...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Some studies have determined that the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant of concern (VOC) has been associated with increased transmissibility, hospitalization, and mortality. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with B.1.1.7 VOC infection in the context of vaccination with adenovirus-vectored and inactivated vaccines. Methods: We...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mutations accrued by SARS-CoV-2 lineage P.1—first detected in Brazil in early January, 2021—include amino acid changes in the receptor-binding domain of the viral spike protein that also are reported in other variants of concern, including B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. We aimed to investigate whether isolates of wild-type P.1 lineage SARS-CoV-2...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The unprecedented public health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has motivated a rapid search for potential therapeutics, with some key successes. However, the potential impact of different treatments, and consequently research and procurement priorities, have not been clear. Methods and Findings We develop a mathematical model of SARS-Co...
Article
Full-text available
Characterisation of SARS-CoV-2 genetic diversity through space and time can reveal trends in virus importation and domestic circulation, and permit the exploration of questions regarding the early transmission dynamics. Here we present a detailed description of SARS-CoV-2 genomic epidemiology in Ecuador, one of the hardest hit countries during the...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of diverse lineages harboring mutations with functional significance and potentially enhanced transmissibility imposes an increased difficulty on the containment of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic [...]
Article
Full-text available
Late in 2020, two genetically-distinct clusters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with mutations of biological concern were reported, one in the United Kingdom and one in South Africa. Using a combination of data from routine surveillance, genomic sequencing and international travel we track the international dispersal...
Preprint
Full-text available
The city of Manaus, north Brazil, was stricken by a severe epidemic of SARS-Cov-2 in March 2020, reaching a seroprevalence of 76% by October 2020. Nevertheless, in late November an abrupt increase in hospitalizations and deaths hit Manaus, causing higher number of deaths compared to the first epidemic wave. It has been hypothesized that virus linea...
Article
Full-text available
With the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that may increase transmissibility and/or cause escape from immune responses, there is an urgent need for the targeted surveillance of circulating lineages. It was found that the B.1.1.7 (also 501Y.V1) variant, first detected in the United Kingdom, could be...
Article
Background: Immunity after dengue virus (DENV) infection has been suggested to cross-protect from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and mortality. Methods: We tested whether serologically proven prior DENV infection diagnosed in September-October 2019, before the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reduced...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Brazil is one of the countries worst affected by the COVID-19 pandemic with over 20 million cases and 557,000 deaths reported. Comparison of real-time local COVID-19 data between areas is essential for understanding transmission, measuring the effects of interventions and predicting the course of the epidemic, but are often challenging d...
Article
Full-text available
Reinfection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-COV-2) has been reported in many countries, suggesting that the virus may continue to circulate among humans despite the possibility of local herd immunity due to massive previous infections. The emergence of variants of concern (VOC) that are more transmissible than the...
Article
Full-text available
We documented 4 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reinfection by non-variant of concern strains among healthcare workers in Campinas, Brazil. We isolated infectious particles from nasopharyngeal secretions during both infection episodes. Improved and continued protection measures are necessary to mitigate the risk for reinfec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Characterisation of SARS-CoV-2 genetic diversity through space and time can reveal trends in virus importation and domestic circulation, and permit the exploration of questions regarding the early transmission dynamics. Here we present a detailed description of SARS-CoV-2 genomic epidemiology in Ecuador, one of the hardest hit countries during the...
Article
Full-text available
Background Yellow fever is an arboviral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by mosquitoes in the tropical regions of Africa and South America. WHO estimates that there are 200 000 severe cases and 30 000 deaths worldwide annually. In Brazil, the wild cycle of yellow fever (also termed urban cycle) occurs through transmission between non-human primates...
Article
Full-text available
Background With the continuous spreading of SARS-CoV-2 globally, the probability for interactions between humans who are infected and wildlife tends to grow intensely, as well as the likelihood of viral spillover from humans to biodiversity. This aspect is of great concern for wildlife conservation and human health, because the list of highly susce...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Little evidence exists on the differential health effects of COVID-19 on disadvantaged population groups. Here we characterise the differential risk of hospitalisation and death in São Paulo state, Brazil, and show how vulnerability to COVID-19 is shaped by socioeconomic inequalities. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using...
Article
Full-text available
Brazil has one of the fastest-growing COVID-19 epidemics worldwide. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been adopted at the municipal level with asynchronous actions taken across 5,568 municipalities and the Federal District. This paper systematises the fragmented information on NPIs reporting on a novel dataset with survey responses from...
Article
Full-text available
Brazil has one of the fastest-growing COVID-19 epidemics worldwide. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been adopted at the municipal level with asynchronous actions taken across 5,568 municipalities and the Federal District. This paper systematises the fragmented information on NPIs reporting on a novel dataset with survey responses from...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Manaus, Brazil, resurged in late 2020, despite high levels of previous infection there. Through genome sequencing of viruses sampled in Manaus between November 2020 and January 2021, we identified the emergence and circulation of a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, lineage P.1, that acquired 17 mutations, includi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: A new SARS-CoV-2 lineage, named P.1 (20J/501Y.V3), has recently been detected in Brazil. Mutations accrued by the P.1 lineage include amino acid changes in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein that also are reported in variants of concern in the United Kingdom (B.1.1.7) and South Africa (B.1.325). Methods: We isolated two P...
Article
Full-text available
Spatially-explicit phylogeographic analyses can be performed with an inference framework that employs relaxed random walks to reconstruct phylogenetic dispersal histories in continuous space. This core model was first implemented ten years ago and has opened up new opportunities in the field of phylodynamics, allowing researchers to map and analyse...
Article
Autochthonous Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission in Brazil was first identified in April 2015 in Brazil, with the first ZIKV-associated microcephaly cases detected in October 2015. Despite efforts on understanding ZIKV transmission in Brazil, little is known about the virus epidemiology and genetic diversity in Minas Gerais (MG), the second most populo...
Article
In December 2020, research surveillance detected the B.1.1.7 lineage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in São Paulo, Brazil. Rapid genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed 2 distinct introductions of the lineage. One patient reported no international travel. There may be more infections with this lineage in Brazil than...
Article
Full-text available
We report an epidemiologic analysis of 4,210 cases of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and genetic analysis of 313 new near-complete virus genomes in Panama during March 9–April 16, 2020. Although containment measures reduced R0 and Rt, they did not interrupt virus spread in the country.
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly in the Brazilian Amazon and the attack rate there is an estimate of the final size of a largely unmitigated epidemic. We use a convenience sample of blood donors to show that by June, one month after the epidemic peak in Manaus, capital of Amazonas state, 44% of the population had detectable IgG antibodies. Correcting for...
Article
Full-text available
The UK’s COVID-19 epidemic during early 2020 was one of world’s largest and unusually well represented by virus genomic sampling. Here we reveal the fine-scale genetic lineage structure of this epidemic through analysis of 50,887 SARS-CoV-2 genomes, including 26,181 from the UK sampled throughout the country’s first wave of infection. Using large-s...