Nuno F. Bicho

Nuno F. Bicho
Universidade do Algarve | UALG · ICArEHB - Interdisciplinary Center for Archaeology and the Evolution of Human Behaviour

Ph.D.

About

231
Publications
53,932
Reads
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3,328
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2015 - November 2016
Universidade do Algarve
Position
  • Managing Director
January 2001 - December 2010

Publications

Publications (231)
Article
Full-text available
Species determination based on genetic evidence is an indispensable tool in archaeology, forensics, ecology, and food authentication. Most available analytical approaches involve compromises with regard to the number of detectable species, high cost due to low throughput, or a labor-intensive manual process. Here, we introduce “Species by Proteome...
Chapter
This article we present a short view on the history of research during the last 150 years in the Mesolithic of the Tagus Valley. This section is followed by a summary of the present knowledge of the Muge hunter-gatherers. In the conclusions, we discuss a series of main models that need to be investigated in the next few years.
Article
The use of bipolar (on anvil) methods for resource exploitation has been identified in the archaeological record from the late Pliocene through to the Holocene. During all phases of human evolution, bipolar knapping and wedging were applied by different hominin species in a wide range of ecological settings. Studies on lithic bipolar methods have m...
Article
Neanderthals faced great environmental and climatic instability during the Pleistocene, which may have influenced their lithic technology, subsistence patterns, mobility, behaviour and survival. Modern research assessing the effect of climate and environment on the Middle Palaeolithic and transition to the Upper Palaeolithic has often turned to sou...
Article
Full-text available
Blinkhorn et al. 1 present a reanalysis of fossil and lithic material from Garrod's 1928 excavation at Shukbah Cave, identifying the presence of Nubian Levallois cores and points in direct association with a Neanderthal molar. The authors argue that this demonstrates the Nubian reduction strategy forms a part of the wider Middle Palaeolithic lithic...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptation to Late Pleistocene climate change is an oft-cited potential contributor to Neanderthal disappearance in Eurasia. Accordingly, research on Neanderthal behaviour-including subsistence strategies, mobility, lithic technology, raw material procurement and demography-often focuses on linking changes observable in the archaeological record to...
Article
Full-text available
During the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in the Balkan, Italian and Iberian peninsulas of southern Europe, late Neanderthal and early Anatomically Modern Human (AMH) populations may have overlapped in some capacity. Many of the hypotheses and models for the transition interval suggest that Neanderthal populations remained in, or migrated t...
Conference Paper
To understand the role climate played in facilitating the development and expression of human behaviors, our interdisciplinary research team cored the interdunal Nyalonzelwe lake (Inhambane coast, southern Mozambique) during the summer of 2019. Lake Nyalonzelwe sits 5m above MSL and is sheltered from the Indian Ocean by a Pleistocene dune system. I...
Preprint
Full-text available
Genetic species determination has become an indispensable tool in forensics, archaeology, ecology, and food authentication. The available methods are either suited for detecting a single taxon across many samples or for screening a wide range of species across a few samples. Here, we introduce "Species by Proteome INvestigation" (SPIN), a proteomic...
Article
Nery Delgado was a key figure in the development of archaeological methods applied to prehistoric sites in Portugal within European archaeology at the end of the nineteenth century. He was the first in Europe to use a grid in his 1879–1880 excavation at the Casa da Moura cave (Óbidos, Portugal). The grid divided the cave into twenty-eight sectors e...
Article
Full-text available
Successive generations of hunter–gatherers of the Late Glacial and Early Holocene in Iberia had to contend with rapidly changing environments and climatic conditions. This constrained their economic resources and capacity for demographic growth. The Atlantic façade of Iberia was occupied throughout these times and witnessed very significant environ...
Article
This article, on the Early Neolithic pottery from the Cabeço da Amoreira shellmidden in the Muge region of central Portugal, presents a detailed review of the evidence to date and a systematic analysis of the decorative and mineralogical characteristics of the stratified and radiocarbon-dated ceramic assemblage. A homogenous pottery manufacturing t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The southeastern coast of Mozambique is a key area for the development of paleoenvironmental and human evolution studies. To understand the history of environmental evolution in this area, two cores were collected in the Muangue and Nyalonzelwe lakes. The cores were analyzed for their sediment texture, content of organic/inorganic carbon and nitrog...
Article
Full-text available
Documenting the first appearance of modern humans in a given region is key to understanding the dispersal process and the replacement or assimilation of indigenous human populations such as the Neanderthals. The Iberian Peninsula was the last refuge of Neanderthal populations as modern humans advanced across Eurasia. Here we present evidence of an...
Conference Paper
Understanding the role of climate on the onset of behavioral modernity in anatomically modern humans has never been more vital in the quest to reconstruct our origins. In order to understand the role climate played in facilitating the development and expression of modern human behaviors, our interdisciplinary research team cored a series of coastal...
Article
On the Iberian Peninsula, abrupt climate shifts during the Late Pleistocene impacted human and natural systems. Our knowledge of human adaptive responses to these climatic perturbations has improved in recent years with the development of new radiocarbon techniques that have increased the temporal resolution of cultural chronologies. At the same ti...
Article
This study presents the analysis of the lithic assemblages from Layers 5 and 4E (Terrace) of the site of Vale Boi (southern Portugal) and Levels U and T from Lapa do Picareiro (central Portugal). We aimed to understand the technological patterns and raw material exploitation during the Gravettian-Solutrean transition in westernmost Iberia and test...
Article
Full-text available
First results of a Middle Stone Age survey in the Kerma region, northern Sudan - Nuno Bicho, Jonathan Haws, Matthieu Honegger
Poster
In order to better quantify the role of climate variability in southeastern Africa, and its impact on the evolution and spread of anatomically modern humans, our international and interdisciplinary team cored a series of coastal lakes during the summer of 2019. Here, we present data from lake Nyalonzelwe, one of many interdunal lakes present along...
Chapter
Full-text available
People have lived along the Portuguese coast at least since Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, over 100,000 years ago. While there are many known sites and archaeological evidence of human settlement on land, there are only a handful of known submerged or near-submerged locations, and these are all in the present-day intertidal zone. Throughout the peri...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of the first non-invasive stage of analysis of the Early Neolithic pottery assemblage from the shellmidden of Cabeço da Amoreira (Muge, Central Portugal). The assemblage of 201 pottery records was defined on the basis of strict stratigraphic and chronological criteria, supported by the available radiocarbon dates. Th...
Article
Here we report the results of an integrated geoarchaeological survey to study Palaeolithic human settlement dynamics in the coastal region of Portuguese Estremadura. The region has been an important focus of human occupation across multiple glacial-interglacial cycles, including periods of well-documented abrupt climate instability during MIS 3 and...
Chapter
Full-text available
One of the main elements in prehistoric research is the study of settlement patterns. In the last five decades, stemming partially from Binford’s research on the topic, the idea of settlement patterns is based on site typology, including the traditional residential and logistic concepts. Both models of land use and exploitation are certainly marked...
Chapter
In this paper, we focused on the production of shell beads during the Proto-Solutrean at the site of Vale Boi (southern Portugal), found during recent excavations of one of the loci called Terrace. Here, we recovered 14 perforated shells from three different species (Littorina sp., Theodoxus sp. and Antalis sp.) and, despite their quantity show a c...
Book
Full-text available
The book assembles new insights into humanity’s social, cultural and economic developments during the Last Glacial Maximum in Western Europe and adjacent regions. It gathers original, up-to-date research results on the Solutrean techno-complex, reflecting four major fields of research: data from current excavations; analysis of lithic assemblages;...
Article
Full-text available
Scaled or splintered pieces are one of the most common lithic artifact type in Upper Paleolithic assemblages throughout Europe, especially in its westernmost regions. Despite this, and even after one century of being identified, there is still no consensus on how to define, analyze, or interpret these tools. In western Iberia, there is a clear lack...
Presentation
Esta aula pretende apresentar o Projeto InMoz e a sua equipa. Este projeto tem como objetivo investigar as alterações ambientais ao longo do Quaternário na área Sudeste de Moçambique e os seus impactos na evolução humana. Assim, foi feita uma introdução sobre o que são paleoambientes e que fatores influenciam a sua evolução (e.g. alterações climáti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aimed to reconstruct Txina-Txina site (located between the junction of Machampane and Chifati rivers, Southeastern Mozambique) paleoenvironment and site formation processes to better understand its occupation pattern, preservation of archaeological materials and the impact of palaeoenvironmental changes on human evolution. For this, we c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Contrasting with other areas of the globe, there are few palaeoenvironmental studies in Africa and in particularly in Mozambique. However, the knowledge about Quaternary palaeoenvironmental changes and their forcers (e.g. climate and sea level changes) is essential to understand the environmental context of human occupation of the Inhambane area. T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to better manage climate risks and to predict environmental resilience, first it is necessary to know about climate changes through time and how different environments react to those changes. However, most paleoenvironmental studies are concentrated in middle to high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. To better understand spatial climat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In 2016, our teams carried out survey and excavation field work in the Inhambane Province, located in southern coastal Mozambique. At Praia da Rocha we have identified several previously unknown shell middens dated to the regional Iron Age (c. 700 BP). All sites are located within few hundred meters of each other and only one (Praia da Rocha 1) was...
Article
Full-text available
The Muge shell middens of Cabeço da Arruda, Cabeço da Amoreira and Moita do Sebastião (central Portugal) have been key sites of archaeological research for 150 years, possibly working as residential sites occupied by semi-sedentary communities during the final Mesolithic. The purposes of this article include the biocultural assessment of metacarpal...
Article
Full-text available
We present preliminary sclerochronological analysis on 15 Argyrosomus regius (meagre) otoliths collected from two different human occupation levels from the Cabeço da Amoreira shell midden (Muge valley, Portugal). The otoliths were sectioned and observed under a reflected light stereomicroscope to examine seasonal growth rings. Carbonates collected...
Article
Full-text available
The onset of the Holocene is marked by new human ecological adaptations that are associated with the origins of the Mesolithic in the Atlantic Iberia coast. During the Mesolithic, shellmidden deposits become one of the most relevant and interesting prehistoric archeological contexts, interpreted has the result of intensive human ecological exploita...
Preprint
Scaled or splintered pieces are one of the most common lithic artifacts type in Upper Paleolithic assemblages throughout Europe, especially in its westernmost regions. Despite this, and even after one century of being identified there is still no consensus on how to define, analyze or interpret these tools. In western Iberia, there is a clear lack...
Article
Full-text available
Close coupling of Iberian hydroclimate and North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) during recent glacial periods has been identified through the analysis of marine sediment and pollen grains co-deposited on the Portuguese continental margin. While offering precisely correlatable records, these time series have lacked a directly dated, site-spe...
Research
Full-text available
From 12th to 14th of October 2017, around 70 researchers from several countries met in Faro to discuss current and future research on the Solutrean, a cultural phase of the Last Glacial Maximum in Europe. To this end, 50 presentations and posters provided insights into ongoing research in Western Europe and beyond.The excursion headed to the import...
Article
Full-text available
The study of Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in Portugal: a historiographic perspective. The scientific study of the Upper Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Portugal has its roots in the mid-19th century. The 2nd Geological Commission, created by a decree of the queen D. Maria II (1857), played a fundamental role in...
Article
Southeast Africa has become an important region for understanding the development of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Anatomically Modern Humans. Due to its location between east and southern Africa, Mozambique is a key region for evaluating the development of Homo sapiens and the MSA across Africa. Here, we present the first results of lithic analys...
Preprint
One of the main elements in prehistoric research is the study of settlement patterns. In the last five decades, stemming partially from Binford’s research on the topic, the idea of settlement patterns is based on site typology, including the traditional residential and logistic concepts. Both models of land use and exploitation are certainly marked...
Poster
Full-text available
As part of the on-going project "Stone Age Vilankulos: Modern Human Origins Research South of the Rio Save, Mozambique", a geoarchaeological survey of lithic raw material sources in the Machampane river valley was completed in the summer of 2017. A total of 50 raw material samples were removed from the outcrops surrounding the Late Stone Age (LSA)...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on preliminary fieldwork at the Later Stone Age site of Txina-Txina in Mozambique. Excavation yielded a long stratigraphic sequence, a large lithic assemblage, a unique decorated gastropod shell fragment and two ostrich eggshell beads—the first of their type recovered from a Stone Age context in Mozambique.
Article
Full-text available
Apesar de existirem algumas referências a grutas no Algarve em documentos anteriores à Idade Contemporânea, foi no dealbar da segunda metade do século XIX que surgiram as primeiras descrições de feição científica, pela obra do geólogo Charles Bonnet. O presente artigo trata as duas cavidades rochosas naturais descritas pelo referido investigador, P...
Article
Full-text available
During the Upper Paleolithic, lithic variability is one of the most important keys to recognize hunter-gatherer behavior, technology, ecology, and social dynamics. The origin and expansion of Gravettian populations in Eurasia has been seen as one of the most critical episodes in human evolution, argued to be the first clear evidence of the so-calle...
Article
Recent cross‐disciplinary research in the Iberian Peninsula has revealed a synchronous pattern between rapid climate change and widespread cultural modifications during the Late Paleolithic. The beginning and development of each traditionally defined techno‐complex is thought to be associated with different environmental conditions. A main contrast...
Article
Researchers have long debated the impact of climate change on human culture and particularly in hunter-gatherer societies. Climate drifts, particularly abrupt ones, have been continuingly seen as major prompts for rapid technological and cultural innovation. Recent advances in paleoclimatic reconstructions and ongoing developments in the quality an...
Article
During the 2014 archaeological campaign in the Mesolithic shell midden of Cabeço da Amoreira (Muge, Central Portugal) a concentration over a small area, approximately 1m², of faunal remains with a single taxon (red deer), lithics, charcoal and fire-cracked rocks was identified in one of the shell-rich layers of the mound.Here we present the results...
Article
Full-text available
Close coupling of Iberian hydroclimate and North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) during recent glacial periods has been identified through the analysis of marine sediment and pollen grains co-deposited on the Portuguese continental margin. These reconstructions have lacked a directly-dated, site-specific record of continental Iberian climate...
Book
Full-text available
This collection presents state-of-the-art approaches to the use of inorganic raw materials in the period known as prehistory. It focuses on stone-tools, adornments, colorants and pottery from Europe, America and Africa. The chapters intimately merge archaeology, anthropology, geology, geography, physics and chemistry to reconstruct past human behav...
Article
This paper introduces a new freeware digital system, based on Google/Android platforms, designed to be a fully integrated and customizable solution to record, manage, and share archaeological survey data. The core of the system is two custom smartphone/tablet applications, through which surveyors are able to retrieve geographical coordinates and re...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents new models on the origin, speed and mode of the wave-of-advance leading to the definitive occupation of Europe’s outskirts by Anatomically Modern Humans, during the Gravettian, between c. 37 and 30 ka ago. These models provide the estimation for possible demic dispersal routes for AMH at a stable spread rate of c. 0.7 km/year, w...
Data
List of all Gravettian sites dated by AMS to more than 30 k calibrated years ago. Source: Radiocarbon Palaeolithic Europe Database v20. (DOCX)
Data
Results of the Order command for all early Gravettian sites. (XLSX)
Poster
Full-text available
In the framework of the project ”Stone Age Vilankulos: Modern Human Origins Research South of the Rio Save, Mozambique” a geoarchaeological survey was conducted in 2016 aiming to better understand the environmental history and landscape evolution of the study area including the environmental context of human occupation. During the survey, 23 sedime...
Article
It is now rather evident that, concomitant with the advent, growth and disappearance of the traditionally defined Western European Upper Paleolithic techno-complexes, a series of discrete eco-cultural niches would have existed within Iberia. Vale Boi, and its surroundings, may represent one of these niches, since its lengthy and fairly complete arc...
Article
Cabeço da Arruda and Cabeço da Amoreira are shellmiddens that integrate the Mesolithic Muge shellmidden complex. Paleoenvironmental studies indicate that Muge valley was both rich in marine and terrestrial resources. The exploitation of diverse resources from the Muge landscape is a crucial issue to understand the economy, subsistence and social co...
Article
Evidence for the first Neolithic population in central Portugal dates to as early as c. 7600 cal BP. These first farmers were exogenous groups arriving to the Atlantic coast from the Mediterranean Sea. For a few centuries there seems to have occurred an overlap in the region between the Mesolithic Muge hunter-gatherers and the regional early Neolit...