Nour Skaf

Nour Skaf
Observatoire de Paris · Laboratory for Space Studies and Instrumentation in Astrophysics

PhD

About

63
Publications
3,080
Reads
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562
Citations
Citations since 2016
63 Research Items
562 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200

Publications

Publications (63)
Preprint
We detect a superjovian extrasolar planet around the dusty A star HIP 99770 using precision astrometry from the Gaia and Hipparcos satellites and direct imaging using the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics Project. HIP 99770 b is the first exoplanet ever discovered jointly through direct imaging and astrometry and the first discovery leve...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the analysis of the atmospheres of 70 gaseous extrasolar planets via transit spectroscopy with Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). For over half of these, we statistically detect spectral modulation which our retrievals attribute to molecular species. Among these, we use Bayesian Hierarchical Modelling to search for chemical trends with...
Article
Full-text available
We present an experimental study of photon statistics for high-contrast imaging with the Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) Exoplanet Camera (MEC) located behind the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics System at the Subaru Telescope. We show that MEC measures the expected distributions for both on-axis companion intensity and off...
Article
Full-text available
We present the direct imaging discovery of a low-mass companion to the nearby accelerating F star, HIP 5319, using SCExAO coupled with the CHARIS, VAMPIRES, and MEC instruments in addition to Keck/NIRC2 imaging. CHARIS JHK (1.1–2.4 μ m) spectroscopic data combined with VAMPIRES 750 nm, MEC Y , and NIRC2 L p photometry is best matched by an M3–M7 ob...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present an experimental study of photon statistics for high-contrast imaging with the Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) Exoplanet Camera (MEC) located behind the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics System (SCExAO) at the Subaru Telescope. We show that MEC measures the expected distributions for both on-axis companion intensit...
Preprint
Low wind and petaling effects, caused by the discontinuous apertures of telescopes, are poorly corrected -- if at all -- by commonly used workhorse wavefront sensors (WFSs). Wavefront petaling breaks the coherence of the point spread function core, splitting it into several side lobes, dramatically shutting off scientific throughput. We demonstrate...
Preprint
Full-text available
We describe the design and initial results from a visible-light Lyot coronagraph for SCExAO/VAMPIRES. The coronagraph is comprised of four hard-edged, partially transmissive focal plane masks with inner working angles of 36 mas, 55 mas, 92 mas, and 129 mas, respectively. The Lyot stop is a reflective, undersized design with a geometric throughput o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Adaptive Optics projects at Subaru Telescope span a wide field of capabilities ranging from ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) providing partial correction over a 20 arcmin FOV to extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) for exoplanet imaging. We describe in this paper current and upcoming narrow field-of-view capabilities provided by the Subaru Extreme Ada...
Preprint
Full-text available
Speckle Noise is the dominant source of error in high contrast imaging with adaptive optics system. We discuss the potential for wavefront sensing telemetry to calibrate speckle noise with sufficient precision and accuracy so that it can be removed in post-processing of science images acquired by high contrast imaging instruments. In such a self-ca...
Article
Full-text available
We present the direct-imaging discovery of a substellar companion in orbit around a Sun-like star member of the Hyades open cluster. So far, no other substellar companions have been unambiguously confirmed via direct imaging around main-sequence stars in Hyades. The star HIP 21152 is an accelerating star as identified by the astrometry from the Gai...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the direct imaging discovery of a low-mass companion to the nearby accelerating F star, HIP 5319, using SCExAO coupled with the CHARIS, VAMPIRES, and MEC instruments in addition to Keck/NIRC2 imaging. CHARIS $JHK$ (1.1-2.4 $\mu$m) spectroscopic data combined with VAMPIRES 750 nm, MEC $Y$, and NIRC2 $L_{\rm p}$ photometry is best matched...
Article
Full-text available
Direct images of protoplanets embedded in disks around infant stars provide the key to understanding the formation of gas giant planets such as Jupiter. Using the Subaru Telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope, we find evidence for a Jovian protoplanet around AB Aurigae orbiting at a wide projected separation (~93 au), probably responsible for mul...
Preprint
We present the direct-imaging discovery of a substellar companion in orbit around a Sun-like star member of the Hyades open cluster. So far, no other substellar companions have been unambiguously confirmed via direct imaging around main-sequence stars in Hyades. The star HIP 21152 is an accelerating star as identified by the astrometry from the Gai...
Preprint
Direct images of protoplanets embedded in disks around infant stars provide the key to understanding the formation of gas giant planets like Jupiter. Using the Subaru Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope, we find evidence for a jovian protoplanet around AB Aurigae orbiting at a wide projected separation (93 au), likely responsible for multiple plan...
Article
We present the first multiwavelength (near-infrared; 1.1–2.4 μ m) imaging of HD 36546's debris disk, using the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system coupled with the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS). As a 3–10 Myr old star, HD 36546 presents a rare opportunity to study a debris disk at very...
Article
Full-text available
Context. Differentiating between a true exoplanet signal and residual speckle noise is a key challenge in high-contrast imaging (HCI). Speckles result from a combination of fast, slow, and static wavefront aberrations introduced by atmospheric turbulence and instrument optics. While wavefront control techniques developed over the last decade have s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Differentiating between an exoplanet signal and residual speckle noise is a key challenge in high-contrast imaging. Speckles are due to a combination of fast, slow and static wavefront aberrations introduced by atmospheric turbulence and instrument optics. While wavefront control techniques developed over the last decade have shown promise in minim...
Preprint
Full-text available
A key challenge of high contrast imaging (HCI) is to differentiate a speckle from an exoplanet signal. The sources of speckles are a combination of atmospheric residuals and aberrations in the non-common path. Those non-common path aberrations (NCPA) are particularly challenging to compensate for as they are not directly measured, and because they...
Preprint
High contrast imaging (HCI) systems rely on active wavefront control (WFC) to deliver deep raw contrast in the focal plane, and on calibration techniques to further enhance contrast by identifying planet light within the residual speckle halo. Both functions can be combined in an HCI system and we discuss a path toward designing HCI systems capable...
Preprint
Full-text available
To directly detect exoplanets and protoplanetary disks, the development of high accuracy wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) technologies is essential, especially for ground-based Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument is a high-contrast imaging platform to discover and characterize...
Preprint
We present first results from a new exoplanet direct imaging survey being carried out with the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics project (SCExAO) coupled to the CHARIS integral field spectrograph and assisted with Keck/NIRC2, targeting stars showing evidence for an astrometric acceleration from the Hipparcos and Gaia satellites. Near-inf...
Preprint
We present the first multi-wavelength (near-infrared; $1.1 - 2.4$ $\mu m$) imaging of HD 36546's debris disk, using the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system coupled with the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS). As a 3-10 Myr old T Tauri star, HD 36546 presents a rare opportunity to study a deb...
Conference Paper
To directly detect exoplanets and protoplanetary disks, the development of high accuracy wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) technologies is essential, especially for ground-based Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument is a high-contrast imaging platform to discover and characterize...
Article
We present a study on the spatially scanned spectroscopic observations of the transit of GJ 1132 b, a warm (~500 K) super-Earth (1.13 R⊕) that was obtained with the G141 grism (1.125–1.650 μm) of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We used the publicly available Iraclis pipeline to extract the planetary transmission...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a study on the spatially scanned spectroscopic observations of the transit of GJ 1132 b, a warm ($\sim$500 K) Super-Earth (1.13 R$_\oplus$) that was obtained with the G141 grism (1.125 - 1.650 $\mu$m) of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. We used the publicly available Iraclis pipeline to extract the plane...
Preprint
Full-text available
Focal plane wavefront sensing is an elegant solution for wavefront sensing since near-focal images of any source taken by a detector show distortions in the presence of aberrations. Non-Common Path Aberrations and the Low Wind Effect both have the ability to limit the achievable contrast of the finest coronagraphs coupled with the best extreme adap...
Conference Paper
The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) serves both a science instrument in operation, and a prototyping platform for integrating and validating advanced wavefront control techniques. It provides a modular hardware and software environment optimized for flexible prototyping, reducing the time from concept formulation to on-sky ope...
Conference Paper
Focal plane wavefront sensing is an elegant solution for wavefront sensing since near-focal images of any source taken by a detector show distortions in the presence of aberrations. Non-Common Path Aberrations and the Low Wind Effect both have the ability to limit the achievable contrast of the finest coronagraphs coupled with the best extreme adap...
Preprint
We describe the current on-sky performance of the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument on the Subaru telescope on Maunakea, Hawaii. SCExAO is continuing to advance its AO performance, delivering H band Strehl ratios in excess of 0.9 for bright stars. We describe new advances with SCExAO's wavefront control that lead to a...
Article
We present an atmospheric characterization study of two medium-sized planets bracketing the radius of Neptune: HD 106315c (RP = 4.98 ± 0.23 R⊕) and HD 3167c ( = - + RP 2.740 0.100 0.106 R⊕). We analyze spatially scanned spectroscopic observations obtained with the G141 grism (1.125–1.650 μm) of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Spa...
Preprint
We present an atmospheric characterization study of two medium sized planets bracketing the radius of Neptune: HD 106315 c (R$_{\rm{P}}$=4.98 $\pm$ 0.23 R$_{\oplus}$) and HD 3167 c (R$_{\rm{P}}$=2.740$_{-0.100}^{+0.106}$ R$_{\oplus}$). We analyse spatially scanned spectroscopic observations obtained with the G141 grism (1.125 - 1.650 $\mu$m) of the...
Article
We present the analysis of the hot-Jupiter KELT-7 b using transmission and emission spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope, both taken with the Wide Field Camera 3. Our study uncovers a rich transmission spectrum that is consistent with a cloud-free atmosphere and suggests the presence of H_{2}O and H^{−}. In contrast, the extracted emission...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the atmospheric characterization of three large, gaseous planets: WASP-127 b, WASP-79 b, and WASP-62 b. We analyzed spectroscopic data obtained with the G141 grism (1.088–1.68 μm) of the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope using the Iraclis pipeline and the TauREx3 retrieval code, both of which are publicly a...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present new, near-infrared ($1.1 - 2.4$ $\mu m$) high-contrast imaging of the debris disk around HD 15115 with the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system (SCExAO) coupled with the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS). SCExAO/CHARIS resolves the disk down to $\rho \sim 0.2''$ ($\rm{r_{proj}} \sim 10$ $\...
Article
We present new, near-infrared (1.1−2.4 μm) high-contrast imaging of the debris disk around HD 15115 with the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system (SCExAO) coupled with the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS). SCExAO/CHARIS resolves the disk down to ρ∼0."2 (r_(proj)∼10 au), a factor of ∼3−5 smaller than...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the analysis of the hot-Jupiter KELT-7 b using transmission and emission spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), both taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Our study uncovers a rich transmission spectrum which is consistent with a cloud-free atmosphere and suggests the presence of H2O and H-. In contrast, the extracted e...
Article
We analyze the transmission and emission spectra of the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-76 b, observed with the G141 grism of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). We reduce and fit the raw data for each observation using the open-source software Iraclis before performing a fully Bayesian retrieval using the publicly available analy...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents the atmospheric characterisation of three large, gaseous planets: WASP-127 b, WASP-79 b and WASP-62 b. We analysed spectroscopic data obtained with the G141 grism (1.088 - 1.68 $\mu$m) of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) using the Iraclis pipeline and the TauREx3 retrieval code, both of whi...
Preprint
Full-text available
We analyse the transmission and emission spectra of the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-76 b, observed with the G141 grism of the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). We reduce and fit the raw data for each observation using the open-source software Iraclis before performing a fully Bayesian retrieval using the publicly available analysis su...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies utilizing sparse aperture-masking (SAM) interferometry and Hα differential imaging have reported multiple Jovian companions around the young solar-mass star, LkCa 15 (LkCa 15 bcd): the first claimed direct detection of infant, newly formed planets ("protoplanets"). We present new near-infrared direct imaging/spectroscopy from the Subaru...
Preprint
Full-text available
Two studies utilizing sparse aperture masking (SAM) interferometry and $H_{\rm \alpha}$ differential imaging have reported multiple jovian companions around the young solar-mass star, LkCa 15 (LkCa 15 bcd): the first claimed direct detection of infant, newly-formed planets ("protoplanets"). We present new near-infrared direct imaging/spectroscopy f...
Article
Full-text available
We present SCExAO/CHARIS high-contrast imaging/JHK integral field spectroscopy of κ And b, a directly imaged low-mass companion orbiting a nearby B9V star. We detect κ And b at a high signal-to-noise ratio and extract high-precision spectrophotometry using a new forward-modeling algorithm for (A-)LOCI complementary to KLIP-FM developed by Pueyo et...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present SCExAO/CHARIS high-contrast imaging/$JHK$ integral field spectroscopy of $\kappa$ And b, a directly-imaged low-mass companion orbiting a nearby B9V star. We detect $\kappa$ And b at a high signal-to-noise and extract high precision spectrophotometry using a new forward-modeling algorithm for (A-)LOCI complementary to KLIP-FM developed by...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument is an extremely modular high-contrast instrument installed on the Subaru telescope in Hawaii. SCExAO has a dual purpose. Its position in the northern hemisphere on a 8-meter telescope makes it a prime instrument for the detection and characterization of exoplanets and stellar envi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Exoplanet imaging requires excellent wavefront correction and calibration. At the Subaru telescope this is achieved us- ing the 188-element facility adaptive optics system(AO188) feeding the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument; a multipurpose instrument built to deliver high contrast images of planets and disks around n...
Article
We present early laboratory simulations and extensive on-sky tests validating of the performance of a shaped pupil coronagraph (SPC) behind an extreme-AO corrected beam of the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system. In tests with the SCExAO internal source/wavefront error simulator, the normalized intensity profile for the SPC...

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