Norman Gledhill

Norman Gledhill
York University · School of Kinesiology and Health Sciences

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114
Publications
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5,173
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Publications

Publications (114)
Article
The sport of ice hockey requires coordination of complex skills involving musculoskeletal and physiological abilities while simultaneously exposing players to a high risk for injury. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) was developed to assess fundamental movement patterns that underlie both sport performance and injury risk. The top one hundred an...
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Amidst the growing health care burden created by diabetes, this study aimed to assess the utility of a prediabetes/type 2 diabetes risk questionnaire in high risk ethnic communities in Toronto Canada. Participants (n = 691) provided questionnaire responses and capillary blood tests collected via fingerstick and results were analysed for HbA1c using...
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Habitual physical activity participation is widely accepted to be a safe and effective method for managing cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk factors. However, engagement in physical activity has the potential to trigger cardiovascular events, especially when the activity is of vigorous intensity and the participant is unfit or has pre-exist...
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The article title should read “Physiological employment standards II: developing and implementing physical employment standards for safety-related occupations”.
Article
Canadian court decisions and human rights legislation impose strict legal criteria for developing applicant and incumbent physiological employment standards to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement. These legal criteria compel researchers and employers to ensure that the standards are criterion-based and validly linked to the critical lif...
Article
Background: Understanding sudden cardiac death in the young may inform prevention strategies. Objective: To determine the scope and nature of sudden death in a geographically defined population. Methods: We performed a retrospective population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, of all sudden cardiac death cases involving persons aged 2-40...
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The purpose of this paper is to provide succinct descriptions of prominent job- specific physical fitness protocols (JSPFPs) which were constructed to satisfy the legal obligations to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement for physically demanding public safety occupations. The intent of a JSPFP is to determine whether an applicant or incu...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate fitness and health adaptations from a training program riding all-terrain vehicles (ATV) and off-road motorcycles (ORM) as the exercise stimulus. Participants (n = 58) were randomized to a control group (n = 12) or one of four experimental groups; 2 days/week ATV (n = 11), 2 days/ week ORM (n = 12), 4 days/...
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The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) and the Physical Activity Readiness Medical Evaluation (PARmed-X) are internationally renowned and extensively used preparticipation screening tools. However, recent feedback from end-users has identified limitations to the existing PAR-Q and PARmed-X screening process. As such, a systematic eva...
Article
The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) and the Physical Activity Readiness Medical Evaluation (PARmed-X) are internationally known preparticipation screening tools developed on the basis of expert opinion. The primary purposes of this consensus document were to seek evidence-based support for the PAR-Q and PARmed-X forms, to identify...
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Recent feedback from physical activity (PA) participants, fitness professionals, and physicians has indicated that there are limitations to the utility and effectiveness of the existing PAR-Q and PARmed-X screening tools for PA participation. The aim of this study was to have authorities in exercise and chronic disease management to work with an ex...
Article
The purpose is to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal fitness and health status. Muscular strength is positively associated with independence and overall quality of life, and negatively associated with morbidity and potentially premature mortality. Muscular endurance is positively related to overall quality of life. Elevated muscular e...
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The aims of this study were: (1) to characterize selected fitness and health attributes of two types of habitual recreational off-road vehicle riders - off-road motorcyclists and all-terrain vehicle riders; (2) to explore differences among riders in terms of vehicle type, age, and gender; and (3) to compare the fitness and health of riders to popul...
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The fitness test for correctional officer applicants (FITCO) was constructed a priori to conform to requirements established by the Meiorin Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada. A critical obligation from this decision is to determine whether the FITCO has the potential of adverse impact on any subpopulation of applicants and, if so, whether it...
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The purpose of this investigation was to identify the critical tasks encountered by correctional officers (COs) on the job and to conduct a comprehensive assessment and characterization of the physical demands of these tasks. These are the first steps in developing a fitness screening test for COs in compliance with recent legislation. The most imp...
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The purpose of this investigation was to develop and validate a fitness test for correctional officer (CO) applicants (FITCO) and to establish associated standards of acceptability. The FITCO incorporated the most important, physically demanding, and frequently occurring tasks of a CO. It consists of (i) a simulated cell search; (ii) an emergency r...
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The purpose of this study was to characterize the physiological demands of recreational off-road vehicle riding under typical riding conditions using habitual recreational off-road vehicle riders (n = 128). Comparisons of the physical demands of off-road vehicle riding were made between vehicle types (all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and off-road motorcyc...
Article
Athletes (n = 345) invited to the annual combine conducted by the National Hockey League (NHL) prior to the entry draft were administered tests to measure upper body strength, lower body power, aerobic and anaerobic energy systems, and body composition. Their common variance was extracted using factor analysis from which an overall composite index...
Article
Elite junior hockey players (N=3,675) ranked by Central Scouting Service of the National Hockey League (NHL) prior to the NHL Entry Draft between 1993-2002 were studied to determine whether it is possible to predict their "value" to the team five years later. Using the Sports Performance Index for Hockey (SPI-H), it was found that time on ice (an i...
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Workplace computer use has increased dramatically in recent years and has been linked to musculoskeletal disorders, a leading cause of work disability and productivity losses in industrialized nations. Tai Chi is a simple, convenient workplace intervention that may promote musculoskeletal health without special equipment or showering, yet no study...
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The primary purpose of this study was to determine the fitness variables with the highest capability for predicting hockey playing potential at the elite level as determined by entry draft selection order. We also examined the differences associated with the predictive abilities of the test components among playing positions. The secondary purpose...
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The range of exercise intensities that elicit high fat oxidation rates (FOR) in youth and the influence of pubertal status on peak FOR are unknown. In a longitudinal design, we compared FOR over a range of exercise intensities in a small cohort of developing prepubertal male subjects. Five boys all at Tanner stage 1 (ages 11-12 yr) and nine men (ag...
Chapter
Determinants of endurance performanceRole of haemoglobin in oxygen transportRole of blood volume in oxygen transport and endurance performanceReferences
Article
Lack of agreement regarding the stroke volume (SV) response to exercise is not new; in fact it dates back to the mid 1900s. However, in 1994 Gledhill et al. ([9][1]) provided clear evidence that the SV of endurance athletes increases throughout incremental to maximal exercise while the SV of
Article
For many individuals, pre-participation clearance using the PAR-Q and the PARmed-X has become a barrier to adopting a physically active lifestyle. An extensive project is therefore planned to reduce the number of medical referrals from the PAR-Q and to revise the PARmed-X so that it becomes more effective, user friendly, and evidence based. The ent...
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The purposes of this study were (a) to determine the measurement device and jumping protocol most appropriate for testing the leg power of elite hockey players and (b) to assess the relationship of leg power measurements to hockey playing ability as indicated by draft selection order. Comparisons were made of leg power measurements from the top 95...
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We welcome the progressive recommendations of the Obesity Canada Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Panel in their 2006 clinical practice guidelines (particularly those of Robert Dent and colleagues in Chapter 9) regarding the role of exercise professionals in the management and treatment of obesity.1 However, Dent and colleagues imply that it is...
Article
to the editor: We appreciate this additional opportunity to participate in the debate regarding the stroke volume (SV) response during incremental to maximal exercise. It is difficult to reconcile that only one temporal SV response is exhibited during incremental exercise. As such, we provided a
Article
The following letters are in response to the Point:Counterpoint series “In health and in a normoxic environment, V̇o2 max is/is not limited primarily by cardiac output and locomotor muscle blood flow” that appeared in the February issue (vol. 100: 744–748, 2006; <http://jap.physiol.org/
Article
Information tailored to the interest of exercise physiologists and fitness professionals is provided regarding the Canadian Hypertension Society's 2005 evidence-based recommendations on lifestyle modifications for the prevention and management of hypertension. The evidence from randomized controlled (RC) trials and systematic reviews of RC trials p...
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To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for the management of hypertension in adults. For lifestyle and pharmacological interventions, evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews of trials was preferentially reviewed. While changes in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were the primary outcomes of interest, for...
Article
This overview of the 2004 Canadian hypertension recommendations, developed by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program, is being submitted to a broad range of journals, including CJHP. The aim is to disseminate the recommendations to as many Canadian health care professionals as possible, to help ensure that patients receive consistent, up-to-da...
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To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations regarding the role of lifestyle modification in the treatment and prevention of hypertension. Lifestyle modification interventions including exercise, weight reduction, alcohol consumption, dietary modification, intake of dietary cations and stress management are reviewed. Antioxidants and fish oil...
Article
Objective: To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for the assessment of the diagnosis, cardiovascular risk and identifiable causes for adults with high blood pressure. Options: For persons in whom a high blood pressure value is recorded, the assignment of a diagnosis of hypertension is dependent on the appropriate measurement of blood p...
Article
Leg power is an important component in assessing both performance-related and health-related fitness. The Lewis equation and nomogram have been used for years to estimate leg power. A recent evaluation of the Lewis equation and further research led to the development of the Sayers equation. This equation provides an estimate of peak leg power, whic...
Article
Leg power is an important component in assessing both performance-related and health-related fitness. The Lewis equation and nomogram have been used for years to estimate leg power. A recent evaluation of the Lewis equation and further research led to the development of the Sayers equation. This equation provides an estimate of peak leg power, whic...
Article
To investigate the high VO2max observed occasionally in young men who have no history of training. VO2max, blood volume (BV), maximal stroke volume (SVmax), maximal cardiac output (Qmax), and related measurements (reported as mean +/- SEM) were studied in six men (mean age 20.0 +/- 0.5 yr) with no history of training, who all had a VO2max below 49...
Article
MARTINO, M., N. GLEDHILL, and V. JAMNIK. High VO2max with history of training is primarily due to high blood volume. Med. Sci. Sports Everc., Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 966-971, 2002. Purpose: To investigate the high VO2max observed occasionally in young men who have no history of training. Methods: blood volume (BV). maximal stroke volume (SVmax), maxima...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of familial resemblance in baseline and 7-year changes in musculoskeletal fitness. Data from the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey and the Campbell's Survey 7-year follow-up were used. The sample consisted of 1264 people (635 males and 629 females) between the ages of 7 and 69 years for whom measuremen...
Article
The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness, and Lifestyle Appraisal (CPAFLA) is a standardized battery of tests that is commonly used to assess asymptomatic individuals. This paper reviews evidence concerning the reliability, validity, and utility of the procedure currently used to assess habitual physical activity in the CPAFLA and surveys available...
Article
To compare the cardiac performance of endurance-trained (ET) and moderately active (MA) young women before exercise and throughout incremental work rates to maximum with particular interest in whether their stroke volume (SV) levels off at a submaximal work rate or increases to maximum. Blood volume (BV), and exercise cardiac performance were exami...
Article
The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness, and Lifestyle Appraisal (CPAFLA) is used as a measure for the health-related fitness of the general population. The CPAFLA includes an evaluation of back health, which is comprised of abdominal muscular endurance (partial curl-ups) and trunk flexion (sit and reach). This paper reviews the occupational, lifes...
Article
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The purpose of this report is to provide representative norms for measurements of musculoskeletal fitness (partial curl-ups, vertical jump, and leg power) for which Canadian norms are not currently available. Partial curl-ups, vertical jump, trunk flexion (sit and reach), grip strength, muscular endurance (push-ups), body mass index, and subcutaneo...
Article
About two-thirds of Canadians are physically inactive. As a risk factor for several chronic diseases, physical inactivity can potentially be a substantial public health burden. We estimated the direct health care costs attributable to physical inactivity in Canada, the number of lives lost prematurely each year that are attributable to a sedentary...
Article
Background: About two-thirds of Canadians are physically inactive. As a risk factor for several chronic diseases, physical inactivity can potentially be a substantial public health burden. We estimated the direct health care costs attributable to physical inactivity in Canada, the number of lives lost prematurely each year that are attributable to...
Article
The relationship between history of back pain and measurements of both health-related fitness and physical activity participation was examined in 233 males and 287 females aged 15-69 years. Participants were divided by gender into those reporting no history (NH) or a history (H) of recurring back pain. Analysis of variance indicated that trunk flex...
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Although it is well documented that physical activity participation can bring about improvements in musculoskeletal fitness, related health implications have only been substantiated in the elderly. Currently, interpretations of the results of musculoskeletal fitness appraisals for the general population are based largely on an intuitive belief that...
Article
Blood volume (BV) and hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) play important roles in oxygen transport. Manipulation of both BV and [Hb] can markedly affect systemic oxygen transport and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). However, the role of BV in oxygen transport and aerobic performance is not well understood. It has recently been postulated that an acut...
Article
To determine whether plasma volume expansion (PVexp) in elite endurance-trained (ET) cyclists, who already possess both a high blood volume (BV) and a high VO2max, leads to further enhancements in their cardiac function, VO2max, and endurance performance (time to exhaustion at 95% VO2max). Nine male ET cyclists (V02max = 68.9 +/- 0.6 (SEM) mL x kg(...
Article
To clarify the physiological reasons for the decline in aerobic power of endurance trained (ET) women with aging. Blood volume, VO2max, and exercise cardiac function were examined in 23 ET women; six age 20-29 yr, six age 40-45 yr, six age 49-54 yr, and five age 58-63 yr. Blood volume was unchanged with aging. VO2max declined progressively at a rat...
Article
Alterations in [Hb], which are mediated through changes in arterial oxygen content, and alterations in BV, which are mediated through changes in cardiac output (Q), have a significant effect on both VO2max and aerobic performance. If BV is held constant, a decrease in [Hb] (anaemia) causes a decrease in VO2max and aerobic performance, while an incr...
Article
To examine and compare the exercise cardiac function of endurance-trained (ET) women and men. Six ET women aged 20 to 29 years (mean VO2max = 64 ml.kg-1.min-1) and 9 ET men aged 20 to 29 years (mean VO2max = 69 ml.kg-1.min-1) were included in the study. Cardiac output (Q), stroke volume (SV), diastolic filling rate (DFR), and left ventricular eject...
Article
The acetylene rebreathe technique is a well established method for the determination of cardiac output (Q) at rest and during exercise. We sought to demonstrate that the acetylene rebreathe technique allows for highly reproducible determinations of Q. Nine elite male endurance cyclists (VO2max = 68.9 +/- 0.6 mL.kg-1.min-1) performed a modified acet...
Article
Recently, we proposed that the higher stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (Q) of endurance-trained (ETR) versus untrained (UTR) individuals are attributable primarily to the enhanced diastolic filling of ETR consequent to a larger blood volume (BV). To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of manipulating BV on the cardiac function of six...
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This study evaluated the predictive ability of the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (mCAFT) on an independent sample of subjects and compared it to the original Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT). Male and female subjects (n = 154), 15-69 yrs of age, performed the mCAFT and a maximal treadmill test. VO2max scores predicted from the mCAFT eq...