Norman Epstein

Norman Epstein
University of Maryland, College Park | UMD, UMCP, University of Maryland College Park · Department of Family Science

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124
Publications
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Publications

Publications (124)
Article
Behavioral and cognitive‐behavioral couple and family therapy (CBCFT) models are well supported empirically. They focus on mutual influences among members' cognitions, emotions, and behaviors that contribute to a wide range of relational problems such as infidelity and partner aggression, as well as physical and mental health problems of individual...
Article
Behavioral and cognitive‐behavioral couple and family therapy (CBCFT) models are well supported empirically. They focus on mutual influences among members' cognitions, emotions, and behaviors that contribute to a wide range of relational problems such as infidelity and partner aggression, as well as physical and mental health problems of individual...
Article
Full-text available
The buffering effect of social support on the negative effects of racism exposure on health outcomes has been mixed in prior studies regarding Asian Americans. Based on the stress‐coping framework and using structural equation modeling (SEM) methods, we tested a theoretical model portraying simultaneous mediational paths from racism exposure to gen...
Chapter
Couple and family therapy (CFT) is a relatively young mental health field that has been disseminated across the globe due to relevance of its systemic framework, and evidence that family relationships have major effects on the well-being of children and adults. This chapter describes historical development of CFT and pathways through which its mode...
Article
Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is a hereditary disorder that confers an approximately 90% lifetime risk of cancer and requires comprehensive lifetime cancer screening. We explored healthcare roles for managing LFS-related cancer risks and treatments that were assumed by parents, adolescents, and adult children. Semi-structured interviews were conducted...
Article
Full-text available
Asian American sexual minorities navigate dual-identity development involving race and sexuality while at risk of marginalization from racial/ethnic communities that are important sources of support. The authors investigated the indirect effect of discomfort in racial/ethnic community on self-reported health through low positive affect in Asian Ame...
Article
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1 Past research on family members' behavior as psychosocial stressors eliciting psychological distress has been limited mostly to psychiatric populations. The current study used behavioral observations and partner reports to examine the relationship between positive and negative partner behavior and individual psychopathology symptoms, mediated by...
Article
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This study examines influences of two types of offenses, juvenile status and other delinquent offenses, in adolescent software piracy, based on the General Theory of Crime and Problem Behavior Theory. Other variables were added to the model based on the theories. The 1st to 4th waves from the Korea Youth Panel Survey collected since 2003 were utili...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This study applied a stress and coping model to understand one of the most frequent forms of problematic media use among adolescents, cyberbullying. Methods: Using data from the Korean Youth Panel Survey, the researchers found three major sources of stress for adolescents: parents (abusive behavior), school (academic stress), and frien...
Article
Full-text available
Young women with BRCA1/2 mutations face difficult health care decisions regarding family formation, fertility, breast-feeding, and whether/when to undergo cancer risk-reducing surgery. This longitudinal qualitative study investigated these life choices during the reproductive years. We conducted 2 semi-structured interviews over three years with 12...
Chapter
The cognitive-behavioral family therapy (CBFT) approaches that we describe in this chapter capture both intrapersonal factors and interpersonal factors that influence a variety of child and adolescent presenting problems. The integration of those intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of the family in assessment and treatment are a notable strengt...
Article
Full-text available
The Communication Patterns Questionnaire (CPQ; Christensen, 1987) is a widely used self-report measure of couple communication behavior and is well validated for assessing the demand/withdraw interaction pattern, which is a robust predictor of poor relationship and individual outcomes (Schrodt, Witt, & Shimkowski, 2014). However, no studies have ex...
Article
Full-text available
The intergenerational transmission of domestic violence has received significant research attention. In this study, a sample of 194 couples in Beijing was tested on the transmission mechanism. Thus, we asked: does marital attribution play a mediated role in the transmission from family-of-origin violence to subsequent intimate partner violence? We...
Article
Physically and psychologically aggressive behaviors between members of a couple often lead to relationship dissatisfaction and dissolution. The current study utilized data from 346 clinical couples to investigate associations between psychological and moderate physical aggression and relationship dissolution, and whether relationship satisfaction a...
Article
The authors examined degrees to which couple therapy for psychological and mild to moderate physical partner aggression improved partners’ general distrust in each other and their emotional comfort regarding engaging in a conflict-resolution discussion. A secondary analysis was conducted on data from 55 heterosexual couples who sought treatment at...
Article
Full-text available
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent public health problem that affects millions of families. Much of what is known about IPV comes from quantitative studies that often "count" acts of IPV without exploring in depth the circumstances surrounding the violence, thereby leaving critical questions unanswered; existing qualitative studies tend...
Article
This study examined the roles of partner support and strain as moderators of the associations between Asian immigrants’ experiences of (a) acculturative stress and (b) perceived racial discrimination and their levels of psychological distress. Using data from an Asian immigrant sample (n = 1012) from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NL...
Article
Rapid economic and social development in China is producing opportunities for a better standard of living for many families but also is associated with significant stress. Family therapy is one of the forms of mental health services that have become increasingly available. Western-derived models of family therapy are being used and adapted to meet...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research has indicated that partners' standards for their couple relationships are associated with their levels of marital satisfaction, both in terms of similarity between standards and the degree to which partners are able to resolve differences in their standards constructively. However, little is known about processes through which couple...
Article
This study examined low intimacy as a mediator between partners' depression symptoms and low relationship satisfaction in a sample of 82 heterosexual couples who sought therapy at an outpatient clinic. Both the amount of intimate behavior that partners enact and the level of pleasure they experience from each other's intimate acts were assessed. Us...
Article
This study examined the longitudinal relationship between self-esteem and body image distress, as well as the moderating effect of relationships with parents, among adolescents in Korea, using nationally representative prospective panel data. Regarding causal direction, the findings supported bi-directionality for girls, but for boys the associatio...
Article
Full-text available
Due to traditional cultural values and a rapidly expanding economy, Mainland Chinese adolescents commonly experience high levels of pressure from their parents to perform well in school, which may have negative effects on adolescents’ psychological functioning. Data from 997 students in four Beijing high schools were used to examine relationships o...
Article
The differing approaches to marital therapy vary greatly around 2 foci. First, some approaches focus strongly on overt behavioral patterns, whereas other approaches place greater emphasis on internal experience, such as cognitions and affect. Second, some theoretical approaches emphasize the role of each individual in contributing to the developmen...
Article
Full-text available
Couple and family therapy increasingly are practiced around the world, using theoretical models developed primarily in Western countries. The degree to which these models are culturally relevant for importing into diverse cultures has received limited attention to date. This article describes an analysis of the degrees to which a diverse sample of...
Article
This study examined effects of cognitive-behavioral couple therapy (n = 25 couples) and a variety of systems-oriented couple therapy models (n = 30 couples) in reducing negative attributions and degrees to which decreases in negative attributions were associated with improvements in other aspects of relationship functioning. Couples seeking treatme...
Article
This study examined low intimacy as a mediator between partners' depression symptoms and low relationship satisfaction in a sample of 82 heterosexual couples who sought therapy at an outpatient clinic. Both the amount of intimate behavior that partners enact and the level of pleasure they experience from each other's intimate acts were assessed. Us...
Article
Whereas most couples enter into marriage or similar committed, romantic relationships with the full expectation that they will live their lives together in a happy and rewarding manner, the divorce rate in the United States and many Western countries continues to be alarmingly high-in the United States hovering around 50%. As a result, mental healt...
Article
Based on a dyadic version of R. D. Conger and colleagues' stress model, this study examined whether the demand/withdraw pattern in couples' communication mediates the association between partners' economic strain and their level of relationship distress. Data were from self‐report questionnaires completed by 144 heterosexual couples seeking psychot...
Article
Although much has been written about how to help couples negotiate regarding different spending styles or risk tolerance levels, less has been said about ways in which therapists can assist couples to understand each other's experience of distress regarding financial issues and find constructive individual and dyadic ways to reduce the distress. Gi...
Conference Paper
This study examined relations of mothers' levels of dysphoric and intrusive/avoidance trauma symptoms with their authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting in 105 families seeking therapy at a clinic regarding problems involving child and family functioning. Mothers' reports of social support from friends and from family each were teste...
Article
This study tested a dyadic stress model that inter-partner psychological aggression and positive behaviors mediate the negative association between economic strain and couples’ relationship satisfaction. Heterosexual couples at a large community clinic in Argentina (N = 144 couples) completed self-report questionnaires three years after the initiat...
Chapter
Theory and Techniques of Standard Cognitive-Behavioral Couple Therapy (CBCT)Primary and Secondary Distress in Couple RelationshipsImplications of Primary and Secondary Distress for Brief Couple TherapyDevelopments in CBCT that Address Primary Distress IssuesCriteria and Assessment Methods for Deciding Between Brief and Open-Ended Couple TherapySumm...
Article
This paper discusses the role of cognitive process in marital dysfunction and describes three major approaches to cognitive therapy with couples: 1) modification of unrealistic expectations; 2) correction of faulty attributions; and 3) use of self-instructional procedures to decrease destructive interaction. It is suggested that cognitive intervent...
Article
The current investigation expands the focus of cognitive behavioral formulations of marriage by exploring the constructs of autonomy and relatendness in marriage. One hundred forty-one married couples matched to the 1990 U.S. census data on age, race, and income completed a number of self-report marital inventories including the Autonomy and Relate...
Article
This study investigated the generally neglected effects of the cotrainer relationship in studies of the outcome of couples communication training. Male-female cotrainer pairs modeled verbal dominance patterns similar or dissimilar to those of client couples. As hypothesized, changes in couples' speaking patterns after a two-hour workshop mirrored t...
Chapter
Homework is an important component of many approaches to couple therapy and an integral part of cognitive-behavioral couple therapy. It extends the impact of therapy into the couple’s daily life and allows them to implement changes in their relationship under the more complex and challenging conditions of the home environment and other aspects of r...
Article
The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale and methods of couple-based interventions designed to treat and prevent intimate partner violence. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral individual and couple risk factors for violence are reviewed, as are therapeutic concerns regarding the use of conjoint treatment. Current conjoint treatment...
Article
Clinical interventions for extramarital involvement (EMI) have outpaced empirical knowledge about both risk factors for infidelity and effective treatments. Allen et al. (this issue) provide a systematic review of current knowledge organized around stages of the development of EMI and factors concerning the involved partner, the spouse, the couple'...
Article
Clinical interventions for extramarital involvement (EMI) have outpaced empirical knowledge about both risk factors for infidelity and effective treatments. Allen et al. (this issue) provide a systematic review of current knowledge organized around stages of the development of EMI and factors concerning the involved partner, the spouse, the couple'...
Article
Marriage and family therapists' perspectives on cognitive-behavior family therapy (CBFT) have seen major changes over the years. The focus on cognitions and behaviors in treatment is now widely embraced by marriage and family therapists because of the effectiveness of the approach and its flexibility and integrative potential. This article provides...
Article
Samples of urban community couples in Shanghai, China, and suburban U.S. couples were administered measures of relationship adjustment and personal standards regarding characteristics of couple relationships. There were few gender differences in adherence to relationship standards but many differences between Chinese and U.S. couples. Fewer cultura...
Article
The current study evaluated differences between remarried and first-married individuals in communication and standards for autonomy and decision-making power using self-report data from 111 remarried and 111 matched first-married spouses. Remarried spouses endorsed more autonomous standards in childrearing and finances. Also, remarried women endors...
Article
The Roberts and Koval (2001) article argues that partners' emotional experiences in couple relationships have for the most part been neglected in the literature in favor of an emphasis on cognitive processes, and that recent advances in knowledge about brain functions provide new avenues for clinical interventions that directly address couples' neg...
Article
Relationship conflict has long been thought to cause, maintain, and influence the therapeutic outcome of sexual problems in the absence of a physical cause. The results of conflict can influence partners' relationship satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction can influence sexual satisfaction. General relationship deficiencies, such as unresolved...
Article
This book expands the boundaries of cognitive-behavioral therapy and traditional notions of marriage in a framework that focuses on the behavior of individuals in relationships within the context of broader relationship patterns. For couples to derive maximum fulfillment from their relationships, an equal emphasis must be given to the role of posit...
Article
The focus of this chapter is a detailed case example that illustrates the application of cognitive-behavioral couples therapy (CBCT), with a distressed couple. This chapter briefly describes the central concepts and methods of(CBCT). Other topics discussed include: principles and methods of cognitive-behavioral couple therapy; assessment of present...
Article
This article briefly summarizes the behavioral, cognitive, and affective factors that have been implicated in couples' relationship problems, describes representative interventions for those factors, and reviews the current status of outcome research on cognitive-behavioral therapy for couples. Although the initial studies have provided encouraging...
Article
Couples' cognitions about marriage and their communication patterns have both been found to be highly associated with marital distress. To examine the relationships among marital cognitions, communication, and marital adjustment, we had a sample of 387 community couples complete three self-report measures: the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Inventory...
Article
The present review was undertaken to examine the literature regarding the role of the marital relationship in treatment of agoraphobia from a behavioral couples therapy (BCT) perspective. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted to evaluate (a) whether marital quality predicts treatment responsiveness and (b) how best to include th...
Article
The current investigation expands the focus of cognitive behavioral formulations of marriage by exploring the constructs of autonomy and relatedness in marriage. One hundred forty-one married couples matched to the 1990 U.S. census data on age, race, and income completed a number of self-report marital inventories including the Autonomy and Related...
Article
The current investigation explored the relation between (a) spouses' standards for their marriages and (b) attributions for relationship problems and reported emotional and behavioral responses. Three dimensions of relationship standards were assessed: boundaries, distribution of power between partners, and demonstrated investment in the relationsh...
Article
The current study explored the importance of relationship standards in marital functioning through the use of a new self-report inventory: the Inventory of Specific Relationship Standards (ISRS). The findings indicate that community couples who hold relationship-focused standards (i.e., those who ask for a great deal from their marriages) score hig...
Article
The relationships among adolescent depressive symptoms and self-reported family cohesion, adaptability, satisfaction with family functioning, family structure, and social support received from family and friends were investigated in a sample of 93 families attending family therapy at an outpatient clinic. Results were in keeping with previous studi...
Article
Marital conflict can exist both in terms of spouses' cognitions concerning their relationship and the behaviors exchanged between partners. Empirical findings and clinical examples concerning the roles of selective attention, attributions, expectancies, assumptions, and standards in the development of conflict between partners are described. Repres...
Article
Principal components analyses of the Beck Self-Concept Test (BST) were conducted independently for 288 women with primary mood disorders, 230 women with anxiety disorders, 236 men with mood disorders, and 161 men with anxiety disorders. Four self-concept dimensions that reflected (1) Intellectual Ability; (2) Work Efficacy; (3) Physical Attractiven...
Chapter
Although the concepts and methods of cognitive-behavioral therapy initially were developed for application with a variety of disorders of the individual client, in the past decade marital theorists, researchers, and therapists have extended the range of cognitive-behavioral therapy to encompass dysfunction in interpersonal relationships. A hallmark...
Article
This article is a response to the debate between Snyder and Jacobson that was stimulated by Snyder's recent findings that insight-oriented marital therapy was more effective than behavioral marital therapy at 4-year follow-up. Both Snyder and Jacobson explore the issue of what is critical for marital therapy to be effective and conclude, respective...
Article
Comments on N. S. Jacobson's (see record 1992-02521-001) article on the D. K. Snyder et al (see PA Vol 78:16169) 4-yr follow-up to the comparison of insight-oriented and behavioral marital therapy (MT). The authors propose that the necessary ingredients of successful MT can be reconceptualized in terms of the cognitive, behavioral, and affective fa...
Article
This study investigates the degree to which current alcohol abuse and psychopathology in adult children of alcoholics (COAs) are associated with the COAs' reports of family disruption, family coping, and individual child coping when the child lives with the parent. Family disruption, family passive appraisal of the problem, individual attempts to e...
Article
Full-text available
The Marital Attitude Survey (MAS) was designed to assess potentially dysfunctional attributions and expectancies regarding relationship problems. The eight MAS subscales measure attributions regarding one's partner's malicious intent and lack of love, attribution of causality to one's own behavior and personality, attribution of causality to the pa...
Article
The development and psychometric characteristics of the Beck Self-Concept Test (BST) are described. The BST is a 25-item self-report instrument that asks respondents to evaluate themselves in relation to other people whom they know. An item analysis with 550 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed primarily with DSM-III-R mood or anxiety disorders indica...
Article
types of cognitions in marital dysfunction / assumptions and standards / perceptions, attributions, and expectancies types of behaviors in marital dysfunction the role of emotion in cognitive-behavioral marital therapy methods for assessing problematic behaviors assessment of cognitions / questionnaires / interview procedures / assessing co...
Article
Reviews the book, Marital and Family Therapy (3rd ed.) by Ira D. Glick, John F. Clarkin, and David R. Kessler (1987). The text is intended primarily for students in training and for professionals from a variety of fields whose education did not include background in marital and family therapy. It provides broad coverage of (a) historical trends in...
Article
Although there have recently been numerous investigations exploring the role of couples' cognitions in an attempt to understand marital distress, at present there is little cohesion and direction in the study of how couples think about their relationships. The current article asserts that this lack of direction results from at least three factors:...
Article
highlights the role of cognitive factors in marital functioning and marital therapy categories of cognitive factors in marriage / assessment of cognitions [self- and spouse reports, interview, current concerns, observation of communication, selecting assessment strategies, integrating the information] / the structure of therapy sessions / role of...
Article
The development of a 21-item self-report inventory for measuring the severity of anxiety in psychiatric populations is described. The initial item pool of 86 items was drawn from three preexisting scales: the Anxiety Checklist, the Physician’s Desk Reference Checklist, and the Situational Anxiety Checklist. A series of analyses was used to reduce t...
Article
Comments on an article by P. M. Emmelkamp et al (see record 1989-16433-001) comparing communication skills training with cognitive therapy in treating distressed couples. Issues related to the scope and methods of cognitive-behavioral interventions are addressed, including development of assessment instruments, standardization of treatment, therap...