Norma Afiati

Ecology

PhD
7.11

Publications

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    Norma Afiati · Megapuspa Dewi · Subagiyo
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    ABSTRACT: Cephalopod of the suborder Myopsida has been receiving more attention and studies recently, as its contribution to fisheries has increased worldwide compared to the declined contribution of traditional finfish. Whilst providing an illustration of cephalopod fisheries both in local region and global, this study presents some basic biology of Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvauceli-the most often caught species during sampling in the area of study, such as the sex ratio and length-frequency, allometric growth of various part of the body, with particular interest in allometric relationship of eye shape against other parts of the body. Samples were collected from Cirebon, Kendal, Semarang and Tuban waters. During 4 months sampling, May to August 2015, four species were identified, including Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvauceli (D'Orbigny 1835), Octopus sp, Sepiella inermis (Ferussac & D'Orbigny, 1848), and Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Ferussac 1830). Allometric growth applying to 60-152mm DML specimens showed that U. (P.) duvauceli grew its length faster than any other part of the body except its fin (p<0.01). Eyes grow according to its long axis than to its height. Head length and eye shape (length and height) grow significantly slower compared to the body length (p<0.01), means that U. (P.) duvauceli concerned more to the fin growth and development than to its eye size, even though newly hatch squid seemed to have shown big eyes compare to its overall body size. The fact that wet body weight always negatively allometric (p<0.01) compared to any part of the body, suggested that U (P.) duvauceli is a real swimmer, shaping a slim and slender body with fully developed fin since early juveniles.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Nov 2015
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    Norma Afiati
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT This study examining the microgrowth periodicity of wild type A. indica being submerged for 29 days in the cage and field plot, the average width of microgrowth increments then compared to fluctuation of the population’s Condition Index. Individual clams showed daily increment growth that conforms to semilunar tidal cycle. The shell therefore provided record about the absolute age and the growth history of the organism, presumably including the environmental conditions under which shell deposition took place. Shell accretion decreased in rhythm to the gonad development and spawning, and the significantly departed sex ration to 0.25:1 in favour of >35mm shell length females individuals indicating the occurrence of male to female sex reversal, likewise in its con-specific A. granosa and A. antiquata. Keywords: marine tropical bivalve, microgrowth band periodicity, Condition Index, sex ratio.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Sep 2015
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    Bob Suroso · Johannes Hutabarat · Norma Afiati
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the life cycle of tiger prawns were estuarine (Delta Mahakam). In the juvenile stage life in estuarine and the adult stage in marine. The research objective is to assess the potential of the tiger prawn fry catches in the Mahakam Delta, as a source of tiger prawn fry in the Mahakam Delta area farms. Research using interviews and descriptive analysis through monitoring with fishermen. The results showed that the fry tiger prawn from the Delta Mahakam there on the beaches or the edge of the sea where the water is shallow and slightly brackish, as in the Delta Mahakam. Fry can be captured by using rumpon. Tiger prawns fry from Delta Mahakam durability is relatively higher than fry from the hatchery. But the number and continuity of fry very limited because it depends on the season. Abundance of fry is determined by the number of larvae produced in the wild and their survival is greatly influenced by the availability of food.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
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    Adriyani Samad · Azis Nur Bambang · Norma Afiati
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    ABSTRACT: Present condition shows that balance and environmental sustainability of mangrove forests in Mahakam Estuary (Delta Mahakam) area has changed which can result negative effect on people activity of coastal communities. Destruction of mangrove forest is caused by intervention and rapid population growth, especially in coastal areas, which result land use change and excessive utilization of natural resources. This condition can lead to degradation of mangrove forest. In order to rehabilitate mangrove forest, active participation from coastal community is needed. In this regard, this research was carried out in order to assess the perception and participation as well as strategies that can be implemented to improve community participation on mangrove forest rehabilitation. The research was conducted in five villages (Saliki, Salo Palai, Muara Badak Ulu, Muara Badak Ilir and Tanjung Limau), Formulation strategies was carried out using SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) method through Focus Group Discussion which combined with Analytical Hierarchy Process to determine the priority of alternative strategies and policies on mangrove forest rehabilitation. The analysis shows that social factor which influences community's participation towards the rehabilitation of coastal mangrove forest is perception variable. Strategy which is expected to improve community participation in mangrove rehabilitation activities is carried out by optimizing the strength factor and take advantage from the opportunities (Strengths Opportunities Quadrant Strategy). Based on formulated strategies, it can be obtained four priority alternatives which can be implemented to improve coastal community participation, i.e.: 1) Development of rural participatory for mangrove nursery; 2) Generates positive perception on the strengthening coastal communities about the advantage and functions of mangrove forests; 3) control upon re-vegetation and restoration of coastal areas resources which suffer from degradation and deforestation; and 4) Accelerate the establishment of Guidance Unit Team and Technical Guidance Unit of Mangrove Forest.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Water Resource and Protection
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    Irwani · Norma Afiati
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    ABSTRACT: Epibiont is known as living organisms attached to various natural benthic substrates and plays an important role as scavenger. Bandengan and Pulau Panjang are two sandy beaches close to each other located at Jepara, Central Java. This study investigates epibionts on macrophytes, which are macroalgae and seagrasses in both locations, by means of survey method. In general, major constituent of epibionts in those two macrophytes are microalgae and microzoobenthos, with relatively similar individual number and diversity. In more details, epibionts in macroalgae is planktonic microalgae and microzoobenthos, whereas, for seagrass it is of epiphytic microalgae. Benthic community structure which have more abundant and more diverse Polychaeta compared to that of Crustacea and Mollusca, combined with no existence of pioneer sea grass, i.e., Halophila and Halodule indicating that both beaches have still retained relatively good quality ecosystem for tourism. Key words: epibiont, seagrass, macroalgae, sandy beach, Jepara
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013
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    Indro Sumantri · Sumarno · Norma Afiati
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    ABSTRACT: Proses biologis konvensional untuk penghilangan urea dan amonium pada air limbah pabrik urea menggunakan proses algae mikro atau proses nitrifikasi-denitrifikasi heterotrofik. Proses yang menggunakan berbagai mikro algae mempunyai keunggulan input hara hanya senyawa P dan mampu menghilangkan urea secara total tetapi tidak mampu menghilangkan kandungan amoniumnya. Proses nitrifikasi-denitrifikasi heterotrofik membutuhkan input karbon organik yang tinggi pada proses denitrifikasinya sehingga biaya pengolahan menjadi tinggi. Tujuan penelitian dengan skala bangku ini untuk mengevaluasi kemampuan sistem gabungan proses algae mikro dan nitrifikasi-denitrifikasi autotrofik. Algae mikro yang digunakan merupakan spesies algae yang tahan terhadap konsentrasi amonium tinggi dan mampu menghilangkan amonium selain urea. Untuk proses nitrifikasi-denitrifikasi menggunakan lumpur nitrifying yang bersifat autotrofik sebagai biokatalis. Penyediaan lumpur nitrifying secara teknis sangat mudah. Lumpur nitrifying berasal dari lumpur aktif yang diperoleh dari unit pengolahan limbah industri partikel board yang telah diaklitimasi pada kondisi konsentrasi amonium tinggi dan autotrofik. Keunggulan masing-masing proses tersebut bila digabung akan menghasilkan proses yang lebih efisien dan murah. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan kondisi sebagai berikut : kadar SVI mikro algae 25 mL/L, kadar SVI lumpur 100 mL/L, laju aerasi yang digunakan 5 L/menit, waktu tinggal limbah 1 hari, rasio Ndan P : 20 : 1. Sedangkan sebagai variabel yang digunakan adalah beban amoniak antara 1000 – 3000 mg/L. Penurunan kadar amoniak yang diukur dilakukan pada akhir pengolahan yaitu setelah bak lumpur. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa prosentase penurunan kadar amoniak bisa mencapai 67 %. Kata kunci : proses mikroalga, proses nitrifikasi-denitrifikasi autotrofik, pengayaan dan breeding lumpur nitrifikasi
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jan 2010
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    Norma Afiati
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    ABSTRACT: Kromosom kerang darah Anadara granosa, A. antiquata dan Barbatia barbata diperoleh dari mitosis sel insang stadium metafase menggunakan teknik suspensi sel dan pengecatan Giemsa konvensional. Karyotipe A. granosa terdiri atas 13 kromosom metasentrik, 4 sub-metasentrik dan 2 sub-telosentrik. Karyotipe A. antiquata n = 19 = 17m-sm/2st-t, dan B. barbata n = 19 = 5m, 1sm-st, 9 st, 4t. Jumlah kromosom haploid (n=19) merupakan sifat pleisomorfik yang diperlihatkan ketiga spesies tersebut sebagai anggota familia Arcidae, sedangkan sifat sinapomorfik yang membedakan genus Anadara dan Barbatia adalah proporsi kromosom metasentrik-submetasentrik dalam karyogram mereka. Komposisi kromosom metasentrik-submetasentrik yang tinggi tampaknya bukan ciri taksonomis primitif bagi ketiga spesies ini, karena karakteristik demikian dijumpai pada berbagai taksa dalam kelas Bivalvia yang dipandang lebih modern proses evolusinya. Oleh sebab itu, meskipun fitur karyogram umumnya spesies-spesifik sehingga dapat dikaitkan dengan evolusi antar taksa, proporsi kromosom metasentrik maupun telosentrik tampaknya tidak secara langsung berkorelasi dengan derajat perbedaan antar spesies. Kata kunci: Anadara granosa (L.), A.antiquata (L.), Barbatia barbata (L.), karyotipe, karakteristik evolusi.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Feb 2009
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    Norma Afiati
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    ABSTRACT: Gonad maturation and sexuality in Central Java populations of A. granosa and A. antiquata were studied by means of macroscopic examination of the visceral mass, microscopic examination of smears of gonadal products and by histological technique. In this study, hermaphrodites occurred extremely rarely, i.e. less than 1.5% for A. granosa and less than 1% for A. antiquata, were observed with both male and female gametes present within the same individual follicles. Unbalanced sex ratios derived from size frequency distribution of the sample revealed that the increased percentage of females with increasing size suggest the occurrence of sequential protandric hermaphrodite with only a single sex change during their life history, i.e. from male to female. The preponderance of juvenile males within the Wedung population should be seen as the advantage of firstly being male, since some energy could be saved and redirected towards somatic growth because in Bivalvia there is a trade-off between growth and reproduction.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2007
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    Norma Afiati
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    ABSTRACT: The reproductive cycles of male and female Anadara granosa and Anadara antiquata which have been studied and compared by histological techniques sho wed great anatomical similarity. Gametogenesis is associated with a system of follicle cells which br eak down as the gametes approach maturity. The arrangement of follicle cells is characteristics of the sex. In the female, gametogonia are peripheral to the follicle cells, whilst in the male they are interstitial. The process of spermatogenesis parallel the classical vertebrate pattern, i.e. successive layer s of spermatogenic cells (spermatogonia, primary an d secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozo a) occurring more or less regularly in succession toward the centre of the follicle. The diameter of the maximum size oocytes is 75 μm for A. granosa and 65 μm for A. antiquata. Spawning in both A. granosa and A. antiquata is progressing gradually throughout the year as indicated by the availabilit y of various stages of oogonia and spermatogonia; f or which the highest number of oogonia were those of 2 5-40 μm diameter. The histological study indicated that both species are iteroparous with planktotroph ic type of development, yet performing a short period of pelagic life (ca 1 month).
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007
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    Afiati
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    ABSTRACT: The reproductive cycles of male and female Anadara granosa and Anadara antiquata which have been studied and compared by histological techniques showed great anatomical similarity. Gametogenesis is associated with a system of follicle cells which break down as the gametes approach maturity. The arrangement of follicle cells is characteristics of the sex. In the female, gametogonia are peripheral to the follicle cells, whilst in the male they are interstitial. The process of spermatogenesis parallel the classical vertebrate pattern, i.e. successive layers of spermatogenic cells (spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa) occurring more or less regularly in succession toward the centre of the follicle. The diameter of the maximum size oocytes is 75μm for A. granosa and 65μm for A. antiquata. Spawning in both A. granosa and A. antiquata is progressing gradually throughout the year as indicated by the availability of various stages of oogonia and spermatogonia; for which the highest number of oogonia were those of 25-40μm diameter. The histological study indicated that both species are iteroparous with planktotrophic type of development, yet performing a short period of pelagic life (ca 1 month). Keywords: Anadara granosa, Anadara antiquata, similar reproductive anatomy, spermatogenesis parallel the classical vertebrate pattern, continues spawning, planktotrophic iteroparous species.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007
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    Afiati
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract. The species composition and ecology of the seagrass epiphytes of Jepara sandy beaches are discussed along with the possibility of applying biotic parameters in assessing environmental disturbance. A total of 33 genera of algae of five phyla were recorded as epiphytes on Thalassia. Rhodophyta forms the largest fraction in both species number and abundance; followed by the Chrysophyta. Epizoa mostly were Crustacea. Being completely different to the growth pattern of the above-ground fraction of seagrass which varied according to its epiphytes load; below-ground portion which basically are roots and rhizomes and comprised the greatest proportion of total biomass, grow in regardless of the rate of epiphytes colonisation. Turnover rate of below-ground portion was committed to preparing shoots growth for next generation. Meanwhile, stepwise multiple linear regressions indicated that epiphytes in Thalassia was constantly correlated to not only nutrients, but also to ecological parameters of the habitat of the hosts, such as water depth, temperature, current speed, suspended solid, oxygen, and salinity. More over, the physico-chemical analyses and epiphytic structure community indices was consistent in describing the oligotrophic nature of the water. These findings strengthen the suggestion to always appreciate ecological parameters of biotic components as much as routine physico-chemical parameters in assessing environmental stress at least for tropical seagrasses community.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007
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    Irawan · Afiati

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2006
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    Norma Afiati
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    ABSTRACT: Six trace metals commonly found in industrial effluents, i.e. Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn and Hg, were assessed from the sediments, water, whole soft parts, and whole shells of wild type A. granosa of different size groups. Assuming that metal concentrations were relatively constant during growth periods of the blood clam, so that metal concentration within the tissue representing the amount in the surrounding water, then A. granosa considered as a good indicator for cadmium, chromium and lead; moderate potential for mercury, but only poor potential for copper and zinc. These findings are broadly in agreement with the observed pattern for Mytilus edulis in temperate waters. The relatively higher bioconcentration factors of Cu, Cr, Zn, found in the shells than in the tissues, in particular for lead (0.0007<p<0.01), were addressed to their respond to the different portions of soluble trace metal on the ecosystem. However, since shells are extremely difficult to work with, such data do not lend confidence to a suggestion of using shells of A. granosa as indicators of trace metals abundance in marine or estuarine environments.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Apr 2005
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2004
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    Munir · Afiati · Radjasa · Sabdono

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2004
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    Norma Afiati
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Pea crabs (Pinnotheres sp.) infesting two blood clams species Anadara antiquata and Anadara granosa were collected from two contrasting habitats in the north coast of Central Java, Indonesia, from 1991 to 1993. For A. granosa, only a single female occupancy (0.013%) found within the mantle cavity of 7452 clams in Wedung and none out of 508 specimens at Tapak. In contrast, 4.59% crab-infested clams were found amongst 5254 individuals of A. antiquata from Bandengan. The sex ratio is 1: 6.5 in favour of female crabs. The crabs do not exhibit any preference for male or female blood clams. The size of the female crabs increased significantly with the size of the host clams, whilst male pea crabs occupy clams at random size. However, the degree of crab occupancy decreased for clam ≥46mm. Berried female crabs were found on July-August to January with a peak of 74% in July to August. Paired crabs infestation was never encountered. The condition of crab-infested clams was significantly poorer (0.012<P<0.02) than those of the un-infested clams, and gender of the 75.1% of clams were undifferentiated. Commensalism is the best description for the association of male pea crabs with A. antiquata, and parasitism for the females. Keyword: Pea crab-blood clam association, commensalism, host-parasite interaction
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Aug 2002
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    Norma Afiati-Brotohadikusumo

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2002
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    Afiati
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Red bloocl cell of the roundecl ecomorph of Anadara granosa contained a nucleus but seemecl to have no cytoplasmic granules, which have postulatecl to act as significant oxygen storage cluring periods of hypoxia. ln average, A, granosa possesses the smallest size of red blood corpuscles among some other Arcidae, i.e. Anadara antiquata, Scapharca lnaequivalvis and Barbatia barbata. Therefore, the absence of cytoplasmic granules in the red blood corpuscles of A. granosa, might suggests that osmoconformity behaviour in A. granosa might not involve the cytoplasmic granules activity. The physically small-size recl blood cells of A. granosa might thus aided in the oxygen storage mechanism. The chromosomes of the rounded ecomorph blood clam, Anadara granosa, investigate for the first iime, were studied from mitotic metaphases using cell suspension techniques after conventional Giemsa staining. The karyotype consists of 19 haploicl chromosomes, of which 13 are metacentric,4 sub-metacentric and 2 sub-telocentric. Comparative analysis of the karyofypes of the rounded forms ,A. granosa and A. antiquata showed that a diploid number of 2n = 38 or n = 19 = l7m-sm/2st-t has been found. The planktotrophic development, which is considerecl to be evolutionary more modern in this rounded form of A. granosa is in contrary to the preservation of some primitive morphological features at least since the Mesozoic era ca. 195 million years ago. Hence, the suggestion that its high proportion of metacentric-submetacentric chromosomes attributed as a primitive cytotixonomical character is also unlikely, since such a condition was also found in other taxa which are regarded as more evolutionary advance. Keyworcls : Anaclara granosa (L.), cytoplasmic granules, red blood cell, karyotype, evolution
    Full-text · Article · Jan 1999
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    Afiati

    Full-text · Article · Jan 1999
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    Afiati · Indardjo

    Full-text · Article · Jan 1998 · Berkala ilmu kedokteran

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