Norberto Garcia-Cairasco

Norberto Garcia-Cairasco
University of São Paulo | USP · Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine (FMRP)

BSc, MSc, PhD

About

243
Publications
29,465
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Introduction
Graduated in Biology (BSc) at the Universidad Del Valle, Colômbia (1976), Master (1982) and PhD (1984) in Sciences - Physiology (Neurophysiology) from the Graduate Program of Excellence (Brazil-CAPES-7) in Physiology at the Department of Physiology at the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine at the University of São Paulo (FMRP-USP), Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Post-Doctoral Researcher at the Duke University Medical Center (1988-1990). Promoted to Associate Professor (2011) and to Full Professor (2013) at the Department of Physiology at the FMRP-USP. Advisor at the Graduate Programs of Excellence (PROEX-CAPES 7.0: Physiology and Neurology/Neurosciences at FMRP. Recently he was Coordinator of the Graduate Program in Physiology at FMRP-USP (2013-2016). Senior Member of the Neurobiology Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy (2013-2016). Member of the Editorial Board of the Journal Epilepsy & Behavior (E&B). Guest-Editor for E&B in the following volumes: (1) Supplement “International Symposium NEWroscience 2008. Contemporary Neuroscience, Epilepsy and the Arts” (2009; 11 Articles); Special Issue “International Symposium NEWroscience 2013. Epilepsies: Complexity and Comorbidities” (2014; 23 Articles); Special Issue “Genetic and Reflex Epilepsies, Audiogenic Seizures and Strains: From Experimental Models to the Clinic” (2017; 16 Articles). He has experience in the field of Physiology-Neurophysiology, acting mainly in integrated form in the following themes: Behavioral (Quantitative Neuroethology), Electrophsyiological and Molecular Evaluation of Alterations of the Motor Control, among them Epilepsies, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Parkinson´s and Alzheimer´s diseases, mostly in experimental models. In addition to that, NGC studies Plasticity of the Auditory System, Sensorial-motor and Sensorial-Limbic integration. The above scientific activity evolved to the study of Complex Systems in the Neurosciences thanks to collaborative Projects in Computational Neuroscience. NGC is Regular Member of the Sociedade Brasileira de Fisiologia (SBFis), Sociedade Brasileira de Neurociências e Comportamento (SBNeC) and Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia (LBE). He also coordinates and does activities in the interface “Neuroscience and the Arts”, being one of the Founder Members of the Commission of the National Brain Awareness Week (BAW), Semana Nacional do Cérebro (SNC), associated to the SBNeC in Brazil. Highlighted are his activities at the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEA-USP-RP) with the Network “Science, Arts, Education and Society”. The most important event celebrated in the context of the BAW-SNC is called “S.O.S: the Brain the Park”. These activities are registered worldwide and are celebrated in the context of the internationally known “Brain Awareness Week” which is promoted by the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives and two of the biggest International Neuroscience Societies, from which NGC is a Member, the Society for Neuroscience (SfN) and the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO). In addition to that, NGC is also a Regular Member of the American Epilepsy Society (AES).
Additional affiliations
November 2013 - present
University of São Paulo
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Our Laboratory is dedicated to Integrated studies in Neuroscience, using behavioral, electrophysiological, cellular, molecular and computational approaches. We study the complexity of the epilepsies and their neuropsychiatric comorbidities.
July 2011 - November 2013
University of São Paulo
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
July 1986 - July 2011
University of São Paulo
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (243)
Article
Full-text available
Studies have suggested an important connection between epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD), mostly due to the high number of patients diagnosed with AD who develop epileptic seizures later on. However, this link is not well understood. Previous studies from our group have identified memory impairment and metabolic abnormalities in the Wistar audi...
Article
Full-text available
Drug‐resistant epilepsy (DRE) remains to this day as a highly prevalent condition affecting around one‐third of patients with epilepsy (PWE), despite all the research and the development of several new antiseizure medications (ASMs) over the last decades. Epilepsies are multifactorial complex diseases, commonly associated with psychiatric, neurolog...
Article
Full-text available
Epilepsies are neurological disorders characterized by chronic seizures and their related neuropsychiatric comorbidities, such as anxiety. The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel has been implicated in the modulation of seizures and anxiety-like behaviors in preclinical models. Here, we investigated the impact of chronic e...
Article
The incidence of chronic pain is high in the general population and it is closely related to anxiety disorders, which promote negative effects on the quality of life. The cannabinoid system has essential participation in the pain sensitivity circuit. In this perspective, cannabidiol (CBD) is considered a promising strategy for treating neuropathic...
Article
Full-text available
Wistar Audiogenic Rat is an epilepsy model whose animals are predisposed to develop seizures induced by acoustic stimulation. This model was developed by selective reproduction and presents a consistent genetic profile due to the several generations of inbreeding. In this study, we performed an analysis of WAR RNA-Seq data, aiming identified at gen...
Article
The phenomenon of plasticity in the striatum, and its relation with the striatum-nigra neuronal circuit has clinical and neurophysiological relevance to Parkinson and epilepsy. High frequency stimulation (HFS) can induce neural plasticity. Furthermore, it is possible to induce plasticity in the dorsal striatum and this can be modulated by substanti...
Article
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a marijuana compound implicated in epilepsy treatment in animal models and pharmacoresistant patients. However, little is known about chronic CBD administration’s effects in chronic models of seizures, especially regarding its potential antiepileptogenic effects. In the present study, we combined a genetic model of epilepsy (th...
Article
The WAG/Rij strain of rats is commonly used as a preclinical model of genetic absence epilepsy. While widely utilized, the developmental trajectory of absence seizure expression has been only partially described. Moreover, sex differences in this strain have been under-explored. Here, we longitudinally monitored male and female WAG/Rij rats to quan...
Article
Almost 115 years ago, Alois Alzheimer described Alzheimer’s disease (AD) for the first time. Since then, many hypotheses have been proposed. However, AD remains a severe health public problem. The current medical approaches for AD are limited to symptomatic interventions and the complexity of this disease has led to a failure rate of approximately...
Article
The Wistar audiogenic rat (WAR) strain is used as an animal model of epilepsy, which when submitted to acute acoustic stimulus presents tonic‐clonic seizures, mainly dependent on brainstem (mesencephalic) structures. However, when WARs are exposed to chronic acoustic stimuli (audiogenic kindling–AK), they usually present tonic‐clonic seizures, foll...
Article
In this review, we will discuss in four scenarios our challenges to offer possible solutions for the puzzle associated with the epilepsies and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. We need to recognize that (1) since quite old times, human wisdom was linked to the plural (distinct global places/cultures) perception of the Universe we are in, with deep re...
Article
Epileptogenesis is a multistage process and seizure susceptibility can be influenced by stress early in life. Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain is an interesting model to study the association between stress and epilepsy, since it is naturally susceptible to seizures and present changes in the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Al...
Article
Full-text available
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein responsible for controlling the stabilization of microtubules in neurons. Tau function is regulated by phosphorylation. However, in some neurological diseases Tau becomes aberrantly hyperphosphorylated, which contributes to the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, known as tauopathies. Western blotting (WB)...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabinoids and Cannabis-derived compounds have been receiving especial attention in the epilepsy research scenario. Pharmacological modulation of endocannabinoid system’s components, like cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1R) and their bindings, are associated with seizures in preclinical models. CB1R expression and functionality were altered in hu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Epileptogenesis is a multistage process and seizure susceptibility can be influenced by stress early in life. Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain is an interesting model to study the association between stress and epilepsy, since it is naturally susceptible to seizures and present changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Al...
Article
Full-text available
Hypertension is a common comorbidity observed in individuals with epilepsy. Growing evidence suggests that lower blood pressure is associated with reduced frequency and severity of seizures. In this study, we sought to investigate whether the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which is a critical regulator of blood pressure, is involved in the pathoge...
Article
Full-text available
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is related to several physiological processes, associated to the modulation of brain excitability, with impact in the expression of susceptibility and control of epileptic seizures. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) is widely expressed in the brain, especially in forebrain limbic structures. Changes in CB1R exp...
Article
Full-text available
Early-life stress (ELS) is associated with a higher risk of psychopathologies in adulthood, such as depression, which may be related to persistent changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ELS on the functioning of the HPA axis in clinical and experimental situations. Clinically, patients...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that olfactory stimulation modulates limbic seizures, either blocking or inducing ictal activity. Objective: We aim to evaluate the behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEGraphic) effects of dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) olfactory exposure on limbic seizures induced by amygdala r...
Article
The objective of the present study was to evaluate maternal reproductive performance, body weight, and frequency of external and internal anomalies of newborns of Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) females as compared with Wistar rats. The adult WAR and Wistar rats were mated within their respective strains. After confirming the pregnancy, the body weight...
Article
Objective To evaluate the chemical and behavioral effects of 2,5-Dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) after olfactory exposure and to verify their influence in the expression of acute audiogenic seizures in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain. Materials and Methods: Protocol 1 TMT gas chromatography was applied to define odor saturation in a...
Article
Wistar Audiogenic Rats (WARs) are genetically susceptible to sound-induced seizures that start in the brainstem and, in response to repetitive stimulation, spread to limbic areas, such as hippocampus. Analysis of the distribution of interevent intervals of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in CA1 pyramidal cells showed a monoexpone...
Article
Here, we investigated the participation of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the spread of repeated audiogenic seizures from brainstem auditory structures to limbic areas, including the hippocampus. We used Wistar Audiogenic Rats (WARs) and Wistars submitted to the audiogenic kindling protocol with a loud broad-band noise. We measured pro and...
Article
Full-text available
The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) and the Genetic Audiogenic Seizure Hamster from Salamanca (GASH/Sal) strains are audiogenic epilepsy models, in which seizures are triggered by acoustic stimulation. These strains were developed by selective reproduction and have a genetic background with minimal or no variation. In the current study, we evaluated th...
Article
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by the presence of seizures and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Despite the number of antiepileptic drugs, one-third of patients did not have their seizures under control, leading to pharmacoresistance epilepsy. Cannabis sativa has been used since ancient times in Medicine for the treatment of many...
Article
While acute audiogenic seizures in response to acoustic stimulus appear as an alteration in sensory-motor processing in the brainstem, the repetition of the stimulus leads to the spread of epileptic activity to limbic structures. Here, we investigated whether animals of the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain, genetically selected by inbreeding for...
Article
Temporal lobe epileptic seizures are one of the most common and well-characterized types of epilepsies. The current knowledge on the pathology of temporal lobe epilepsy relies strongly on studies of epileptogenesis caused by experimentally induced status epilepticus (SE). Although several temporal lobe structures have been implicated in the epilept...
Article
Full-text available
The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain is a genetic model of epilepsy, specifically brainstem-dependent tonic-clonic seizures, triggered by acute auditory stimulation. Chronic audiogenic seizures (audiogenic kindling) mimic temporal lobe epilepsy, with significant participation of the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortex. The objective of the present...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previously we have demonstrated that microinjection of oxytocin (OT) into the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) induces hypergrooming in Wistar rats, a model of compulsion. The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain is a genetic model of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Here we quantified grooming behavior in WAR, with grooming scores , flowcharts an...
Article
Temporal lobe epilepsy is often accompanied by behavioral, electroencephalographic and autonomic abnormalities. Amygdala kindling has been used as an experimental model to study epileptogenesis. Although amygdala kindling has been extensively investigated in the context of its clinical relevance to the epilepsies, potential associated respiratory a...
Article
Stress is among the most frequently self‐reported factors provoking epileptic seizures in children and adults. It is still unclear though, why some people display stress‐sensitive seizures while others don't. Recently, we showed that young epilepsy patients with stress‐sensitive seizures exhibit a dysregulated hypothalamus‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA)‐a...
Article
Full-text available
The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) is an animal model of tonic-clonic epileptic seizures, developed after genetic selection by sister x brother inbreeding of Wistar rats susceptible to sound stimuli. Although metabolic changes have been described in this strain, nothing, however, is known about its mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we addressed mitochon...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tau is a neuronal, microtubule-associated protein responsible for controlling the stabilization of microtubules in neurons. Tau function is regulated by phosphorylation, but in some neurological diseases it becomes aberrantly hyperphosphorylated, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Wes...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the many studies focusing on epilepsy, a lot of the basic mechanisms underlying seizure susceptibility are mainly unclear. Here, we studied cellular electrical excitability, as well as excitatory and inhibitory synaptic neurotransmission of CA1 pyramidal neurons from the dorsal hippocampus of a genetic model of epilepsy, the Wistar Audiogen...
Article
Full-text available
Stress is recognized as an important issue in basic and clinical neuroscience research, based upon the founding historical studies by Walter Canon and Hans Selye in the past century, when the concept of stress emerged in a biological and adaptive perspective. A lot of research after that period has expanded the knowledge in the stress field. Since...
Article
Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain is an animal model for epilepsy studies, the chronic multifactorial disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The animals of this strain are genetically predisposed to sound-induced seizures, called audiogenic seizures, and have been used for many years in studies to understand the mechanisms involved in...
Article
Background: Slice cultures have been prepared from several organs. With respect to the brain, advantages of slice cultures over dissociated cell cultures include maintenance of the cytoarchitecture and neuronal connectivity. Slice cultures from adult human brain have been reported and constitute a promising method to study neurological diseases. D...
Article
Evidences suggest the contributive role of early-life stress (ELS) to affective and anxiety disorders. Chronic exposure to the same stressor may generate habituation, while the exposure to different and repeated stressors gradually promotes maladaptive plasticity. Therefore, to further understand the effects of heterotypic stressors during early li...
Technical Report
Full-text available
O avanço da ciência, e sua relação com a formação de pessoal altamente qualificado na pós-graduação, geram pressões por desempenho e, em paralelo, dilemas éticos e conflitos de interesse entre os diversos atores envolvidos. A situação urge reflexões sobre quais são tais conflitos e como tratá-los, de forma a que sejam compatíveis com a formação de...
Article
There are reports of patients whose epileptic seizures are prevented by means of olfactory stimulation. Similar findings were described in animal models of epilepsy, such as the electrical kindling of amygdala, where olfactory stimulation with toluene (TOL) suppressed seizures in most rats, even when the stimuli were 20% above the threshold to evok...
Article
The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) is a well-characterized seizure-prone, inbred rodent strain that, when acutely stimulated with high-intensity sounds, develops brainstem-dependent tonic-clonic seizures that can evolve to limbic-like, myoclonic (forebrain) seizures when the acoustic stimuli are presented chronically (audiogenic kindling). In order to...
Article
Acoustically evoked seizures (e.g., audiogenic seizures or AGS) are common in models of inherited epilepsy and occur in a variety of species including rat, mouse, and hamster. Two models that have been particularly well studied are the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR-3) and the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strains. Acute and repeated AGS, as we...
Article
Full-text available
Neuropathological studies often use autopsy brain tissue as controls to evaluate changes in protein or RNA levels in several diseases. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), several genes are up or down regulated throughout the epileptogenic and chronic stages of the disease. Given that postmortem changes in several gene transcripts could impact...
Data
SRS profile of the animals from the chronic group. (DOCX)
Data
Hippocampal relative expression of Gusb, Tubb2a, B2m, Actb, and Gadph genes comparing 0h and 6h of postmortem intervals. Values are mean ± SEM, n = 6 per group. (TIF)
Article
Objective: To test the hypothesis that naïve Wistar audiogenic rats (WAR) display ED, which is associated with increased sympathetic-mediated contractile tone and/or decreased NO-mediated relaxation responses of the cavernous tissue. Methods: Changes in the ratio of the maximal intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) after elec...
Article
In the context of modeling epilepsy and neuropsychiatric comorbidities, we review the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR), first introduced to the neuroscience international community more than 25 years ago. The WAR strain is a genetically selected reflex model susceptible to audiogenic seizures (AS), acutely mimicking brainstem-dependent tonic–clonic seiz...
Article
Full-text available
Articular inflammation is a major clinical burden in multiple inflammatory diseases, especially in rheumatoid arthritis. Biological anti-rheumatic drug therapies are expensive and increase the risk of systemic immunosuppression, infections, and malignancies. Here, we report that vagus nerve stimulation controls arthritic joint inflammation by induc...
Article
Full-text available
The involvement of miRNA in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) pathogenesis has increasingly become a focus of epigenetic studies. Despite advances, the number of known miRNAs with a consistent expression response during epileptogenesis is still small. Addressing this situation requires additional miRNA profiling studies coupled to detailed indiv...
Data
Validated targets of miR-196b-5p based on miRTarBase. (XLSX)
Data
Correlation between clinical characteristics and miR-128a-3p and miR-196b-5p expression levels in TLE patients. (DOCX)
Data
Validated targets of miR-128a-3p based on miRTarBase. (XLSX)
Data
Levels of miR-128a-3p and miR-196b-5p in accordance to memory performance, epilepsy remission, IPI, epileptic focus or sex. (DOCX)
Article
Key points: It is recognized that seizures commonly cause apnoea and oxygen desaturation, but there is still a lack in the literature about the respiratory impairments observed ictally and in the post-ictal period. Respiratory disorders may involve changes in serotonergic transmission at the level of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN). In this study...