Norbert Frank

Norbert Frank
Universität Heidelberg · Institute of Environmental Physics

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196
Publications
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4,082
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Publications

Publications (196)
Article
Cold-water corals (CWC), dominantly Desmophyllum pertusum (previously Lophelia pertusa), and their mounds have been in the focus of marine research during the last two decades; however, little is known about the mound-forming capacity of other CWC species. Here, we present new 230Th/U age constraints of the relatively rarely studied framework-build...
Article
Variations in North Atlantic Ocean mid-depth circulation during the Holocene are poorly understood. It is believed that they had a significant influence on the properties of water entering the Nordic Sea by redistributing heat and freshwater, potentially affecting deep-water formation and climate. To improve our knowledge of the NE Atlantic mid-dep...
Article
Aim To infer cold‐water corals’ (CWC) post‐glacial phylogeography and assess the role of Mediterranean Sea glacial refugia as origins for the recolonization of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Location Northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Taxon Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata. Methods We sampled CWC using remotely operated vehi...
Article
Three small stalagmites from Zoolithencave (southern Germany) show visible laminae, which consist of a clear and a brownish, pigmented layer pair. This potentially provides the opportunity to construct precise chronologies by counting annual laminae. The growth period of the three stalagmites was constrained by the ¹⁴ C bomb peak in the youngest pa...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology is routinely cited as a cost effective tool for climate change mitigation. CCS can directly reduce industrial CO2 emissions and is essential for the retention of CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. To be effective as a climate change mitigation tool, CO2 must be securely retained for 10,000 years (10 ka) w...
Poster
Full-text available
Speleothem records have been successfully calibrated against instrumental data, e.g., using stable oxygen isotope or annual growth lamina data considered as reliable recorders of air temperature or precipitation amount. We present the first high-resolution trace element (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca) record providing the potential for quantitative climate r...
Article
The neodymium isotope proxy has become a valuable tool for the reconstruction of past ocean water mass provenance and mixing. For its accurate application, knowledge about the origin and preservation of Nd in sedimentary archives is crucial. Recently, concerns have emerged regarding the applicability of neodymium isotopes as a conservative palaeo w...
Article
Recent studies have introduced stable Ba isotopes (δ138/134Ba) as a novel tracer for ocean processes. Ba isotopes could potentially provide insight into the oceanic Ba cycle, the ocean’s biological pump, water-mass provenance in the deep ocean, changes in activity of hydrothermal vents, and land-sea interactions including tracing riverine inputs. H...
Article
The precise determination of the stable C and O isotope fractionation between water and calcite (CC) and water and aragonite (AR) is of special interest for climate reconstructions, e.g. paleotemperatures. Previous studies reported results from both laboratory and field experiments, but their results are only partly consistent. Here we present C an...
Article
Full-text available
U-Th ages and temperatures derived from Li/Mg have been measured on coral fragments of Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata collected from two sediment cores, which were taken from cold-water coral (CWC) mounds at 700–790m water depth at the SW Rockall Trough margin. Our data, combined with previous published data, have allowed us to first estima...
Article
Numerous charcoal accumulations discovered in the submerged Chan Hol cave near Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico, have been 14C‐dated revealing ages between 8110 ± 28 14C a BP (9122–8999 cal a BP) and 7177 ± 27 14C a BP (8027–7951 cal a BP). These charcoal concentrations, interpreted here as ancient illumination sites, provide strong evidence that the Ch...
Article
The formation of tufa is essentially influenced by biological processes and, in order to infer environmental information from tufa deposits, it has to be determined how the geochemistry of biologically influenced tufa deviates from equilibrium conditions between water and calcite precipitate. We investigated the evolution of the water and tufa geoc...
Article
Full-text available
The largest coherent cold-water coral (CWC) mound province in the Atlantic Ocean exists along the Mauritanian margin, where up to 100 m high mounds extend over a distance of ~400 km, arranged in two slope-parallel chains in 400e550 m water depth. Additionally, CWCs are present in the numerous submarine canyons with isolated coral mounds being devel...
Article
Dating the transport/deposition time of supratidal coarse-clast deposits is difficult, limiting their value for inferring frequency-magnitude patterns of high-energy wave events. On Bonaire (Leeward Antilles, Caribbean), these deposits form prominent landforms, and transport by one or several Holocene tsunamis is assumed at least for the largest cl...
Article
We here report on a type of meter-sized pendant speleothem growing under water in the submerged El Zapote sinkhole (cenote) west of Puerto Morelos on the Mexican Yucatán Peninsula. These conical, mantle-shaped downward expanding and diverging calcareous structures, here termed as Hells Bells, are yet unreported in the scientific literature. They ar...
Article
High-precision U-series dating of scleractinian cold-water corals is a key chronological tool for studies of past environmental and climate conditions. Here, we tested and optimized an automated chemical extraction system (ESI prepFAST-MC equipped with an Eichrom TRU-resin chromatographic column) for its ability to purify U and Th isotopes for mass...
Article
Full-text available
Preceramic human skeletal remains preserved in submerged caves near Tulum in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, reveal conflicting results regarding ¹⁴C dating. Here we use U-series techniques for dating a stalagmite overgrowing the pelvis of a human skeleton discovered in the submerged Chan Hol cave. The oldest closed system U/Th age comes...
Data
Stable isotope (δ13O, δ18O) measurements of the CH-7 stalagmite from Chan Hol cave. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Sr/ 86 Sr ages a b s t r a c t Ice-sheet and sea-level fluctuations during the Early and Middle Pleistocene are as yet poorly understood. A stalactite from a karst cave in North West Sicily (Italy) provides the first evidence of four marine inundations that correspond to relative sea-level highstands at the time of the Middle Pleistocene Transition...
Article
Full-text available
Coral mounds formed by framework-forming scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC; mainly Lophelia pertusa) are a common seabed feature along the Atlantic continental margins. While coral mound areas in the NE Atlantic reveal a climate-dependent temporal pattern of CWC occurrence and mound aggradation that is related to distinct environmental condition...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Eastern Visayas region in the Philippines is hit by some of the most violent tropical cyclones on Earth on a regular basis, exemplified by Typhoon Haiyan, 7–9 November 2013, and a number of other category 4 and 5 events during the last decades. Moreover, strong earthquakes along the Philippine Trench have triggered several tsunamis in the histo...
Poster
The Eastern Visayas region in the Philippines is significantly exposed to different natural hazards including extreme-wave events. Due to its location in the tropical Northwestern Pacific Basin, it gets regularly hit by some of the strongest tropical cyclones on Earth, recently by Typhoon Haiyan, 7–9 November 2013, or Typhoon Hagupit, 6–8 December...
Article
Dissolved neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition (expressed as εNd) has been analysed for 82 seawater samples collected from 13 stations stretching from the Alboran Sea to the Iceland Basin. The distribution of the εNd values of water masses was thus investigated for the first time along the western European margin in order to explore whether the wate...
Article
Neodymium isotopic compositions (¹⁴³Nd/¹⁴⁴Nd or εNd) have been used as a tracer of water masses and lithogenic inputs to the ocean. To further evaluate the faithfulness of this tracer, we have updated a global seawater εNd database and combined it with hydrography parameters (temperature, salinity, nutrients and oxygen concentrations), carbon isoto...
Article
Full-text available
Calcareous tufa deposition in bicarbonate-rich karstic spring waters is essentially linked to complex microbiological communities that alter the geochemistry of the deposited tufa and hydrochemistry of the creek water. A monthly monitoring of the creek water chemistry of a natural tufa depositing site in the Franconian Alb in southern Germany refle...
Article
The last two decades have seen a considerable increase in studies using speleothems as archives of past climate variability. Caves under study are now monitored for a wide range of environmental parameters and results placed in context with speleothem data. The present study investigates trends from a seven year long monitoring of Bunker Cave, west...
Article
Freshwater tufas in karstic environments denote an increasingly studied high-resolution terrestrial paleoclimate archive. Tufa morphology is, among other factors, climate-driven and sedimentary facies models are developed to ascribe present day environmental conditions to constrain sedimentary records of paleotufa. Therefore, knowledge about tufa m...
Article
Full-text available
Speleothem δ18O records provide valuable information about past continental environmental and cli- matic conditions, although their interpretation is often not straightforward. Here we evaluate a compilation of late Holocene speleothem δ18O records using a Monte Carlo based Principal Component Analysis (MC-PCA) method that accounts for uncertaintie...
Article
The Middle Pleistocene archaeological site of Guado San Nicola was discovered in 2005 in a fossil fluvial terrace of the Volturno River, close to the village of Monteroduni, Molise, Italy. Palaeontological remains and lithic artefacts, including both handaxes and Levallois, discoid and opportunistic debitage, were recovered in fluvial and slope sed...
Article
The archaeological site of Guado San Nicola (Monteroduni, Central Italy), under excavation since 2008, is located in the Upper Volturno Valley, near the top of a fluvial terrace attributed to the Middle Pleistocene. Several anthropic levels have been recognized within a stratigraphic sequence of more than two meters in thickness, characterized by a...
Article
The Nd isotopic composition (εNd) of seawater and cold-water coral (CWC) samples from the Gulf of Cádiz and the Alboran Sea, at a depth of 280-827 m were investigated in order to constrain mid-depth water mass dynamics within the Gulf of Cádiz over the past 40 ka. εNd of glacial and Holocene CWC from the Alboran Sea and the northern Gulf of Cádiz r...
Article
Full-text available
Millennial-scale climate changes during the last glacial period and deglaciation were accompanied by rapid changes in atmospheric CO2 that remain unexplained. While the role of the Southern Ocean as a ’control valve’ on ocean–atmosphere CO2 exchange has been emphasized, the exact nature of this role, in particular the relative contributions of phys...
Article
Zwischen der Nord- und der Südhalbkugel unserer Erde findet ein reger Austausch an Luft- und Wassermassen statt. Dies bestimmt unser Klima, sowohl auf kurze als auch auf lange Frist. Viele dieser Prozesse sind noch weitgehend unverstanden und werden derzeit intensiv erforscht. Dabei helfen den Wissenschaftlern Klimaarchive wie Höhlensinter oder Mee...
Article
Climatic and oceanographic changes, as occurring at a glacial–interglacial scale, may alter the environmental conditions needed for the development of prolific cold-water coral reefs and mounds. Studies constraining the temporal distribution of cold-water corals in the NE Atlantic suggested the cyclic changes of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning...
Article
Nd and normalized Rare Earth Elements (REE) patterns of benthic and planktonic foraminifera and Fe-Mn coatings precipitated on sediments have been investigated for the South China Sea (SCS) to (1) assess the reliability of the extraction of past seawater εNd in the SCS and to (2) reconstruct past hydrological changes during the last 25 kyr. Reducti...
Article
Climatic and oceanographic changes, as occurring at a glacial–interglacial scale, may alter the environmental conditions needed for the development of prolific cold-water coral reefs and mounds. Studies constraining the temporal distribution of cold-water corals in the NE Atlantic suggested the cyclic changes of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning...
Data
In the nineties, cold-water coral mounds were discovered in the Porcupine Seabight (NE Atlantic, west of Ireland). A decade later, this discovery led to the drilling of the entire Challenger cold-water coral mound (Eastern slope, Porcupine Seabight) during IODP Expedition 307. As more than 50% of the sediment within Challenger Mound consists of ter...
Article
Extreme, abrupt Northern Hemisphere climate oscillations during the last glacial cycle (140,000 years ago to present) were modulated by changes in ocean circulation and atmospheric forcing. However, the variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which has a role in controlling heat transport from low to high latitudes an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
U/Th disequilibrium dating on stalagmites has been carried out as well as strontium isotope analyses for various prehistoric animal and human skeletal remains found in submerged caves of the extensive karstic system between Tulum and Playa del Carmen in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, Northern Yucatán peninsula (González González et al., 2013)....
Article
Modeling natural phenomena from 3-D information enhances our understanding of the environment. Dense 3-D point clouds are increasingly used as highly detailed input datasets. In addition to the capturing techniques of point clouds with LiDAR, low-cost sensors have been released in the last few years providing access to new research fields and facil...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Six depth-profiles of dissolved Nd concentrations and isotopic ratios (εNd) were obtained in the Gulf of Cadiz and the Alboran Sea to answer the lack of data in these areas. εNd are analyzed on a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Seawater εNd will be compared with εNd values of deep-sea corals from Alboran Sea dated betw...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The subsurface of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, located on the northeastern Yucatán peninsula, hosts one of the largest underwater cave systems in the world. Interconnected caves formed within thick-bedded shallow water carbonate bedrock of Mio-, Plio-and Pleistocene age (Weidie, 1985). The cave system is located only a few kilometers away fro...
Article
Full-text available
General paradigms of species extinction risk are urgently needed as global habitat loss and rapid climate change threaten Earth with what could be its sixth mass extinction. Using the stony coral Lophelia pertusa as a model organism with the potential for wide larval dispersal, we investigated how the global ocean conveyor drove an unprecedented po...
Presentation
Full-text available
Sr-Isotopie in Grundwässern des Oberrheingrabens (Raum Freiburg und Groß Gerau)
Article
A high resolution δ18O record obtained on benthic foraminifera (Cibicides wuellerstorfi) combined with clay mineralogy, major element concentrations and Sr - Nd isotopes have been investigated for the ODP Site 659 located off North Africa in order to reconstruct African monsoon intensity between 6.2 and 4.9 Myr. Mineralogical and geochemical result...
Article
We show that the Li/Mg systematics of a large suite of aragonitic coral skeletons, representing a wide range of species inhabiting disparate environments, provides a robust proxy for ambient seawater temperature. The corals encompass both zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate species (Acropora sp., Porites sp., Cladocora caespitosa, Lophelia pertusa,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The subsurface of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, located on the northeastern Yucatan peninsula, is known to house one of the largest underwater cave systems in the world. Sinkholes, regionally known as cenotes, and several levels of interconnected caves reach to >150 m depth and formed within thick-bedded shallow water carbonate bedrock of Mio-...
Article
Full-text available
The systematic excavation of the site of Guado San Nicola (Monteroduni, Molise) revealed a stratigraphic sequence, more than two meters thick, located on the distal part of an ancient terraced alluvial cone made by the Lorda creek, a tributary of the Volturno river. The lithologic, morphographic and pedostratigraphic evidences suggest its attribut...
Conference Paper
Deep-sea corals were discovered over a century ago, but it is only over recent years that focused efforts have been made to explore the history of the oceans using the geochemistry of their skeletal remains. They offer a promising archive of past oceanic environments given their global distribution, layered growth patterns, longevity and preservati...
Data
Modeling natural phenomena from 3D information enhances our understanding of the environment. Dense 3D point clouds are increasingly used as highly detailed input datasets. In addition to the capturing techniques of point clouds with LiDAR, low-cost sensors have been released in the last few years providing access to new research fields and facilit...
Article
Massive flank failures of volcanic edifices generate tsunami waves. These low-frequency but high magnitude hazards remain poorly documented because of the scarcity of observations. Offshore deposits are studied only by geophysical surveys and the failure rheologies are poorly constrained. Marine conglomerates found at unusually high elevations in H...