Norbert Lindlein

Norbert Lindlein
Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg | FAU · Institute of Optics, Information and Photonics

About

182
Publications
13,794
Reads
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2,367
Citations
Citations since 2017
30 Research Items
931 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Additional affiliations
February 1992 - present
Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg
Position
  • Group Leader

Publications

Publications (182)
Article
A grazing incidence interferometric measurement procedure is applied to test rough convex steep rotationally symmetric aspherics. The measurement of rough surfaces is possible; i.e., without the need to polish the surfaces, due to the large effective wavelength ( λ eff = 10 µ m ) of the test. One measurement step using diffractive beam splitters an...
Article
Far field calculations of beams, such as laser beams, are often applied in optical engineering. Current beam propagation methods fail in certain range parameters due to high storage requirements of the algorithms. This paper presents a new beam propagation method for far field calculations of distorted Gaussian beams in a homogeneous medium includi...
Conference Paper
Printing polymer optical waveguides by means of combined printing processes has proven to be a challenging but effective way of producing waveguides with a loss less than 0.3dB/cm. In order to evaluate the optical performance of the produced waveguides, optical simulations have been carried out. In this work we show the influence on the optical per...
Article
Grazing incidence interferometry has been applied to plane, cylindrical, acylindrical, and general rod-like surfaces using diffractive beam splitters. Here, in a first step towards measuring aspherics, we demonstrate that also rough convex steep rotationally symmetric spherics can be measured along one meridian in a single step using diffractive be...
Conference Paper
This paper analyzes an approach for additively manufacturing polymer optical waveguides. The production process includes flexographic printing of conditioning lines (5 μm height) on a substrate, which are used as guiding barriers in the subsequent printing of the optical core. The core is additively printed (up to 50 μm in height) with an aerosol j...
Article
In the past, grazing incidence interferometry has been applied for rough plane, cylindrical, acylindrical, and general rod-like surfaces using diffractive beam splitters. Here, we demonstrate that also rough convex steep rotational symmetric spherical or aspherical surfaces can be measured along one meridian in a single step using diffractive beam...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Die besondere Geometrie des Querschnitts der Polymer Optischen Wellenleiter (POW) beeinflusst das Design des Druckpfades. Um nun Vorschriften für das Druckpfad-Design ableiten zu konnen, benötigt es einer Chrarakterisierung der POWs bezüglich verschiedenster Druckpfade. Diesee Charakterisierung wird vorgestellt und die daraus abgeleiteten Druckpfad...
Conference Paper
Recent fabrication methods print polymer optical waveguides (POWs) on three-dimensional carriers. The special geometry of the POWs enables the realisation of an optical ray splitter which is simulated by raytracing using a new bisection-algorithm.
Preprint
The smallest possible focus is achieved when the focused wave front is the time reversed copy of the light wave packet emitted from a point in space (S. Quabis et al., Opt. Commun. 179 (2000) 1-7). The best physical implementation of such a pointlike sub-wavelength emitter is a single atom performing an electric dipole transition. In a former paper...
Article
This publication presents a novel interferometric method for the simultaneous spatially resolved analysis of an object under test regarding the phase transmission function and the magnitude and orientation of dichroism. Analogous to the classical phase-shifting interferometry, the measurement strategy is based on the variation of phase and polariza...
Conference Paper
A novel interferometric approach for a full-field and simultaneous measurement of the phase and the polarization state of a light wave is introduced. The same procedure can be used for simultaneous analysis of the phase transmission and the polarization properties of a specimen.
Conference Paper
This paper shows the modeling, simulation and production of polymer optical waveguides using the OPTAVER process. The additive manufactured multimode waveguides with their typical cross-section of a circle shape are of low cost and high-performance.
Article
Full-text available
In the age of digitalization, the amount of data generated and transferred continues to increase dramatically. To increase the usability of this data it must be accessible with sufficient transmission bandwidth. Optical signals are already being used for transmitting data over long distances and high bandwidths, as this enables fast and low-loss da...
Preprint
This publication presents a novel interferometric method for the simultaneous spatially resolved analysis of an object under test regarding the phase transmission function and the magnitude and orientation of dichroism. Analogous to the classical phase shifting interferometry the measurement strategy is based on the variation of phase and polarizat...
Article
This paper presents a novel interferometric method for the simultaneous spatially resolved analysis of an object under test regarding the phase transmission function and the magnitude and orientation of the (uniaxial) birefringence. The measurement strategy is based on variations of the phase and polarization and processing the interference pattern...
Conference Paper
Die Forschergruppe OPTAVER (Optische Aufbau- und Verbindungstechnik für baugruppenintegrierte Bussysteme) beschäftigt sich seit ca. 3 Jahren mit dem Design, der Simulation und dem Druckprozess Polymer Optischer Wellenleiter (POWs). Durch den eingesetzten additiven 3D-Fertigungsprozess (Flexodruck und Aerosol Jet Druck) der Wellenleiterstrukturen wi...
Conference Paper
In der DFG-finanzierten Forschergruppe OPTAVER (Optische Aufbau-und Verbindungstechnik für baugruppenintegrierte Bussysteme) wurden erfolgreich Lichtwellenleiter mittels eines Aerosol-Druck-Verfahrens mit vorheriger Konditionierung hergestellt sowie ein virtuelles Abbild der gesamten Prozesskette erstellt. Mit Hilfe dieser innovativen Lichtwellenle...
Article
Full-text available
In certain applications, modal wavefront sensors (MWFSs) can outperform zonal wavefront sensors, which are widely used due to their high flexibility. In this paper, a holography-based MWFS as described is developed for the fast position control of a light emitter in a deep parabolic mirror. The light source is located in the vicinity of the focal p...
Article
The research for new production chains in the field of waveguide fabrication is a challenging task. Realizing a cost efficient manufacturing process allows integrating optical data communication in arbitrary structures as for example the wing of an airplane or the car body. The production chain described in this paper contains the design, simulatio...
Conference Paper
Modale Wellenfrontsensoren können gegenüber einer zonalen Wellenfrontdetektion von Vorteil sein. Etwa, wenn in einem optischen Element fabrikationsbedingt nur spezielle Aberrationsmoden zu erwarten sind. Der Hauptvorteil eines modalen Sensors ist die geringe Auswertekomplexität und folglich ein Geschwindigkeitsvorteil bei der Wellenfrontmessung. Al...
Conference Paper
Gedruckte Polymer optische Wellenleiter (POWs) sind hochgradig multimodig, sodass eine Raytracing Simulation mit guter Näherung verwendet werden darf. Neben der Erweiterung des Simulationsmodells von Wellenleitern bezüglich der Dämpfung des Signals [1] wurde eine Erweiterung bezüglich der Signaldispersion eingeführt. Für diese wurde ein effizientes...
Conference Paper
In this paper, polymer optical waveguides (POWs), fabricated by using flexographic printing for printing conditioning lines onto polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) foil substrate material and Aerosol Jet Printing for producing the core and cladding of the waveguide, are characterized by using Monte Carlo raytracing for the scattering process. This metho...
Article
This publication presents what we believe is a novel interferometric method for the simultaneous measurement of the phase and state of polarization of a light wave with arbitrary polarization; in particular, it can be varying elliptical. The measurement strategy is based on variations of the reference wave, concerning phase and polarization and pro...
Article
In this article, we present a coupling concept for an interruption-free asymmetric bidirectional optical bus coupler for board and module level. With this approach, it is possible to connect several electro-optical devices to a single waveguide. A core-to-core connection principle is used, where the cores get into physical contact at their side fac...
Conference Paper
The theory and experimental results of a novel interferometric approach for simultaneous characterization of the optical elements with respect to their impact on the polarization and the phase of an incoming light wave are presented.
Article
Full-text available
Optical technologies become increasingly important in modern sensor and communication applications. Nevertheless, manufacturing and design methods in the field of spatial opto-electronics have not been investigated intensively yet. A new approach is to print polymer waveguides on spatial carriers to use the full design freedom of opto-mechatronic a...
Article
Grazing incidence interferometry has been applied to rough planar and cylindrical surfaces. As suitable beam splitters diffractive optical phase elements are quite common because these allow for the same test sensitivity for all surface points. But a rotational-symmetric convex aspheric has two curvatures which reduces the measurable region to a me...
Conference Paper
The design and simulation of printed polymer optical waveguides is a new approach in the field of raytracing techniques, to link the CAD routines with the simulation process of the waveguides via raytracing methods.
Conference Paper
When the electromagnetic field in the focus of an aplanatic lens with high numerical aperture illuminated by an ultrashort optical pulse is considered, the experimenter has to take into account, that in reality ideal aberration-free optical systems can only be realized approximately. Therefore, aberrations of optical systems should be taken into acc...
Conference Paper
The printing process of polymer optical waveguides is a new and uncharted research topic, which the research group OPTAVER is principally involved in. A main consequence of the printing process is the roughness of the interface between core and cladding. This surface between the dielectric media creates scattering in printed waveguides. To simulate...
Article
In many industrial applications, an inline measurement of a production process poses a difficult challenge for any optical system. Therefore, telecentric optical systems are being used to ensure an independence of the magnification of the object from the working distance. Usually, telecentric optical systems are impractical for inline applications...
Conference Paper
The DFG research group “Optische Aufbau- und Verbindungstechnik für baugruppenintegrierte Bussysteme” (Optical integrated circuit packaging for module-integrated bus systems – OPTAVER) works on improving optical data transmission systems. The main research question is: How have design tools to look for linking optical transmission systems with opto...
Conference Paper
The electromagnetic field in the focus of an ideal aplanatic lens with high numerical aperture, which is illuminated by an ultrashort optical pulse and plane wave front, is simulated by taking the vectorial Debye integral and the coherent superposition of a frequency spectrum of monochromatic waves. The behavior of the principal maxima and the firs...
Conference Paper
Nowadays, ultrashort optical pulses have quite a few applications, e.g. in the measuring technology, in the processing of materials, and also in the medical science. Like in the stationary (continuous wave) case, secondary maxima appear in the focal plane, when optical pulses are focused by an aplanatic lens (without aberrations). These can be simu...
Conference Paper
Last year (lecture A28 - 115th DGaO annual meeting), we presented the concept of a compact and modular telecentric line scanning system, capable of measuring large surfaces, e.g. for deformation and scratch detection of aluminium rolled sheets. In this particular construction, a circular scan curve is imaged onto one line. Because of the modular de...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the fabrication and the experimental demon- stration of Moire diffractive spiral phase plates with adjustable helical charge. The proposed optical unit consists of two axially stacked diffractive elements of conjugate structure. The joint transmission function of the compound system corresponds to that of a spiral phase plate where the...
Article
A novel Fourier method for rigorous diffraction computation at periodic structures is presented. The procedure is based on a differential equation for the S-matrix, which allows direct integration of the S-matrix blocks. This results in a new method in Fourier space, which can be considered as a numerically stable and well-parallelizable alternativ...
Conference Paper
Telezentrische Objektive finden heutzutage in der Messtechnik Anwendung, damit auch bei Veränderung des Objektabstands der Abbildungsmaßstab des Systems nicht von der Tiefe des Objekts abhängt. Da jedoch telezentrische Objektive für das Abscannen großer Oberflächen zu groß und preisintensiv sind, wird hier für diese Anwendung ein modulares System v...
Article
Interferometric speckle techniques are plagued by the omnipresence of phase singularities, impairing the phase unwrapping process. To reduce the number of phase singularities by physical means, an incoherent averaging of multiple speckle fields may be applied. It turns out, however, that the results may strongly deviate from the expected √N behavio...
Conference Paper
Ultrakurze Laserpulse sind sowohl in Wissenschaft und Forschung als auch in der Industrie aufgrund ihrer extrem kurzen zeitlichen Breite und hohen Intensität vielseitig einsetzbar. Hierbei sind Pulsdauern, mit einer Hauptfrequenz innerhalb des sichtbaren Spektrums, in einem Bereich von wenigen Femtosekunden realisierbar. Bei der Fokussierung dieser...
Article
Optical components manipulating both polarization and phase of wave fields find many applications in today's optical systems. With modern lithography methods it is possible to fabricate optical elements with nanostructured surfaces from different materials capable of generating spatially varying, locally linearly polarized-light distributions, tail...
Article
Full-text available
The spin Hall effect of light (SHEL) is the photonic analogue of spin Hall effects occurring for charge carriers in solid-state systems. Typical examples of this intriguing phenomenon occur when a light beam refracts at an air-glass interface, or when it is projected onto an oblique plane, the latter effect being known as geometric SHEL. It amounts...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, it was shown that a nonzero transverse angular momentum manifests itself in a polarization-dependent intensity shift of the barycenter of a paraxial light beam [Aiello et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 100401 (2009)]. The underlying effect is phenomenologically similar to the spin Hall effect of light but does not depend on the specific light...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, it was shown that a non-zero transverse angular momentum manifests itself in a polarization dependent intensity shift of the barycenter of a paraxial light beam [A. Aiello et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 100401 (2009)]. The underlying effect is phenomenologically similar to the spin Hall effect of light, but does not depend on the specific...
Data
Full-text available
In classical mechanics, a system may possess angular momentum which can be either transverse (e.g. in a spinning wheel) or longitudinal (e.g. for a spiraling seed falling from a tree) with respect to the direction of motion. However, for light, a typical massless wave system, the situation is less versatile. Photons are well-known to exhibit intrin...
Article
Optical components manipulating both polarization and phase of wave fields find a lot of applications in today’s optical systems. It is possible to fabricate optical elements with nanostructured surfaces for the generation of any orientation of locally linearly polarized light [1]. The wave front of a radial polarizer made from a subwavelength alum...
Conference Paper
The paper presents the testing of freeform optics using a Shack-Hartmann sensor. A cubic phase plate has been selected as a freeform surface to test. A diffractive optical element is used as a null element for the freeform optics. The experimental results using a Shack-Hartmann sensor are compared with other testing methods.
Conference Paper
We experimentally demonstrate a recently predicted novel beam shift phenomenon, the geometric spin Hall effect of light. This effect is fundamentally different from ordinary beam shifts due to its purely geometric nature.
Article
Full-text available
The concept of angular momentum is ubiquitous to many areas of physics. In classical mechanics, a system may possess an angular momentum which can be either transverse (e.g., in a spinning wheel) or longitudinal (e.g., for a fluidic vortex) to the direction of motion. Photons, however, are well-known to exhibit intrinsic angular momentum which is l...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For a null-test of aspheric lenses diffractive optical elements (DOEs) can be used as they offer the freedom of design to adapt easily to the desired sample under test. To remove the systematic errors from the measurement, and therefore, achieve an absolute measurement of the aspherical lens, a multi-position test in combination with a dual-wavefro...
Article
Full-text available
We demonstrate the generation of an optical dipole wave suitable for the process of efficiently coupling single quanta of light and matter in free space. We employ a parabolic mirror for the conversion of a transverse beam mode to a focused dipole wave and show the required spatial and temporal shaping of the mode incident onto the mirror. The resu...
Conference Paper
For a nulltest of aspheric lenses diffractive optical elements (DOEs) can be used as they offer the freedom of design to adapt easily to the desired sample under test. Like every other component in the measurement setup they introduce systematic errors to the measurement. The main error sources concerning the phase of the DOE are the aberrations of...
Conference Paper
For many optical measurement applications, a polarization matching is necessary. Therefore, appropriate polarization manipulating elements are inserted into the measurement setup. However, those optical elements result not only in the desired polarization distribution, but also introduce an additional phase term. Usually, this phase term can be neg...
Conference Paper
Deformation measurements of objects with rough surfaces can be carried out using speckle interferometry. To reconstruct the surface deformation, unwrapping of the measured phase data is necessary. Due to the surface roughness, the phase data contain a high amount of singularities, making the phase unwrapping highly involved. To improve the evaluati...
Conference Paper
We demonstrate the geometric spin Hall effect of light by focusing a specially polarization tailored beam of light, resulting in the generation of purely transverse angular momentum in the focal plane.
Chapter
The quest to understand the nature of light nature of light is centuries old, and today there can be at least three answers to the single question of what light is depending on the experiment used to investigate light’s nature: (i) light consists of rays that propagate, e.g., rectilinear in homogeneous media, (ii) light is an electromagnetic wave,...
Chapter
This chapter shall discuss the basics and the applications of geometrical optical methods in modern optics. Geometrical optics has a long tradition and some ideas are many centuries old. Nevertheless, the invention of modern personal computers which can perform several million floating-point operations in a second also revolutionized the methods of...
Article
Full-text available
Zernike phase contrast microscopy is extended and combined with a phase-shifting mechanism to perform quantitative phase measurements of microscopic objects. Dozens of discrete point light sources on a ring are constructed for illumination. For each point light source, three different levels of point-like phase steps are designed, which are alterna...
Article
A discontinuous space variant sub-wavelength dielectric grating is designed and fabricated for generating radially polarized light in visible region (l = 632.8 nm). The design is based on sub-wavelength silicon nitride structures introducing a retardation of p/2 by form birefringence, with space variant orientation of the optical axis. The pattern...
Article
A subwavelength concentric ring metal grating for visible light (λ=632.8 nm) is designed and fabricated by electron-beam lithography to transform circularly polarized light into radially polarized light. Experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions and the advantages and disadvantages of the element with alternative methods are disc...
Article
A lateral shearing interferometer usually provides the slope data of a wave front under test along one direction. For the complete reconstruction of the wavefront, two slope datasets along different directions are required. Based on diffractive gratings, a simultaneous measurement of bothdata sets can be carried out. Two possible realizations are p...
Article
Measurements of wavefront deformations can be carried out with the help of lateral shearing interferometers. Here the focus is on a setup providing two shears along orthogonal directions simultaneously to generate the data needed for a reconstruction. We describe a diffractive solution using Ronchi phase gratings with a suppressed zeroth order for...
Article
Normally, fly's eye condensers are used to homogenize light. However, in the case of fully coherent light, a fly's eye condenser, in connection with some simple optical elements, such as a diffractive axicon, a grating, and a telescope, can be used as a quite flexible beam shaping system, forming arrays of rings, parts of rings, or other structures...
Article
In this work we investigate, analytically and numerically, the effect on the diffracted field produced by typical fabrication errors in sawtooth gratings. The analysis is carried out for the near and far field, showing the effects on the intensity and on the diffraction orders efficiency. When the grating profile is not perfect but presents a curve...
Conference Paper
Im letzten Jahr wurde von uns ein 2D Shearing-Interferometer vorgestellt, welches gleichzeitig beide orthogonalen Gradientenfelder mißt. Die Trennung der beiden Gradientenfelder wurde mittels Polarisationsindizierung ermöglicht. In dem hier vorgestellten Interferometer werden die Gradientenfelder ebenfalls gleichzeitig aber lateral getrennt aufgeno...
Chapter
Planar wave fronts with small deviations from a constant phase can be tested using lateral shearing interferometry. The incoming wave front is split in to two identical copies which are laterally shifted with respect to each other. Their superposition gives, in a first approximation, the gradient component of the wave front under test along the dir...
Article
A simple algorithm for blind extraction of phase shifts is proposed for generalized phase-shifting interferometry from only three interferograms. Based on the statistical property of the object wave, the algorithm calculates approximately the involved phase shifts as initial values. The extraction is further improved by an iterative method, conside...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In our continuous variable quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme, the homodyne detection set-up requires balancing the intensity of an incident beam between two photodiodes. Realistic lens systems are insufficient to provide a spatially stable focus in the presence of large spatial beam-jitter caused by atmospheric transmission. We therefore presen...
Article
Increasing accuracy requirements in aspheric metrology make the development of absolute testing procedures for aspheric surfaces important. One strategy is transferring the standard practice three-position test for spheres to aspherics. The three-position test, however, involves a cat's eye position and therefore has certain drawbacks. We propose a...
Article
We present a novel fundamental phenomenon occurring when a polarized beam of light is observed from a reference frame tilted with respect to the direction of propagation of the beam. This effect has a purely geometric nature and amounts to a polarization-dependent shift or split of the beam intensity distribution evaluated as the time-averaged flux...
Article
Laser manufacturing of microstructures using a single focus is a well known technology. Multi-spot optics are applied for process parallelizing if the demand on throughput in mass production rises or large areas of material have to be processed. Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are used for parallel laser processing of a repetitive structure. Th...
Article
This study presents the field distributions which achieve maximization for several optical focusing devices. The overlap of these spatial mode distributions, which sets an upper limit for the field strength parallel to the atomic dipole at the focus, is also discussed. Results of this work and the perturbation theory are utilized to predict the max...
Conference Paper
Aspheric testing is commonly carried out by using null elements [1]. The necessary degree of freedom for designing the null element is achieved by using diffractive optical elements (DOE). Due to light passing the DOE twice, common null tests using reflected light setups suffer from a whole set of disturbing waves. Furthermore, this well introduced...
Conference Paper
The interferometric technique of testing aspherical components with diffractive nulls in reflection is well established. Calibration methods providing an absolute test for aspheric surfaces are derived from the well introduced testing methods of spherical surfaces. However, setups in reflection suffer from disturbing diffraction orders and reflecti...
Article
Calibration methods – “absolute tests” – in interferometric testing of surfaces are usually carried out in a null test configuration. Examples for spherical surfaces are the three position test [1], as well as the shift-rotation procedure [2]. A calibration method for aspherics [3] that is currently under investigation consists of an adaptation of...
Article
Absolute testing of spherical surfaces is a technological necessity because of increased accuracy requirements. In a Fizeau setup, the main part of the interferometer deviations thereby comes from the reference surface. We demonstrate the validity of an absolute testing procedure for the reference surface that has been proposed earlier. The procedu...