Norbert Frank

Norbert Frank
Universität Heidelberg · Institute of Environmental Physics

Professor

About

234
Publications
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Publications

Publications (234)
Article
Full-text available
This study presents sediment cores up to 70 m long collected by the sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo70 from cold-water coral mounds in the western Mediterranean Sea. From these cores, an unprecedented data set of 200 Th/U coral ages has been obtained, greatly expanding our knowledge of the evolution of Mediterranean coral mounds. The drill records pr...
Chapter
Unter Klima verstehen wir das über Jahrzehnte gemittelte Wetter. Klima umfasst damit nicht nur die Temperatur, sondern auch andere meteorologische Größen wie Niederschlag, Feuchte, Wind und deren Extremwerte. Wie in dem Beitrag erklärt wird, ist Klimawandel einerseits ein natürliches Phänomen, andererseits wird das Erdklima zunehmend vom Menschen b...
Article
Full-text available
RATIONALE The first row transition metals Cu, Ni, and Co show a strong binding affinity to natural organic matter. Compared to dissolved elements and stable water isotopes, they may be transported rapidly through the soil and host rock into caves in response to infiltration events. This study aims to assess the potential of transition metal ratios...
Article
Full-text available
We present speleothem fluid inclusion δ18Of and δ2Hf values from Larga Cave, Puerto Rico, that cover the interval between 46.2 and 15.3 ka on the millennial scale, including the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and several stadial and interstadial cycles. The data set can be divided in two main clusters of stable isotope compositions of the fluid inclusi...
Preprint
Hells Bells are underwater secondary carbonates discovered in sinkholes (cenotes) southeast of Cancun on the north-eastern Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. These authigenic calcite precipitates, reaching a length of up to 4 m, most likely grow in the pelagic redoxcline. Here, we report on detailed 230Th/U-dating and in-depth geochemical and stable isotop...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study provides a detailed reconstruction of cold-water coral mound build-up within the East Melilla Coral Province (Southeast Alboran Sea) over the last 300 ky. Based on benthic foraminiferal assemblages, macrofaunal quantification, grain size analysis, sediment geochemistry, and foraminiferal stable isotope compositions, a reconstruction of e...
Book
Unter Klima verstehen wir das über Jahrzehnte gemittelte Wetter. Klima umfasst damit nicht nur die Temperatur, sondern auch andere meteorologische Größen wie iederschlag, Feuchte, Wind und deren Extremwerte. Wie in dem Beitrag erklärt wird, ist Klimawandel einerseits ein natürliches Phänomen, an-dererseits wird das Erdklima zunehmend vom Menschen b...
Article
En los años 1892/93 Luis Siret describió la existencia de una fuente, una conducción y un gran depósito de agua en el recinto fortificado de Los Millares. Se presentan los resultados de una prospección geológica, hidrogeológica y arqueológica para el suministro de agua de Los Millares. Para ello, se han revisado y medido todos los hallazgos anterio...
Article
Full-text available
We examined 14 subaerially deposited speleothems retrieved from submerged caves in the northeastern Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico). These speleothems grew during the Middle to Late Quaternary and were dated by ²³⁰Th-U techniques to provide upper depth limits for past sea levels. We report the first relative sea-level limits for Marine Isotope Stages (M...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present speleothem fluid inclusion δ 18 Of and δ 2 Hf values from Larga Cave, Puerto Rico, that covers the interval between 46.2 to 15.3 ka before present on millennial scale, including the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and several stadial and interstadial cycles. The dataset can be divided in two main clusters of stable isotope compositions of the...
Article
Full-text available
A speleothem record from the north-eastern Yucatán peninsula (Mexico) provides new insights into the tropical hydro-climate of the Americas between 11,040 and 9520 a BP on up to sub-decadal scale. Despite the complex atmospheric reorganization during the end of the last deglaciation, the dominant internal leading modes of precipitation variability...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The increasing anthropogenic CO2 release to the atmosphere is steering global ocean changes such as acidification and warming, threatening biological ecosystems. Models to predict future trends, needed by decision-makers, may be improved by long data-series. This is especially relevant for carbonate-based benthic ecosystems, highly threatened by th...
Article
Full-text available
Spring systems are efficient and fast precipitating non‐marine carbonate factories, but they are also prone to (early) diagenesis. Evidence of diagenesis in travertines remains controversial as the resulting textures have been considered primary in other deposits and the impact on geochemical/palaeo‐environmental signals is often poorly addressed....
Article
Full-text available
Speleothem deposits in nowadays arid environments are important climate archives, as they indicate phases of enhanced precipitation and can precisely be dated by uranium-series dating. So far only very few of such archives have been found in the today hyper-arid Saharo-Arabian Desert (SAD). Therefore, the study at hand fills a gap that exists for s...
Article
Full-text available
To achieve high-precision and reproducible results from radiocarbon ( ¹⁴ C) dating of carbonate samples in paleoclimate research, a new CO 2 extraction line was designed, constructed, and characterized at the Heidelberg Radiocarbon Lab of the Institute of Environmental Physics, Heidelberg. The setup includes a circular glass-tube design, which is o...
Preprint
Full-text available
A speleothem record from the north-eastern Yucatán peninsula (Mexico) provides new insights into the tropical hydro-climate of the Americas between 11,040 and 9,520 a BP on up to sub-decadal scale. Despite the complex atmospheric reorganization during the end of the last deglaciation, the dominant internal leading modes of precipitation variability...
Chapter
U/Th dating methods have become cornerstone tools for the determination of the age of climate change recorded in marine and continental carbonates. Here we describe the theoretical principles and analytical methods along the example of U/Th dating the aragonite skeletons of tropical corals. We demonstrate that a precision limiting factor is built i...
Data
Supplementary information - Summary of sampling locations - Core collection and dating - DNA amplification and sequencing - Species delimitation - Genetic diversity and phylogeographic patterns - Bayesian Skyline Plots - Inference of the number of clusters in the DAPC - Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) - Specific model parameters and model ch...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study provides a detailed reconstruction of climatic events affecting a cold-water coral mound located within the East Melilla Coral Province (Southeast Alboran Sea) over the last 300 ky. Based on benthic foraminiferal assemblages, macrofaunal quantification, grain size analysis, sediment geochemistry, and foraminiferal stable isotope composit...
Article
Full-text available
Turbulent bottom currents significantly influence the formation of cold-water coral mounds and sedimentation processes on continental slopes. Combining records from coral mounds and adjacent slope sediments therefore provide an unprecedented palaeo-archive to understand past variations of intermediate water-mass dynamics. Here, we present coral age...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. The societal and cultural development during the Bronze Age and the subsequent Iron Age was enormous in Greece, however interrupted by two significant transformations around 4200 years b2k (Early Helladic II/III; b2k refers to years before 2000 CE) and 3200 years b2k (end of Late Helladic III). Artefacts and building remains provide some...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
High-resolution records of lake-level changes are crucial to elucidate the impact of local and global climatic changes in lacustrine basins. The Late Quaternary evolution of the Dead Sea has been characterized by substantial variability apparently linked with global climatic changes, beign subject of many research e orts since decades. Previous stu...
Article
A palynological study of carbonate mounds of Atlantic and Mediterranean Moroccan margins was conducted on sediment boxcores MD13-3441, MD13-3456, MD13-3461, MD13-3465, MD13-3468 collected during the oceanographic cruise MD 194/Eurofleet - GATEWAY, which took place on June 2013. The organic remaining revealed a dominance of dinoflagellate cysts over...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the dead carbon fraction (DCF) variations in stalagmite M1-5 from Socotra Island in the western Arabian Sea were investigated through a new set of high-precision U-series and radiocarbon (14C) dates. The data reveal an extreme case of very high and also climate-dependent DCF. For M1-5, an average DCF of 56.2±3.4 % is observed between...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
Human presence on the Yucatán Peninsula reaches back to the Late Pleistocene. Osteological evidence comes from submerged caves and sinkholes (cenotes) near Tulum in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Here we report on a new skeleton discovered by us in the Chan Hol underwater cave, dating to a minimum age of 9.9±0.1 ky BP based on ²³⁰Th/U-dating of...
Article
Full-text available
Cold‐water coral (CWC) mounds are build‐ups comprised of coral‐dominated intervals alternating with a mixed carbonate‐siliciclastic matrix. At some locations, CWC mounds are influenced by methane seepage, but the impact of methane on CWC mounds is poorly understood. To constrain the potential impact of methane on CWC mound growth, lipid biomarker i...
Article
Full-text available
Cold-water corals (CWC), dominantly Desmophyllum pertusum (previously Lophelia pertusa), and their mounds have been in the focus of marine research during the last two decades; however, little is known about the mound-forming capacity of other CWC species. Here, we present new 230Th/U age constraints of the relatively rarely studied framework-build...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the dead carbon fraction (DCF) variations in stalagmite M1-5 from Socotra Island in the western Arabian Sea were investigated through a new set of high-precision U-series and radiocarbon (¹⁴C) dates. The data reveal an extreme case of very high and also climate dependent DCF values. For M1-5 an average DCF of 56.2 ± 3.4 % is observed...
Article
Variations in North Atlantic Ocean mid-depth circulation during the Holocene are poorly understood. It is believed that they had a significant influence on the properties of water entering the Nordic Sea by redistributing heat and freshwater, potentially affecting deep-water formation and climate. To improve our knowledge of the NE Atlantic mid-dep...
Article
Aim To infer cold‐water corals’ (CWC) post‐glacial phylogeography and assess the role of Mediterranean Sea glacial refugia as origins for the recolonization of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Location Northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Taxon Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata. Methods We sampled CWC using remotely operated vehi...
Article
Three small stalagmites from Zoolithencave (southern Germany) show visible laminae, which consist of a clear and a brownish, pigmented layer pair. This potentially provides the opportunity to construct precise chronologies by counting annual laminae. The growth period of the three stalagmites was constrained by the ¹⁴ C bomb peak in the youngest pa...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology is routinely cited as a cost effective tool for climate change mitigation. CCS can directly reduce industrial CO2 emissions and is essential for the retention of CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. To be effective as a climate change mitigation tool, CO2 must be securely retained for 10,000 years (10 ka) w...
Poster
Full-text available
Speleothem records have been successfully calibrated against instrumental data, e.g., using stable oxygen isotope or annual growth lamina data considered as reliable recorders of air temperature or precipitation amount. We present the first high-resolution trace element (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca) record providing the potential for quantitative climate r...
Article
Radiogenic neodymium (Nd) isotopes have been widely used as a proxy for tracing present and past water masses and ocean circulation, yet relatively few data exist for seawater from the important deep water formation area around Iceland. We have analyzed the dissolved seawater Nd isotope compositions (expressed as ƐNd) of 71 seawater samples, as wel...
Article
The neodymium isotope proxy has become a valuable tool for the reconstruction of past ocean water mass provenance and mixing. For its accurate application, knowledge about the origin and preservation of Nd in sedimentary archives is crucial. Recently, concerns have emerged regarding the applicability of neodymium isotopes as a conservative palaeo w...
Article
Recent studies have introduced stable Ba isotopes (δ138/134Ba) as a novel tracer for ocean processes. Ba isotopes could potentially provide insight into the oceanic Ba cycle, the ocean’s biological pump, water-mass provenance in the deep ocean, changes in activity of hydrothermal vents, and land-sea interactions including tracing riverine inputs. H...
Article
The precise determination of the stable C and O isotope fractionation between water and calcite (CC) and water and aragonite (AR) is of special interest for climate reconstructions, e.g. paleotemperatures. Previous studies reported results from both laboratory and field experiments, but their results are only partly consistent. Here we present C an...
Article
Full-text available
U-Th ages and temperatures derived from Li/Mg have been measured on coral fragments of Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata collected from two sediment cores, which were taken from cold-water coral (CWC) mounds at 700–790m water depth at the SW Rockall Trough margin. Our data, combined with previous published data, have allowed us to first estima...
Article
Numerous charcoal accumulations discovered in the submerged Chan Hol cave near Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico, have been 14C‐dated revealing ages between 8110 ± 28 14C a BP (9122–8999 cal a BP) and 7177 ± 27 14C a BP (8027–7951 cal a BP). These charcoal concentrations, interpreted here as ancient illumination sites, provide strong evidence that the Ch...
Article
The formation of tufa is essentially influenced by biological processes and, in order to infer environmental information from tufa deposits, it has to be determined how the geochemistry of biologically influenced tufa deviates from equilibrium conditions between water and calcite precipitate. We investigated the evolution of the water and tufa geoc...
Article
Dating the transport/deposition time of supratidal coarse-clast deposits is difficult, limiting their value for inferring frequency-magnitude patterns of high-energy wave events. On Bonaire (Leeward Antilles, Caribbean), these deposits form prominent landforms, and transport by one or several Holocene tsunamis is assumed at least for the largest cl...
Article
Full-text available
The largest coherent cold-water coral (CWC) mound province in the Atlantic Ocean exists along the Mauritanian margin, where up to 100 m high mounds extend over a distance of ~400 km, arranged in two slope-parallel chains in 400e550 m water depth. Additionally, CWCs are present in the numerous submarine canyons with isolated coral mounds being devel...
Article
We here report on a type of meter-sized pendant speleothem growing under water in the submerged El Zapote sinkhole (cenote) west of Puerto Morelos on the Mexican Yucatán Peninsula. These conical, mantle-shaped downward expanding and diverging calcareous structures, here termed as Hells Bells, are yet unreported in the scientific literature. They ar...
Article
High-precision U-series dating of scleractinian cold-water corals is a key chronological tool for studies of past environmental and climate conditions. Here, we tested and optimized an automated chemical extraction system (ESI prepFAST-MC equipped with an Eichrom TRU-resin chromatographic column) for its ability to purify U and Th isotopes for mass...
Article
Full-text available
Preceramic human skeletal remains preserved in submerged caves near Tulum in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, reveal conflicting results regarding ¹⁴C dating. Here we use U-series techniques for dating a stalagmite overgrowing the pelvis of a human skeleton discovered in the submerged Chan Hol cave. The oldest closed system U/Th age comes...
Data
Stable isotope (δ13O, δ18O) measurements of the CH-7 stalagmite from Chan Hol cave. (DOCX)
Article
Sr/ 86 Sr ages a b s t r a c t Ice-sheet and sea-level fluctuations during the Early and Middle Pleistocene are as yet poorly understood. A stalactite from a karst cave in North West Sicily (Italy) provides the first evidence of four marine inundations that correspond to relative sea-level highstands at the time of the Middle Pleistocene Transition...
Article
Coral mounds formed by framework-forming scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC; mainly Lophelia pertusa) are a common seabed feature along the Atlantic continental margins. While coral mound areas in the NE Atlantic reveal a climate-dependent temporal pattern of CWC occurrence and mound aggradation that is related to distinct environmental condition...
Article
Full-text available
Speleothem δ18O records provide valuable information about past continental environmental and cli- matic conditions, although their interpretation is often not straightforward. Here we evaluate a compilation of late Holocene speleothem δ18O records using a Monte Carlo based Principal Component Analysis (MC-PCA) method that accounts for uncertaintie...