Norah Dunbar

Norah Dunbar
University of California, Santa Barbara | UCSB · Department of Communication

PhD

About

121
Publications
100,490
Reads
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2,707
Citations
Introduction
Norah Dunbar currently works at the Department of Communication, University of California, Santa Barbara. Norah does research in Communication and Quantitative Social Research.
Additional affiliations
July 2014 - present
University of California, Santa Barbara
Position
  • Department Chair
August 2008 - August 2014
University of Oklahoma
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2000 - July 2008
California State University, Long Beach
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (121)
Article
Exoskeletons are an emerging form of technology that combines the skills of both machines and humans to give wearers the ability to complete physically demanding tasks that would be too strenuous for most humans. Exoskeleton adoption has the potential to both enhance and disrupt many aspects of work, including power dynamics in the workplace and th...
Article
Full-text available
Conflict is a natural but uncomfortable part of all human relationships. Researchers and practitioners alike are interested in developing training and therapeutic methods for teaching couples and families healthy conflict management styles. However, the research literature offers little for practitioners in the way of specific verbal and nonverbal...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines whether using virtual reality (VR) with older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild to moderate dementia with a family member who lives at a distance can improve the quality of life of the older adult and the family member. Twenty-one older adults in a senior living community and a family member (who participated i...
Article
Viewed through the lens of the Revelation Risk Model (RRM), we examined whether the perceived riskiness of an activity, relationship type (family, romantic, or friends), and location in the US (California, Oklahoma, or Ohio) influenced whether and how people communicated with close others when refusing an event invitation during the COVID-19 pandem...
Chapter
This study has two goals: first, to investigate the effectiveness of using a digital game to teach undergraduate-level calculus in improving task immersion, sense of control, calculation skills, and conceptual understanding, and second, to investigate how feedback and visual manipulation can facilitate conceptual understanding of calculus materials...
Article
Full-text available
Synchrony is a natural part of human interaction and is often associated with a variety of prosocial outcomes including affinity and rapport. The purpose of this research was to examine whether human negotiators would synchronize their movements when working with non-human avatars and if so, whether that would affect their perceptions of their nego...
Article
This study explores how dyadic power theory (DPT) can explain the demand/withdraw interaction pattern (in which one partner raises an issue and the other partner avoids discussion) in a wide range of relationship types (e.g. friends, romantic partners, family, work relationships). Two surveys were conducted (N = 155 and 91 of student and non‐studen...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives This study tests the feasibility of using virtual reality (VR) with older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild-to-moderate dementia with a family member who lives at a distance. Research Design and Methods 21 residents in a senior living community and a family member (who participated in the VR with the old...
Chapter
The majority of deception research to date has focused on deception in the context of dyadic communication. Among this body of research are efforts to identify what signals can be used to discriminate deceivers from non-deceivers. The general form of this research involves observing (typically recording to observe and/or manually code after the fac...
Chapter
In this study, we address a cross-domain problem of applying computer vision approaches to reason about human facial behavior when people play The Resistance game. To capture the facial behaviors, we first collect several hours of video where the participants playing The Resistance game assume the roles of deceivers (spies) vs truth-tellers (villag...
Chapter
Trust is an integral part of interpersonal relationships. Achieving trust is a goal in most relationships, although there are occasions when wariness and distrust are warranted instead. This chapter presents a new model of trust called the “Spiral Model of Trust” which incorporates concepts from a wide range of disciplinary perspectives. The theory...
Chapter
Power is an integral part of group dynamics and when deception is involved, it affects the process of group decision-making as well as the outcomes of those decisions. We examined 95 groups playing a popular party card game called Mafia in which some players were randomly assigned the role of Spies, and others, the role of Villagers. Spies conceale...
Chapter
This chapter examines the role of culture in deception. It opens by explaining how culture has been measured in the research literature, along with the consequences and critiques of those measurement strategies. Next, it explores how culture has been studied previously in the context of deception and addresses variations in those analyses such as i...
Article
Full-text available
Nonverbal signals color the meanings of interpersonal relationships. Humans rely on facial, head, postural, and vocal signals to express relational messages along continua. Three of relevance are dominance-submission, composure-nervousness and trust-distrust. Machine learning and new automated analysis tools are making possible a deeper understandi...
Chapter
In this paper, we approach the problem of deception detection in videos. Current approaches are limited since they (i) are used in short videos focusing only on a small act of deception, (ii) are hard to interpret, and (iii) do not make use of any human model that could help them in the detection task. To address those limitations, we propose a nov...
Book
This book analyzes the multimodal verbal and nonverbal behavior of humans in both an artificial game, based on the well-known Mafia and Resistance games, as well as selected other settings. This book develops statistical results linking different types of facial expressions (e.g. smile, pursed lips, raised eyebrows), vocal features (e.g., pitch, lo...
Article
Full-text available
The manual coding of nonverbal cues by trained human coders, such as counting the occurrence of a specific behavior or subjective rating about a speaker, is still a major method in the study of nonverbal synchrony. However, its time-consuming nature has been a serious barrier to the development of the field and has made it difficult for new scholar...
Article
Full-text available
This dyadic study examined how grandparents’ and grandchildren’s perceptions of receiving accommodation, overaccommodation, and underaccommodation were indirectly associated with grandchildren’s intentions to provide instrumental care and grandparents’ expectations that they would receive instrumental care, via both parties’ communication satisfact...
Presentation
Dunbar, N., Denault, V., & Hansia, M. (2020, January). Transcript case studies: MURI transcript analysis. In J. Burgoon, N. Dunbar, J. Nunamaker & J. Proudfoot (Chairs). Credibility and Screening Technologies Symposium. Communication presented at the 2019 Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui, Hawaii.
Article
Full-text available
In an attempt to enhance the likelihood that a lie is perceived as truthful, deceivers might strategically attempt to build rapport in an interaction. Deceivers can build this rapport by coordinating behaviors with their interaction partners, thereby creating interpersonal synchrony. The goal of this study was to empirically test whether deceptive...
Article
Full-text available
Denault, V., Plusquellec, P., Jupe, L. M., St-Yves, M., Dunbar, N. E., Hartwig, M., … van Koppen, P. J. (2020). L’analyse de la communication non verbale: Les dangers de la pseudoscience en contextes de sécurité et de justice [The analysis of nonverbal communication: The dangers of pseudoscience in security and justice contexts]. Revue internationa...
Article
Full-text available
Denault, V., Plusquellec, P., Jupe, L. M., St-Yves, M., Dunbar, N. E., Hartwig, M., … van Koppen, P. J. (2020). The analysis of nonverbal communication: The dangers of pseudoscience in security and justice contexts. Anuario de Psicología Jurídica, 30, 1-12. doi: 10.5093/apj2019a9
Article
Full-text available
Para los profesionales de la seguridad y la justicia (policías, abogados, jueces), los miles de artículos revisados por pares sobre comunicación no verbal representan fuentes importantes de conocimiento. Sin embargo, a pesar del alcance del trabajo científico realizado sobre este tema, los profesionales pueden recurrir a programas, métodos y enfoqu...
Conference Paper
We consider the problems of predicting (i) the most dominant person in a group of people, and (ii) the more dominant of a pair of people, from videos depicting group interactions. We introduce a novel family of variables called Dominance Rank. We combine features not previously used for dominance prediction (e.g., facial action units, emotions), wi...
Article
Extant research indicates that professional law enforcement officers (LEOs) are generally no better than untrained novices at detecting deception. Moreover, traditional training methods are often less effective than no training at all at improving successful detection. Compared to the traditional training, interactive digital games can provide an i...
Article
Full-text available
Denault, V., Dunbar, N., & Plusquellec, P. (2019). The detection of deception during trials: Ignoring the nonverbal communication of witnesses is not the solution - A response to Vrij and Turgeon (2018). The International Journal of Evidence and Proof, 24(1), 3-11. doi: 10.1177/1365712719851133
Preprint
Most work on automated deception detection (ADD) in video has two restrictions: (i) it focuses on a video of one person, and (ii) it focuses on a single act of deception in a one or two minute video. In this paper, we propose a new ADD framework which captures long term deception in a group setting. We study deception in the well-known Resistance g...
Chapter
Full-text available
Denault, V., & Dunbar, N. (2019). Credibility assessment and deception detection in courtrooms: Hazards and challenges for scholars and legal practitioners. In T. Docan-Morgan (Ed.), The Palgrave handbook of deceptive communication (pp. 915-936). Basingstoke, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.
Preprint
Full-text available
VERITAS—an interactive digital game—was designed and developed to train LEOs to better detect reliable deception cues when questioning suspects and determining the veracity of their answers. LEOs playing VERITAS showed significant improvement in deception detection. Relative to a student population, LEOs perceived VERITAS to be significantly more i...
Chapter
Power in Close Relationships - edited by Christopher R. Agnew February 2019
Chapter
This study has two goals: first, to investigate the effectiveness of using a digital game to teach undergraduate-level calculus in improving task immersion, sense of control, calculation skills, and conceptual understanding, and second, to investigate how feedback and visual manipulation can facilitate conceptual understanding of calculus materials...
Article
Many deception studies focus on interviewees who do not confess to wrongdoing; confessions are often treated as anomalies and ignored. This study begins to explore confessions by using a mixed-methods secondary analysis of verbal and nonverbal cues that accompany confessions about wrongdoing. Confederates encouraged participants to cheat for extra...
Book
Cambridge Core - Communications - The Cambridge Handbook of Group Interaction Analysis - edited by Elisabeth Brauner
Article
Well-designed video games can teach people to decrease their reliance on heuristics and biases, especially in deception detection, where people might be resistant to training or unaware that training is needed. We created the serious game VERITAS in which users ask questions of pre-recorded actors and attempt to determine the veracity of the answer...
Article
Full-text available
Using identity implications theory as a guiding lens, this study examined how siblings, dating partners, and friends pursue relational repair or relational distancing after a hurtful conflict. Identity implications theory addresses how people pursue goals, but few studies have examined how varying types of relationships fit into the theory’s framew...
Article
Full-text available
This mixed-methods study applies Communication Accommodation Theory to explore how liking, power, and sex predict one’s likelihood for using textisms in digital interpersonal interactions. Textisms are digital cues that convey nonverbal meaning and emotion in text communication. The main experiment used a hypothetical texting scenario to manipulate...
Article
Full-text available
Denault, V. & Dunbar, N. (2017). Nonverbal communication in courtrooms: Scientific assessments or modern trials by ordeal? The Advocates’ Quarterly, 47(3), 280-308.
Article
One of the benefits of using digital games for education is that games can provide feedback for learners to assess their situation and correct their mistakes. We conducted two studies to examine the effectiveness of different feedback design (timing, duration, repeats, and feedback source) in a serious game designed to teach learners about cognitiv...
Article
The Internet has become the primary location for ideological groups to recruit members, manage their public image, and organize a diverse membership. To accomplish their goals, these organizations strive to appear credible to target audiences. Metzger, Flanagin, and Medders' (2010) theory of online credibility assessment explains that Internet user...
Article
Ideological groups use websites to exert influence on individuals’ beliefs, values, and social identities. This often involves, using negative emotional appeals and credibility tactics to influence website users’ emotional responses, attitudes, and intentions. However, we know little about the joint effects of affective appeals and credibility, esp...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid Judgments (RJs) are quick assessments based on indirect verbal and nonverbal cues that are known to be associated with deception. RJs are advantageous because they eliminate the need for expensive detection equipment and only require minimal training for coders with relatively accurate judgments. Results of testing on two different datasets s...
Chapter
Full-text available
A Biological and Social Imperative Adaptation is a biological and social imperative - biologically, for the survival of a species; socially, for the survival of a society. Vertebrates and invertebrates alike come equipped with reflexes that produce involuntary survival-related forms of adaptation in the form of fight or flight responses. In the fac...
Article
Objective. Humans systematically make poor decisions because of cognitive biases. Can digital games train people to avoid cognitive biases? The goal of this study is to investigate the affordance of different educational media in training people about cognitive biases and to mitigate cognitive biases within their decision-making processes. Method....
Article
Full-text available
While deception is generally viewed as an undesirable and unethical action, people evaluate some lies as more detrimental than others. This study examined factors influencing deception assessments, including the seriousness of the lie and whom it benefits. The effect of an intergroup versus an interpersonal context for the lie was examined. Utilizi...
Article
Full-text available
Digital games are ideal for training complex decision making skills because they allow players to experience decision making processes and consequences. However, training complex skills often results in failure, which may undermine learning engagement. Traditional training methods employing observational learning (e.g., training videos) do not caus...
Article
Full-text available
This study has two goals: First, to investigate the effectiveness of using a digital game to teach undergraduate-level calculus in terms of improving task immersion, sense of control, calculation skills, and conceptual understanding. Second, to investigate how feedback and visual manipulation can facilitate conceptual understanding of calculus. 132...
Chapter
Interpersonal power and dominance are communicated in a variety of ways: (a) through the kinesic cues displayed such as facial expressions, gestures, body posture, and movement; (b) through access to greater personal space and higher status territory; (c) through the use of haptics, especially non-reciprocal touch and touch initiation; (d) by vocal...
Chapter
Conflict is the struggle over incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from others, which means interpersonal power is a determinant of how the conflict is enacted. Power is a result of dependence on others when attempting to achieve goals and determines the strategies that are employed in a conflict or whether conflict is avoided ent...
Chapter
Power is the ability to influence the behavior of another person, but having that ability is different from acting on that ability. Power strategies are the different ways that people use their power to effect change in others. Sometimes, power is evident in the nonverbal behavior of others and is very subtle; other times it can be overt and appear...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While deception is generally viewed across communities as an undesirable an unethical action, people evaluate some lies as more detrimental or more benign than others. This study examined the various factors influencing deception assessments. These factors included the seriousness of the lie and whom the lie benefits. As a novel addition, the role...
Article
Ideological groups (both non-violent and violent) make extensive use of the Internet for recruiting and other purposes, yet little is known about the effectiveness of the influence of websites of differing ideologies on attitudes and behavior. Furthermore, although credibility and interactivity have been extensively studied in online settings, they...
Article
Dyadic power theory (DPT; Dunbar 2004) predicts that equal and unequal-power dyads will seek to persuade one another differently because they use different control attempts. This paper seeks to expand the theory’s definition of control attempts beyond dominance by examining convergence behavior, topic avoidance, aggression, deception, and affection...
Article
Power equality or inequality is one of the most fundamental attributes of any interpersonal relationship. In this review of interpersonal approaches to power, a definition of interpersonal power is proposed and the multidimensional and complex nature of power is explored. Various theoretical models, all of which employ power as one of their key var...
Article
Romantic partners discussed an issue of conflict in their relationship and then a modified stimulated recall methodology was used to examine partners’ perceptions of hurtful messages. Individuals attributed more hurtful statements to their partners than to themselves and interactants often did not agree upon which comments were potentially hurt eli...
Article
The online presence of ideological groups has enabled the dissemination of group beliefs and ideas through a variety of new media outlets.Websites have offered a way for these groups to share aspects of their ideology and to create a sense of shared identity. While ideological groups have been of interest for decades, little empirical research has...
Article
Researchers have overwhelmingly concluded that substantial benefits can be achieved by organizations increasing the level of interactivity on their websites. However, interactivity, with its emphasis on facilitating visitors’ unconstrained exchanges and control over website content, may undermine the communicative purpose of an organization’s websi...
Article
Full-text available
Videoconferencing (VC) is changing the way people communicate in a variety of fields including education, medicine, business, and even interpersonal relationships. In this study, we investigate the effects of the modality of communication, whether through face-to-face (FtF) or VC, on the ability of interactants to develop and maintain nonverbal syn...
Article
Heuristics can interfere with information processing and hinder decision-making when more systematic processes that might lead to better decisions are ignored. Based on the heuristic-systematic model (HSM) of information processing, a serious training game (called MACBETH) was designed to address and mitigate cognitive biases that interfere with th...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines how power differences and deception jointly influence interactional dominance, credibility, and the outcomes of decision-making. Two theories, interpersonal deception theory and dyadic power theory, were merged to produce hypotheses about the effects of power and deception. A 3 (power: unequal-high, unequal-low, equal) x 3 (dece...
Article
Full-text available
Detecting deception in interpersonal dialog is challenging since deceivers take advantage of the give-and-take of interaction to adapt to any sign of skepticism in an interlocutor's verbal and nonverbal feedback. Human detection accuracy is poor, often with no better than chance performance. In this investigation, we consider whether automated meth...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A serious video game was created to teach players about cognitive bias and encourage mitigation of both confirmation bias and the fundamental attribution error. Multiplayer and single-player versions of the game were created to test the effect of different feedback sources on bias mitigation performance. A total of 626 participants were randomly as...
Conference Paper
The quickly growing presence of ideological groups on the Internet has garnered interest into how these groups use technology to persuade others. This study extends current research on the influential effects of website credibility and interactivity to the context of ideological group websites. Results of this study indicated that credibility and i...
Article
Ideological groups use the Internet to deliver their messages unhindered by the constraints of traditional media. We examined how ideological groups promote their worldview through their websites. Using the elaboration likelihood model (ELM), this research used trained coders to examine the websites of nonideological groups (n = 37), nonviolent ide...