Nora Fagerholm

Nora Fagerholm
University of Turku | UTU · Department of Geography and Geology

Professor

About

58
Publications
38,740
Reads
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3,318
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2012 - April 2018
University of Turku
Position
  • PostDoc Position
February 2007 - September 2012
University of Turku
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (58)
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Long-term livestock grazing has shaped landscapes, biodiversity, societies, cultures, and economies in the North Atlantic over time. However, overgrazing has become a major environmental sustainability challenge for this region, covering the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, and Scotland. The objective of this study was to elicit...
Article
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We compare the use of PPGIS and Flickr in landscape value assessments. • Landscape values and their spatial patterns are compared across sites. • We find more cross-site differences than similarities both in spatial patterns and value types. • PPGIS elicits a wider spectrum of values, while Flickr mainly elicits relationships to and with landscapes...
Article
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Participatory mapping is a useful approach to engage the general public and stakeholders to communicate place-based values, behaviour, preferences and observations. The approach informs social-ecological research and land-use planning. In land-use planning, PPGIS is applicable, for example, in initial phases or for assessing project outcomes. This...
Article
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Context River landscapes represent hotspots for biodiversity and ecosystem services used and embraced by human agents. Changes in river landscapes are subjectively perceived by people and can be assessed through the lenses of cultural ecosystem services (CES) and sense of place (SOP). Objectives This study aims to assess people–place relationships...
Article
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Recent years have seen a massive development of geospatial sensing systems informing the use of space. However, rarely do these sensing systems inform transformation towards urban sustainability. Drawing on four global urban case examples, we conceptualize how passive and active sensing systems should be harnessed to secure an inclusive, sustainabl...
Article
Participatory mapping (PM) solutions have become common in many sectors of society to enhance engagement of the local communities in planning processes. Especially in data scarce regions, like Africa, PM that captures local knowledge in spatially explicit form is an important tool for integrating previously non-existent spatial knowledge in to coll...
Article
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The Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive was ratified (2014/89/EU) along the Strategy of the European Union (EU) on the Blue Economy to contribute to the effective management of maritime activities and resources and incorporate the principal elements of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) (2002/413/EC) into planning at the land-sea inter...
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Urban green infrastructure provides a range of experiences for people and various health benefits that support human well-being. To increase urban resilience, exceptional situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, are important to learn from. This study aims to understand how the residents in Turku, a middle-sized city in Finland, perceived their o...
Article
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Rural Europe encompasses a variety of landscapes with differing levels of forest, agriculture, and agroforestry that can deliver multiple ecosystem services (ES). Whilst provisioning and regulating ES associated with individual land covers are comparatively well studied, less is known about the associated cultural ES. Only seldom are provisioning,...
Article
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This study aims to identify and evaluate the spatial distribution of Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES) benefits perceived by people in both urban and rural areas. A public participation GIS (PPGIS) approach was applied with local people who responded to an online survey and mapped their important places related to CES benefits in the Kokemäenjoki a...
Article
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Technological development towards increased visual quality and accessibility has made photorealistic 3D geo-visualizations an interesting tool for communication in urban planning. Particularly the ability to support perception is important in assessing 3D geovisualizations' effectiveness for communication. We applied both the concept of sense of pr...
Article
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The scale, pace, and intensity of human activity on the planet demands radical departures from the status quo to remain within planetary boundaries and achieve sustainability. The steering arms of society including embedded financial, legal, political, and governance systems must be radically realigned and recognize the connectivity among social, e...
Article
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Today, various methods are applied to analyze the data collected through participatory mapping, including public participation GIS (PPGIS), participatory GIS (PGIS), and collecting volunteered geographic information (VGI). However, these methods lack an organized framework to describe and guide their systematic applications. Majority of the publish...
Article
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Rigorous sustainability science includes addressing pressing real-world problems, weaving multiple knowledge systems, and striving for transformative change. However, these key attributes of sustainability science often conflict with university structures and established academic work practices, for instance with regard to frequent long-distance tr...
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1. Current sustainability challenges demand approaches that acknowledge a plurality of human-nature interactions and worldviews, for which biocultural approaches are considered appropriate and timely. 2. This systematic review analyses the application of biocultural approaches to sustainability in scientific journal articles published between 1990...
Article
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This commentary honours the seminal and foundational contributions of Professor Gregory G. (Greg) Brown to the fields of public participation geographic information systems (PPGIS), natural resource management and spatial planning. We synthesise his work into four theses that underpinned his three decades of research: 1) The mapping of place values...
Article
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Securing reliable flows of landscape services is a vital prerequisite for sustaining well-being, especially in the rural Global South, where livelihoods of local communities are dependent on the surrounding village landscapes. To support sustainable landscape development strategies, increased understanding is needed on how landscape services are as...
Article
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Multifunctional landscapes provide critical benefits and are essential for human well‐being. The relationship between multifunctional landscapes and well‐being has mostly been studied using ecosystem services as a linkage. However, there is a challenge of concretizing what human well‐being exactly is and how it can be measured, particularly in rela...
Article
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Despite the large number of participatory mapping and participatory geographical information system (PGIS) applications developed since the 1990s, few studies have utilized participatory mapping in formal planning processes. Evidence is needed regarding their practical applicability in rural land use planning in the Global South and their effective...
Article
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Context Around 30% of European agricultural landscapes are classified as high nature value (HNV) farmlands. Current policies emphasize the multifunctionality of these landscapes, but little is known about the positive and negative associations of multiple ecosystem services within HNV farmland. Objectives This study aims to identify perceived ecos...
Article
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Context Local scale assessments of ecosystem/landscape services in Africa are insufficient and lack relevance in landscape management. Also, few studies have explored the potential benefits of PGIS/PPGIS approaches for landscape management and stewardship among the participating stakeholders. Objectives Our aim is (1) to establish an understanding...
Article
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Rural development policies in many Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries promote sustainable landscape management with the intention of providing multiple ecosystem services (ES). Yet, it remains unclear which ES benefits are perceived in different landscapes and by different people. We present an assessment...
Article
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO’s) Biosphere Reserves aim to be flagships of sustainable landscapes. Many of them are important locations for tourism and leisure activities. We explored the perceptions of short-term visitors and summer residents on ecosystem services (ESs) tied to characteristic habita...
Article
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The European Union (EU) Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action ESMERALDA aimed at developing guidance and a flexible methodology for Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES) to support the EU member states in the implementation of the EU Biodiversity Strategy’s Target 2 Action 5. ESMERALDA’s key tasks included network cr...
Article
Small islands are characterised by geographic isolation, strong place attachment, and vulnerabilities to social, economic, and ecological changes. They are often subject to development activities that raise concerns about impacts on multiple land- and seascape values. This study elicits a range of land- and seascape values, development preferences,...
Article
Academics have frequently used and endorsed the Public Participation Geographic Information System (PPGIS) approach for national park management. However, it is only minimally used by public agencies such as national park organisations. This study explores the potential that managers of Finnish national parks see in the PPGIS approach in the contex...
Article
Recreational ecosystem services (RES), understood as the numerous benefits people obtain from landscapes and the natural environment, are a topical area of policy, research and society. This Editorial introduces the current state of RES research, provides an overview of the 21 contributions comprising this Special Issue of Ecosystem Services, and o...
Article
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Wood-pastures are complex social-ecological systems (SES), which are the product of long-term interaction between society and its surrounding landscape. Traditionally characterized by multifunctional low-intensity management that enhanced a wide range of ecosystem services (ES), current farm management has shifted toward more intensive farm models....
Article
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Key Words: agricultural landscape ecosystem services silvopastoralism sustainability wood-pasture Rangelands in Europe are imprinted by livestock production and embedded in mosaic landscapes of grasslands, croplands, woodlands, and settlements. They developed as social-ecological systems: People managed rangelands in order to maintain or enhance th...
Technical Report
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This report provides an overview of the main social methods for mapping and assessment of ecosystem services. It addresses the challenge of improving the applicability of these methods with specific examples, particularly with respect to the MAES process and the ESMERALDA case studies. In this context, the term “mapping” is used to mean the descrip...
Article
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Context Human–nature interactions are reflected in the values people assign to landscapes. These values shape our understanding and actions as landscape cocreators, and need to be taken into account to achieve an integrated management of the landscape that involves civil society. Objectives The aim of this research was to increase the current knowl...
Article
Cultural ecosystem services, such as aesthetic and recreational enjoyment, as well as sense of place and local identity, play an outstanding role in the contribution of landscapes to human well-being. Online data shared on social networks, particularly geo-tagged photos, are becoming an increasingly attractive source of information about cultural e...
Article
Over the past decades, landscapes worldwide have experienced changes (e.g., urbanization, agricultural intensification, expansion of renewable energy uses) at magnitudes that put their sustainability at risk. The understanding of the drivers of these landscape changes remains challenging, partly because landscape research is spread across many doma...
Article
Visitors’ assessments of the negative impact of tourism, on physical and social environment, vary based on the location where the evaluation occurs. Research that focuses on identifying visitors’ norms within outdoor recreation settings has not been able to link the geographical location with the corresponding evaluation of unacceptable levels of i...
Article
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We develop a landscape stewardship classification which distinguishes between farmers’ understanding of landscape stewardship, their landscape values and land management actions. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with small-holder (< 5 acres), medium-holders (5-100 acres) and large-holders (> 100 acres) in South West Devon, UK. Themat...
Article
We develop a landscape stewardship classification which distinguishes between farmers’ understanding of landscape stewardship, their landscape values, and land management actions. Forty semistructured interviews were conducted with small-holder (< 5 acres), medium-holders (5–100 acres), and largeholders (> 100 acres) in South-West Devon, UK. Themat...
Article
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In order to identify sustainable management solutions for small-scale farmer agroecosystems, a better understanding of these dynamic forest–farmland systems, existing farming and forestry strategies, and farmer perspectives is important. We examined the relationship between agricultural land use patterns and farmers’ practices and identified existi...
Article
Full-text available
In order to identify sustainable management solutions for small-scale farmer agroecosystems, a better understanding of these dynamic forest–farmland systems, existing farming and forestry strategies, and farmer perspectives is important. We examined the relationship between agricultural land use patterns and farmers’ practices and identified existi...
Article
Forest transitions cannot be separated from the overall changes in land uses and land cover patterns. On a local scale, these changes relate closely to values and preferences which people set on different land use strategies. We have analysed the dynamics of forested land cover over the last 50 years in Zanzibar, Tanzania, in relation to farmers’ m...
Article
In many developing countries, political documentation acknowledges the crucial elements of participation and spatiality for effective land use planning. However, operative approaches to spatial data inclusion and representation in participatory land management are often lacking. In this paper, we apply and develop an integrated landscape characteri...
Article
Recent land cover change estimates show overall decline of tropical forests at the regional and global scales caused by multiple social, cultural and economic factors. There is an overall concern on the prevailing land use practices, such as shifting cultivation and extraction of forest materials as agents of forests losses, but also new, emerging...
Article
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Independent mobility in a local environment is crucial for a child's development and physical activity, contributing to overall health and well-being. This methodological article describes a study capturing children's daily mobility in two residential areas in Turku, southwestern Finland, by combining the methods of GPS tracking, mobility diaries,...
Article
Full-text available
2009). Participatory mapping and geographi-cal patterns of the social landscape values of rural communities in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Fennia 187: 1, pp. 43–60. Helsinki. ISSN 0015-0010. People attach commonly approved social values subjectively to landscape. These values vary spatially and can be studied in geographical context. In sus-tainable manage...

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Projects

Projects (7)
Project
The aim of research is to measure user perceptions of the ecosystem services provided by urban-rural areas by means of the PPGIS method and convert them into spatial data, and in this way to establish the relationship between cultural ecosystem services and the land use.
Archived project
AGFORWARD (AGroFORestry that Will Advance Rural Development) is a four-year research project funded by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7). It started in January 2014 and ended December 2017. The project leader was Dr. Paul Burgess from Cranfield University. This folder contains the publication outputs of the Romanian team (hopefully more are coming). https://www.agforward.eu/index.php/en/